§ 4.83. [Reserved].


Source

   The provisions of this §  4.83 reserved February 15, 2008, effective February 16, 2008, 38 Pa.B. 872. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (286560).

APPENDIX A



[Reserved]



Source

   The provisions of this Appendix A adopted January 15, 1999, effective January 16, 1999, 29 Pa.B. 399; reserved by correction July 19, 2013, effective June 30, 2013, replaced by Appendix A-1, 43 Pa.B. 4079, unless otherwise noted. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (252345) to (252422) and (286561) to (286562).

APPENDIX A-1



[Reserved]



Source

   The provisions of this Appendix A-1 renumbered from Appendix B adopted October 15, 2010, effective July 1, 2013, 40 Pa.B. 5903; correction published at 43 Pa.B. 4079; reserved February 28, 2014, effective March 1, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 1131, unless otherwise noted. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (367438) and (353099) to (353316).

APPENDIX A-2
Pennsylvania Core Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics



Pennsylvania Core Standards for English Language Arts
Grades Pre K-5



Authority

   The provisions of this Appendix A-2 issued under sections 121, 2603-B and 2604-B of the Public School Code of 1949 (24 P. S. § §  1-121, 26-2603-B and 26-2604-B), unless otherwise noted.

Source

   The provisions of this Appendix A-2 adopted February 28, 2014, effective March 1, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 1131, unless otherwise noted.

Cross References

   This appendix cited in 22 Pa. Code §  4.12 (relating to academic standards); 22 Pa. Code §  4.24 (relating to high school graduation requirements); 22 Pa. Code §  4.51 (relating to state assessment system); 22 Pa. Code §  4.51a (relating to Pennsylvania System of School Assessment); and 22 Pa. Code §  4.51b (relating to Keystone Exams).

INTRODUCTION

 These standards describe what students should know and be able to do with the English language, prekindergarten through Grade 12. The standards provide the targets for instruction and student learning essential for success in all academic areas, not just language arts classrooms. Although the standards are not a curriculum or a prescribed series of activities, school entities will use them to develop a local school curriculum that will meet local students’ needs.

 Five standard categories are designed to provide a Pre K-12 continuum to reflect the demands of a college- and career-ready graduate:

Standard 1: Foundational Skills begin at prekindergarten and focus on early childhood, with some standards reflected through Grade 5. These foundational skills are a necessary and important component of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend text, both literary and informational, across disciplines.
Standard 2: Reading Informational Text enables students to read, understand, and respond to informational text.
Standard 3: Reading Literature enables students to read, understand, and respond to works of literature.
Standard 4: Writing develops the skills of informational, argumentative, and narrative writing, as well as the ability to engage in evidence-based analysis of text and research.
Standard 5: Speaking and Listening focuses students on communication skills that enable critical listening and effective presentation of ideas.

 With a focus on college and career readiness, the instructional shifts as reflected in Common Core are evident throughout the PA Core Standards:

 • Balancing the reading of informational and literary texts so that students can access nonfiction and authentic texts, as well as literature

 • Focusing on close and careful reading of text so that students are learning from the text

 • Building a staircase of complexity (i.e., each grade level requires a ‘‘step’’ of growth on the ‘‘staircase’’) so that students graduate college or career ready

 • Supporting writing from sources (i.e., using evidence from text to inform or make an argument) so that students use evidence and respond to the ideas, events, facts, and arguments presented in the texts they read

 • Stressing an academically focused vocabulary so that students can access more complex texts

 The English Language Arts Standards also provide parents and community members with information about what students should know and be able to do as they progress through the educational program and at graduation. With a clearly defined target provided by the standards, parents, students, educators, and community members become partners in learning. Each standard implies an end-of-year goal—with the understanding that exceeding the standard is an even more desirable end goal.

 Note: The Aligned Eligible Content is displayed with the standard statement. On the Standard Aligned System portal, it is a live link.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

   Foundational Skills (Pre K-5)… 1.1

 Students gain a working knowledge of concepts of print, alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, students apply them as effective readers.

 • Book Handling

 • Print Concepts

 • Phonological Awareness

 • Phonics and Word Recognition

 • Fluency

   Reading Informational Text… 1.2

 Students read, understand, and respond to informational text—with an emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with a focus on textual evidence.

 • Key Ideas and Details

 • Craft and Structure

 • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

 • Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

 • Range of Reading

   Reading Literature… 1.3

 Students read and respond to works of literature—with emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with focus on textual evidence.

 • Key Ideas and Details

 • Craft and Structure

 • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

 • Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

 • Range of Reading

   Writing… 1.4

 Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.

 • Informative/Explanatory

 • Opinion/Argumentative

 • Narrative

 • Response to Literature

 • Production and Distribution of Writing

 • Technology and Publication

 • Conducting Research

 • Credibility, Reliability, and Validity of Sources

 • Range of Writing

   Speaking and Listening… 1.5

 Students present appropriately in formal speaking situations, listen critically, and respond intelligently as individuals or in group discussions.

 • Comprehension and Collaboration

 • Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

 • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

 • Conventions of Standard English



1.1Foundational Skills
Students gain a working knowledge of concepts of print, alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions.
 Grade Pre K  Grade K  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5
Book Handling
CC.1.1.PK.A
Practice appropriate book handling skills.
CC.1.1.K.A
Utilize book handing skills.
Intentionally
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Intentionally
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Intentionally
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Intentionally
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Intentionally
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Print Concepts CC.1.1.PK.B
Identify basic features of print.
• Differentiate between numbers and letters and letters and words.
• Recognize and name some uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
CC.1.1.K.B
Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
• Follow words left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
• Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
• Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
• Recognize and name all uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
CC.1.1.1.B
Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
• Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence.
Intentionally
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Intentionally
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Intentionally
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 Intentionally
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Phonological Awareness CC.1.1.PK.C
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
• Recognize rhyming words and when two or more words begin with the same sound (alliteration).
• Count syllables in spoken words.
• Segment single-syllable spoken words.
• Isolate and pronounce initial sounds.
CC.1.1.K.C
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
• Recognize and produce rhyming words.
• Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
• Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
• Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sound (phonemes) in the three-phoneme (CVC) words.
CC.1.1.1.C
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
• Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
• Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken and written words.
• Orally produce single-syllable words, including consonant blends and digraphs.
Intentionally
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Intentionally
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Intentionally
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 Intentionally
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• Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
• Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in one-syllable words to make new words.
Phonics and Word Recognition CC.1.1.PK.D
Develop beginning phonics and word skills.
• Associate some letters with their names and sounds. • Identify familiar words and environmental print.
CC.1.1.K.D
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
• Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondence. • Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings for the five major vowels.
• Read grade-level high-frequency sight words with automaticity. • Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
CC.1.1.1.D
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
• Identify common consonant diagraphs, final-e, and common vowel teams.
• Decode one- and two-syllable words with common patterns.
• Read grade-level words with inflectional endings.
• Read grade-
appropriate irregularly spelled words.
CC.1.1.2.D
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
• Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
• Decode two-syllable words with long vowels and words with common prefixes and suffixes. • Read grade-level high-frequency sight words and words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
CC.1.1.3.D
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
• Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. • Decode words with common Latin suffixes. • Decode multisyllable words.
• Read grade-
appropriate irregularly spelled words.
CC.1.1.4.D
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
• Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words.
 CC.1.1.5.D
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
• Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words.
• Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
Fluency Intentionally
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CC.1.1.K.E
Read emergent-
reader text with purpose and understanding.
CC.1.1.1.E
Read with accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
• Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. • Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
• Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
CC.1.1.2.E
Read with accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
• Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. • Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
• Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
CC.1.1.3.E
Read with accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
• Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. • Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
• Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
CC.1.1.4.E
Read with accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
• Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. • Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
• Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
CC.1.1.5.E
Read with accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
• Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. • Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
• Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.


1.2 Reading Informational Text
Students read, understand, and respond to informational text—with an emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with a focus on textual evidence.
 Grade Pre K  Grade K  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5
Key Ideas and Details
Main Idea
CC.1.2.PK.A
With prompting and support, retell key details of text that support a provided main idea.
CC.1.2.K.A
With prompting and support, identify the main idea and retell key details of text.
CC.1.2.1.A
Identify the main idea and retell key details of text.
CC.1.2.2.A
Identify the main idea of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
CC.1.2.3.A
Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.

E03.B-K.1.1.2
CC.1.2.4.A
Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

E04.B-K.1.1.2
CC.1.2.5.A
Determine two or more main ideas in a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

E05.B-K.1.1.2
Key Ideas and Details
Text Analysis
CC.1.2.PK.B
Answer questions about a text.
CC.1.2.K.B
With prompting and support, answer questions about key details in a text.
CC.1.2.1.B
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
CC.1.2.2.B
Ask and answer questions such as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
CC.1.2.3.B
Ask and answer questions about the text and make inferences from text; refer to text to support responses.

E03.B-K.1.1.1
CC.1.2.4.B
Refer to details and examples in text to support what the text says explicitly and make inferences.

E04.B-K.1.1.1
CC.1.2.5.B
Cite textual evidence by quoting accurately from the text to explain what the text says explicitly and make inferences.

E05.B-K.1.1.1
Key Ideas and Details
Text Analysis
CC.1.2.PK.C
With prompting and support, make connections between information in a text and personal experiences.
CC.1.2.K.C
With prompting and support, make a connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
CC.1.2.1.C
Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
CC.1.2.2.C
Describe the connection between a series of events, concepts, or steps in a procedure within a text.
CC.1.2.3.C
Explain how a series of events, concepts, or steps in a procedure is connected within a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

E03.B-K.1.1.3
CC.1.2.4.C
Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

E04.B-K.1.1.3
CC.1.2.5.C
Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a text based on specific information in the text.

E05.B-K.1.1.3
Craft and Structure
Point of View
Intentionally
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Intentionally
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Intentionally
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Intentionally
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CC.1.2.3.D
Explain the point of view of the author.

E03.B-C.2.1.1
CC.1.2.4.D
Compare and contrast an event or topic told from two different points of view.

E04.B-C.2.1.1
CC.1.2.5.D
Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

E05.B-C.2.1.1
Craft and Structure
Text Structure
CC.1.2.PK.E
Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
CC.1.2.K.E
Identify parts of a book (title, author) and parts of a text (beginning, end, details).
CC.1.2.1.E
Use various text features and search tools to locate key facts or information in a text.
CC.1.2.2.E
Use various text features and search tools to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
CC.1.2.3.E
Use text features and search tools to locate and interpret information.

E03.B-C.2.1.2
CC.1.2.4.E
Use text structure to interpret information (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution).

E04.B-C.2.1.2
CC.1.2.5.E
Use text structure, in and among texts, to interpret information (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution).

E05.B-C.2.1.2
Craft and Structure
Vocabulary
CC.1.2.PK.F
With prompting and support, answer questions about unfamiliar words read aloud from a text.
CC.1.2.K.F
With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
CC.1.2.1.F
Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
CC.1.2.2.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text including multiple-meaning words.
CC.1.2.3.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral meaning as well as shades of meaning among related words.

E03.B-V.4.1.1
E03.B-V.4.1.2
CC.1.2.4.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text, including figurative language.

E04.B-V.4.1.1
E04.B-V.4.1.2
CC.1.2.5.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text, including interpretation of figurative language.

E05.B-V.4.1.1
E05.B-V.4.1.2
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Diverse Media
CC.1.2.PK.G
With prompting and support, answer questions to connect illustrations to the written word.
CC.1.2.K.G
Answer questions to describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear.
CC.1.2.1.G
Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
CC.1.2.2.G
Explain how graphic representations contribute to and clarify a text.
CC.1.2.3.G
Use information gained from text features to demonstrate understanding of a text.

E03.B-C.3.1.3
CC.1.2.4.G
Interpret various presentations of information within a text or digital source and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of text in which it appears.

E04.B-C.3.1.3
CC.1.2.5.G
Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

E05.B-C.3.1.3
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Evaluating Arguments
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.2.K.H
With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
CC.1.2.1.H
Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
CC.1.2.2.H
Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
CC.1.2.3.H
Describe how an author connects sentences and paragraphs in a text to support particular points.

E03.B-C.3.1.1
CC.1.2.4.H
Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

E04.B-C.3.1.1
CC.1.2.5.H
Determine how an author supports particular points in a text through reasons and evidence.

E05.B-C.3.1.1
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Analysis Across Texts
CC.1.2.PK.I
With prompting and support, identify basic similarities and differences between two texts read aloud on the same topic.
CC.1.2.K.I
With prompting and support, identify basic similarities and differences between two texts (read or read aloud) on the same topic.
CC.1.2.1.I
Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic.
CC.1.2.2.I
Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.
CC.1.2.3.I
Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

E03.B-C.3.1.2
CC.1.2.4.I
Integrate information from two texts on the same topic to demonstrate understanding of that topic.

E04.B-C.3.1.2
CC.1.2.5.I
Integrate information from several texts on the same topic to demonstrate understanding of that topic.

E05.B-C.3.1.2
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CC.1.2.PK.J
Use new vocabulary and phrases acquired in conversations and being read to.
CC.1.2.K.J
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, and being read to, and responding to texts.
CC.1.2.1.J
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, and being read to, and responding to texts, including words that signal connections and relationships between the words and phrases.
CC.1.2.2.J
Acquire and use grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases.
CC.1.2.3.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships.

E03.B-V.4.1.1
E03.B-V.4.1.2
CC.1.2.4.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being and that are basic to a particular topic.

E04.B-V.4.1.1
E04.B-V.4.1.2.
CC.1.2.5.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships.

E05.B-V.4.1.1
E05.B-V.4.1.2.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CC.1.2.PK.K
With prompting and support, clarify unknown words or phrases read aloud.
CC.1.2.K.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown or multiple-meaning words and phrases based upon grade-level reading and content.
CC.1.2.1.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content.
CC.1.2.2.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing from a range of strategies and tools.
CC.1.2.3.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E03.B-V.4.1.1
CC.1.2.4.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E04.B-V.4.1.1
CC.1.2.5.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E05.B-V.4.1.1
Range of Reading CC.1.2.PK.L
With prompting and support, actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
CC.1.2.K.L
Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
CC.1.2.1.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.2.2.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.2.3.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.2.4.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.2.5.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.


 

   

1.3 Reading Literature
Students read and respond to works of literature—with emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with focus on textual evidence.
 Grade Pre K  Grade K  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5
Key Ideas and Details
Theme
CC.1.3.PK.A
With prompting and support, retell a familiar story in sequence with picture support.
CC.1.3.K.A
With prompting and support, retell familiar stories including key details.
CC.1.3.1.A
Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.
CC.1.3.2.A
Recount stories and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
CC.1.3.3.A
Determine the central message, lesson, or moral in literary text; explain how it is conveyed in text.

E03.A-K.1.1.2
CC.1.3.4.A
Determine a theme of a text from details in the text; summarize the text.

E04.A-K.1.1.2
CC.1.3.5.A
Determine a theme of a text from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

E05.A-K.1.1.2
Key Ideas and Details
Text Analysis
CC.1.3.PK.B
Answer questions about a particular story (who, what, how, when, and where).
CC.1.3.K.B
Answer questions about key details in a text.
CC.1.3.1.B
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
CC.1.3.2.B
Ask and answer questions such as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
CC.1.3.3.B
Ask and answer questions about the text and make inferences from text, referring to text to support responses.

E03.A-K.1.1.1
CC.1.3.4.B
Cite relevant details from text to support what the text says explicitly and make inferences.

E04.A-K.1.1.1
CC.1.3.5.B
Cite textual evidence by quoting accurately from the text to explain what the text says explicitly and make inferences.

E05.A-K.1.1.1

   

1.3 Reading Literature
Students read and respond to works of literature—with emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with focus on textual evidence.
 Grade Pre K  Grade K  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5
Key Ideas and Details
Literary Elements
CC.1.3.PK.C
With prompting and support, answer questions to identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.
CC.1.3.K.C
With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.
CC.1.3.1.C
Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
CC.1.3.2.C
Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
CC.1.3.3.C
Describe characters in a story and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

E03.A-K.1.1.3
CC.1.3.4.C
Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.

E04.A-K.1.1.3
CC.1.3.5.C
Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.

E05.A-K.1.1.3
Craft and Structure
Point of View
CC.1.3.PK.D
With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story.
CC.1.3.K.D
Name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story.
CC.1.3.1.D
Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.
CC.1.3.2.D
Acknowledge differences in the points of views of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.
CC.1.3.3.D
Explain the point of view of the author.

E03.A-C.2.1.1
CC.1.3.4.D
Compare and contrast an event or topic told from two different points of view.

E04.A-C.2.1.1
CC.1.3.5.D
Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

E05.A-C.2.1.1
Craft and Structure
Text Structure
CC.1.3.PK.E
With prompting and support, recognize common types of text.
CC.1.3.K.E
Recognize common types of text.
CC.1.3.1.E
Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading or range of text types.
CC.1.3.2.E
Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
CC.1.3.3.E
Refer to parts of texts when writing or speaking about a text using such terms as chapter, scene, and stanza and describe how each successive part builds upon earlier sections.
CC.1.3.4.E
Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose and refer to the structural elements of each when writing or speaking about a text.
CC.1.3.5.E
Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
Craft and Structure
Vocabulary
CC.1.3.PK.F
Answer questions about unfamiliar words read aloud from a story.
CC.1.3.K.F
Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
CC.1.3.1.F
Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
CC.1.3.2.F
Describe how words and phrases supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
CC.1.3.3.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral meaning as well as shades of meaning among related words.
E03.A-V.4.1.1
E03.A-V.4.1.2
CC.1.3.4.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text, including figurative language.

E04.A-V.4.1.1
E04.A-V.4.1.2
CC.1.3.5.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text, including interpretation of figurative language.

E05.A-V.4.1.1
E05.A-V.4.1.2
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Sources of Information
CC.1.3.PK.G
Describe pictures in books using details.
CC.1.3.K.G
Make connections between the illustrations and the text in a story (read or read aloud).
CC.1.3.1.G
Use illustrations and details in a story to describe characters, setting, or events.
CC.1.3.2.G
Use information from illustrations and words, in print or digital text, to demonstrate understanding of characters, setting, or plot.
CC.1.3.3.G
Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).
CC.1.3.4.G
Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.
CC.1.3.5.G
Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Text Analysis
CC.1.3.PK.H
Answer questions to compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.
CC.1.3.K.H
Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.
CC.1.3.1.H
Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.
CC.1.3.2.H
Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story by different authors or from different cultures.
CC.1.3.3.H
Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters.

E03.A-C.3.1.1
CC.1.3.4.H
Compare and contrast similar themes, topics, and patterns of events in literature, including texts from different cultures.

E04.A-C.3.1.1
CC.1.3.5.H
Compare and contrast texts in the same genre on their approaches to similar themes and topics as well as additional literary elements.

E05.A-C.3.1.1
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
Strategies
CC.1.3.PK.I
With prompting and support, clarify unknown words or phrases read aloud.
CC.1.3.K.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown or multiple-meaning words and phrases based upon grade-level reading and content.
CC.1.3.1.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content.
CC.1.3.2.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing from a range of strategies and tools.
CC.1.3.3.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E03.A-V.4.1.1
CC.1.3.4.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E04.A-V.4.1.1
CC.1.3.5.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E05.A-V.4.1.1
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CC.1.3.PK.J
Use new vocabulary and phrases acquired in conversations and being read to.
CC.1.3.K.J
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, and being read to, and responding to texts.
CC.1.3.1.J
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, and being read to, and responding to texts, including words that signal connections and relationships between the words and phrases.
CC.1.3.2.J
Acquire and use grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases.
CC.1.3.3.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships.

E03.A-V.4.1.1
E03.A-V.4.1.2
CC.1.3.4.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being and that are basic to a particular topic.

E04.A-V.4.1.1
E04.A-V.4.1.2.
CC.1.3.5.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specif-
ic words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships.

E05.A-V.4.1.1
E05.A-V.4.1.2.
Range of Reading CC.1.3.PK.K
With prompting and support, actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
CC.1.3.K.K
Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
CC.1.3.1.K
Read and comprehend literature on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.3.2.K
Read and comprehend literature on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.3.3.K
Read and comprehend literary fiction on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.3.4.K
Read and comprehend literary fiction on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.3.5.K
Read and comprehend literary fiction on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.

   

   

1.4 Writing
Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.
 Grade Pre K  Grade K  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5
Informative/Explanatory CC.1.4.PK.A
Draw/dictate to compose informative/ explanatory texts examining a topic.
CC.1.4.K.A
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/ explanatory texts.
CC.1.4.1.A
Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information.
CC.1.4.2.A
Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
CC.1.4.3.A
Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
CC.1.4.4.A
Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
CC.1.4.5.A
Write informative/ explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
Informative/
Explanatory Focus
CC.1.4.PK.B
With prompting and support, draw/dictate about one specific topic.
CC.1.4.K.B
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to focus on one specific topic.
CC.1.4.1.B
Identify and write about one specific topic.
CC.1.4.2.B
Identify and introduce the topic.
CC.1.4.3.B
Identify and introduce the topic.

E03.C.1.2.1
CC.1.4.4.B
Identify and introduce the topic clearly.

E04.C.1.2.1
E04.E.1.1.1
CC.1.4.5.B
Identify and introduce the topic clearly.

E05.C.1.2.1
E05.E.1.1.1
Informative/Explanatory
Content
CC.1.4.PK.C
With prompting and support, generate ideas to convey information.
CC.1.4.K.C
With prompting and support, generate ideas and details to convey information that relates to the chosen topic.
CC.1.4.1.C
Develop the topic with two or more facts.
CC.1.4.2.C
Develop the topic with facts and/or definitions.
CC.1.4.3.C
Develop the topic with facts, definitions, details, and illustrations, as appropriate.

E03C.1.2.2
CC.1.4.4.C
Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic; include illustrations and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

E04C.1.2.2
E04E.1.1.2
CC.1.4.5.C
Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic; include illustrations and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

E05C.1.2.2
E05E.1.1.2
Informative/Explanatory
Organization
CC.1.4.PK.D
With prompting and support, make logical connections between drawing and dictation.
CC.1.4.K.D
Make logical connections between drawing and dictation/writing.
CC.1.4.1.D
Group information and provide some sense of closure.
CC.1.4.2.D
Group information and provide a concluding statement or section.
CC.1.4.3.D
Create an organizational structure that includes information grouped and connected logically with a concluding statement or section.

E03.C.1.2.1
E03.C.1.2.3
E03.C.1.2.4
CC.1.4.4.D
Group related information in paragraphs and sections, linking ideas within categories of information using words and phrases; provide a concluding statement or section; include formatting when useful to aiding comprehension.

E04.C.1.2.1
E04.C.1.2.3
E04.C.1.2.5
E04.E.1.1.1
E04.E.1.1.3
E04.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.5.D
Group related information logically linking ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses; provide a concluding statement or section; include formatting when useful to aiding comprehension.

E05.C.1.2.1
E05.C.1.2.3
E05.C.1.2.6
E05.E.1.1.1
E05.E.1.1.3
E05.E.1.1.6
Informative/Explanatory
Style
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.E
With prompting and support, illustrate using details and dictate/write using descriptive words.
CC.1.4.1.E
Choose words and phrases for effect.
CC.1.4.2.E
Choose words and phrases for effect.
CC.1.4.3.E
Choose words and phrases for effect.

E03.D.2.1.1
CC.1.4.4.E
Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

E04.C.1.2.4
E04.D.2.1.1
E04.D.2.1.3
E04.E.1.1.4
CC.1.4.5.E
Write with an awareness of style.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
• Use sentences of varying length.

E05.C.1.2.4
E05.C.1.2.5
E05.D.2.1.1
E05.D.2.1.2
E05.D.2.1.3
E05.D.2.1.4
E05.E.1.1.3
E05.E.1.1.4
E05.E.1.1.5
Informative/Explanatory
Conventions of Language
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
• Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
• Recognize and use end punctuation.
• Spell simple words phonetically.
CC.1.4.1.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
• Capitalize dates and names of people.
• Use end punctuation; use commas in dates and words in series.
• Spell words drawing on common spelling patterns, phonemic awareness, and spelling conventions.
CC.1.4.2.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
• Capitalize proper nouns.
• Use commas and apostrophes appropriately.
• Spell words drawing on common spelling patterns.
• Consult reference material as needed.
CC.1.4.3.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E03.D.1.1.1
E03.D.1.1.2
E03.D.1.1.3
E03.D.1.1.4
E03.D.1.1.5
E03.D.1.1.6
E03.D.1.1.7
E03.D.1.1.8
E03.D.1.1.9
E03.D.1.2.1
E03.D.1.2.2
E03.D.1.2.3
E03.D.1.2.4
E03.D.1.2.5
E03.D.1.2.6
CC.1.4.4.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E04.D.1.1.1
E04.D.1.1.2
E04.D.1.1.3
E04.D.1.1.4
E04.D.1.1.5
E04.D.1.1.6
E04.D.1.1.7
E04.D.1.1.8
E04.D.1.2.1
E04.D.1.2.2
E04.D.1.2.3
E04.D.1.2.4
CC.1.4.5.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E05.D.1.1.1
E05.D.1.1.2
E05.D.1.1.3
E05.D.1.1.4
E05.D.1.1.5
E05.D.1.1.6
E05.D.1.1.7
E05.D.1.1.8
E05.D.1.2.1
E05.D.1.2.2
E05.D.1.2.3
E05.D.1.2.4
E05.D.1.2.5
Opinion/
Argumentative
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.G
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces on familiar topics.
CC.1.4.1.G
Write opinion pieces on familiar topics.
CC.1.4.2.G
Write opinion pieces on familiar topics or texts.
CC.1.4.3.G
Write opinion pieces on familiar topics or texts.
CC.1.4.4.G
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts.
CC.1.4.5G
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts.
Opinion/Argumentative
Focus
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.H
Form an opinion by choosing between two given topics.
CC.1.4.1.H
Form an opinion by choosing among given topics.
CC.1.4.2.H
Identify the topic and state an opinion.
CC.1.4.3.H
Introduce the topic and state an opinion on the topic.

E03.C.1.1.1
CC.1.4.4.H
Introduce the topic and state an opinion on the topic.

E04.C.1.1.1
E04.E.1.1.1
CC.1.4.5.H
Introduce the topic and state an opinion on the topic.

E05.C.1.1.1
E05.E.1.1.1
Opinion/Argumentative
Content
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.I
Support the opinion with reasons.
CC.1.4.1.I
Support the opinion with reasons related to the opinion.
CC.1.4.2.I
Support the opinion with reasons that include details connected to the opinion.
CC.1.4.3.I
Support an opinion with reasons.

E03.C.1.1.2
CC.1.4.4.I
Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.

E04.C.1.1.2
E04.E.1.1.2
CC.1.4.5.I
Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details; draw from credible sources.

E05.C.1.1.2
E05.E.1.1.2
Opinion/Argumentative
Organization
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.J
Make logical connections between drawing and writing.
CC.1.4.1.J
Create an organizational structure that includes reasons and provides some sense of closure.
CC.1.4.2.J
Create an organizational structure that includes reasons and includes a concluding statement.
CC.1.4.3.J
Create an organizational structure that includes reasons linked in a logical order with a concluding statement or section.

E03.C.1.1.1
E03.C.1.1.3
E03.C.1.1.4
CC.1.4.4.J
Create an organizational structure that includes related ideas grouped to support the writer’s purpose and linked in a logical order with a concluding statement or section related to the opinion.

E04.C.1.1.1
E04.C.1.1.3
E04.C.1.1.4
E04.E.1.1.1
E04.E.1.1.3
E04.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.5.J
Create an organizational structure that includes related ideas grouped to support the writer’s purpose; link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses; provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion.

E05.C.1.1.1
E05.C.1.1.3
E05.C.1.1.5
E05.E.1.1.1
E05.E.1.1.3
E05.E.1.1.6
Opinion/Argumentative
Style
Intentionally
Blank
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.1.K
Use a variety of words and phrases.
CC.1.4.2.K
Use a variety of words and phrases to appeal to the audience.
CC.1.4.3.K
Use a variety of words and sentence types to appeal to the audience.

E03.D.1.1.9
E03.D.2.1.1
CC.1.4.4.K
Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.

E04.D.2.1.1
E04.D.2.1.3
E04.E.1.1.4
CC.1.4.5.K
Write with an awareness of style.
• Use sentences of varying length.
• Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.

E05.C.1.1.4
E05.D.2.1.1
E05.D.2.1.2
E05.D.2.1.3
E05.D.2.1.4
E05.E.1.1.4
E05.E.1.1.5
Opinion/Argumentative
Conventions of Language
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
• Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
• Recognize and use end punctuation.
• Spell simple words phonetically.
CC.1.4.1.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
• Capitalize dates and names of people.
• Use end punctuation; use commas in dates and words in series.
• Spell words drawing on common spelling patterns, phonemic awareness, and spelling conventions.
CC.1.4.2.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
• Capitalize proper nouns.
• Use commas and apostrophes appropriately.
• Spell words drawing on common spelling patterns.
• Consult reference material as needed.
CC.1.4.3.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E03.D.1.1.1
E03.D.1.1.2
E03.D.1.1.3
E03.D.1.1.4
E03.D.1.1.5
E03.D.1.1.6
E03.D.1.1.7
E03.D.1.1.8
E03.D.1.1.9
E03.D.1.2.1
E03.D.1.2.2
E03.D.1.2.3
E03.D.1.2.4
E03.D.1.2.5
E03.D.1.2.6
CC.1.4.4.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E04.D.1.1.1
E04.D.1.1.2
E04.D.1.1.3
E04.D.1.1.4
E04.D.1.1.5
E04.D.1.1.6
E04.D.1.1.7
E04.D.1.1.8
E04.D.1.2.1
E04.D.1.2.2
E04.D.1.2.3
E04.D.1.2.4
CC.1.4.5.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E05.D.1.1.1
E05.D.1.1.2
E05.D.1.1.3
E05.D.1.1.4
E05.D.1.1.5
E05.D.1.1.6
E05.D.1.1.7
E05.D.1.1.8
E05.D.1.2.1
E05.D.1.2.2
E05.D.1.2.3
E05.D.1.2.4
E05.D.1.2.5
Narrative CC.1.4.PK.M
Dictate narratives to describe real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.K.M
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose narratives that describe real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.1.M
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.2.M
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.3.M
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.4.M
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.5.M
Write narratives to develop real
or imagined experiences or events.
Narrative
Focus
CC.1.4.PK.N
Establish who and what the narrative will be about.
CC.1.4.K.N
Establish who and what the narrative will be about.
CC.1.4.1.N
Establish who and what the narrative will be about.
CC.1.4.2.N
Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters.
CC.1.4.3.N
Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters.

E03C.1.3.1
CC.1.4.4.N
Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters.

E04C.1.3.1
CC.1.4.5.N
Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters.

E05C.1.3.1
Narrative
Content
CC.1.4.PK.O
With prompting and support describe experiences and events.
CC.1.4.K.O
Describe experiences and events.
CC.1.4.1.O
Include thoughts and feelings to describe experiences and events.
CC.1.4.2.O
Include thoughts and feelings to describe experiences and events to show the response of characters to situations.
CC.1.4.3.O
Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.

E03C.1.3.2
CC.1.4.4.O
Use dialogue and descriptions to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations; use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.

E04.C.1.3.2
E04.C.1.3.4
CC.1.4.5.O
Use narrative techniques such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations; use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.

E05.C.1.3.2
E05.C.1.3.4
Narrative
Organization
CC.1.4.PK.P
Recount a single event and tell about the events in the order in which they occurred.
CC.1.4.K.P
Recount a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.
CC.1.4.1.P
Recount two or more appropriately sequenced events using temporal words to signal event order and provide some sense of closure.
CC.1.4.2.P
Organize a short sequence of events, using temporal words to signal event order; provide a sense of closure.
CC.1.4.3.P
Organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally, using temporal words and phrases to signal event order; provide a sense of closure.

E03.C.1.3.1
E03.C.1.3.3
E03.C.1.3.4
CC.1.4.4.P
Organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally, using a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events; provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences and events.

E04.C.1.3.1
E04.C.1.3.3
E04.C.1.3.5
CC.1.4.5.P
Organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally, using a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events; provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences and events.

E05.C.1.3.1
E05.C.1.3.3
E05.C.1.3.5
Narrative
Style
Intentionally
Blank
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.1.Q
Use a variety of words and phrases.
CC.1.4.2.Q
Choose words and phrases for effect
CC.1.4.3.Q
Choose words and phrases for effect.

E03.D.2.1.1
CC.1.4.4.Q
Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.

E04.C.1.3.4
E04.D.2.1.1
E04.D.2.1.3
E04.E.1.1.4
CC.1.4.5.Q
Write with an awareness of style.
• Use sentences of varying length.
• Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.

E05.C.1.3.4
E05.D.2.1.1
E05.D.2.1.2
E05.D.2.1.3
E05.D.2.1.4
Narrative
Conventions of Language
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
• Capitalize first word in sentence and pronoun I.
• Recognize and use end punctuation.
• Spell simple words phonetically.
CC.1.4.1.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
• Capitalize dates and names of people.
• Use end punctuation; use commas in dates and words in series.
• Spell words drawing on common spelling patterns, phonemic awareness, and spelling conventions.
CC.1.4.2.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
• Capitalize proper nouns.
• Use commas and apostrophes appropriately.
• Spell words drawing on common spelling patterns.
• Consult reference material as needed.
CC.1.4.3.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E03.D.1.1.1
E03.D.1.1.2
E03.D.1.1.3
E03.D.1.1.4
E03.D.1.1.5
E03.D.1.1.6
E03.D.1.1.7
E03.D.1.1.8
E03.D.1.1.9
E03.D.1.2.1
E03.D.1.2.2
E03.D.1.2.3
E03.D.1.2.4
E03.D.1.2.5
E03.D.1.2.6
CC.1.4.4.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E04.D.1.1.1
E04.D.1.1.2
E04.D.1.1.3
E04.D.1.1.4
E04.D.1.1.5
E04.D.1.1.6
E04.D.1.1.7
E04.D.1.1.8
E04.D.1.2.1
E04.D.1.2.2
E04.D.1.2.3
E04.D.1.2.4
CC.1.4.5.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E05.D.1.1.1
E05.D.1.1.2
E05.D.1.1.3
E05.D.1.1.4
E05.D.1.1.5
E05.D.1.1.6
E05.D.1.1.7
E05.D.1.1.8
E05.D.1.2.1
E05.D.1.2.2
E05.D.1.2.3
E05.D.1.2.4
E05.D.1.2.5
Response to Literature Intentionally
Blank
Intentionally
Blank
Intentionally
Blank
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.3.S
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research, applying grade-level reading standards for literature and informational texts.
CC.1.4.4.S
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research, applying grade-level reading standards for literature and informational texts.

E04.E.1.1.1
E04.E.1.1.2
E04.E.1.1.3
E04.E.1.1.4
E04.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.5.S
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research, applying grade-level reading standards for literature and informational texts.

E05.E.1.1.1
E05.E.1.1.2
E05.E.1.1.3
E05.E.1.1.4
E05.E.1.1.5
E05.E.1.1.6
Production and Distribution of Writing
Writing Process
CC.1.4.PK.T
With guidance and support from adults and peers, respond to questions and suggestions, add details as needed.
CC.1.4.K.T
With guidance and support from adults and peers, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
CC.1.4.1.T
With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
CC.1.4.2.T
With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
CC.1.4.3.T
With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
CC.1.4.4.T
With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
CC.1.4.5.T
With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
Technology and Publication Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.U
With guidance and support, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing or in collaboration with peers.
CC.1.4.1.U
With guidance and support, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing including in collaboration with peers.
CC.1.4.2.U
With guidance and support, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing including in collaboration with peers.
CC.1.4.3.U
With guidance and support, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
CC.1.4.4.U
With some guidance and support, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.
CC.1.4.5.U
With some guidance and support, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.
Conducting Research CC.1.4.PK.V
Ask questions about topics of personal interest to gain information; with teacher guidance and support, locate information on the chosen topic.
CC.1.4.K.V
Participate in individual or shared research projects on a topic of interest.
CC.1.4.1.V
Participate in individual or shared research and writing projects.
CC.1.4.2.V
Participate in individual or shared research and writing projects.
CC.1.4.3.V
Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
CC.1.4.4.V
Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
CC.1.4.5.V
Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
Credibility, Reliability, and Validity of Sources CC.1.4.PK.W
With guidance and support, recall information from experiences or books.
CC.1.4.K.W
With guidance and support, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
CC.1.4.1.W
With guidance and support, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
CC.1.4.2.W
Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
CC.1.4.3.W
Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
CC.1.4.4.W
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
CC.1.4.5.W
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
Range of Writing Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.4.K.X
Write routinely over short time frames.
CC.1.4.1.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CC.1.4.2.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CC.1.4.3.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CC.1.4.4.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CC.1.4.5.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.


1.5 Speaking and Listening
Students present appropriately in formal speaking situations, listen critically, and respond intelligently as individuals or in group discussions.
 Grade Pre K  Grade K  Grade 1  Grade 2  Grade 3  Grade 4  Grade 5
Comprehension and Collaboration
Collaborative Discussion
CC.1.5.PK.A
Participate in collaborative conversations with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
CC.1.5.K.A
Participate in collaborative conversations with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
CC.1.5.1.A
Participate in collaborative conversations with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
CC.1.5.2.A
Participate in collaborative conversations with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
CC.1.5.3.A
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions on grade-level topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
CC.1.5.4.A
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions on grade-level topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
CC.1.5.5.A
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions on grade-level topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
Comprehension and Collaboration
Critical Listening
CC.1.5.PK.B
Answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
CC.1.5.K.B
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
CC.1.5.1.B
Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
CC.1.5.2.B
Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
CC.1.5.3.B
Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
CC.1.5.4.B
Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
CC.1.5.5.B
Summarize the main points of written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
Comprehension and Collaboration
Evaluating Information
CC.1.5.PK.C
Respond to what a speaker says in order to follow directions, seek help, or gather information.
CC.1.5.K.C
Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.
CC.1.5.1.C
Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.
CC.1.5.2.C
Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
CC.1.5.3.C
Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate detail.
CC.1.5.4.C
Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.
CC.1.5.5.C
Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Purpose, Audience, and Task
CC.1.5.PK.D
Using simple sentences, share stories, familiar experiences, and interests, speaking clearly enough to be understood by most audiences.
CC.1.5.K.D
Share stories, familiar experiences, and interests, speaking clearly enough to be understood by all audiences using appropriate volume.
CC.1.5.1.D
Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.
CC.1.5.2.D
Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
CC.1.5.3.D
Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details; speak clearly with adequate volume, appropriate pacing, and clear pronunciation.
CC.1.5.4.D
Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly with adequate volume, appropriate pacing, and clear pronunciation.
CC.1.5.5.D
Report on a topic or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly with adequate volume, appropriate pacing, and clear pronunciation.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Context
CC.1.5.PK.E
Using simple sentences, express thoughts, feelings, and ideas, speaking clearly enough to be understood by most audiences.
CC.1.5.K.E
Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.
CC.1.5.1.E
Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.
CC.1.5.2.E
Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.
CC.1.5.3.E
Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.
CC.1.5.4.E
Differentiate between contexts that require formal English versus informal situations.
CC.1.5.5.E
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Multimedia
Intentionally
Blank
Intentionally
Blank
CC.1.5.1.F
Add drawings or other visual displays when sharing aloud to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
CC.1.5.2.F
Add drawings or other visual displays to presentations when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
CC.1.5.3.F
Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
CC.1.5.4.F
Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
CC.1.5.5.F
Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
Conventions of
Standard English
CC.1.5.PK.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking, based on prekindergarten level and content.
CC.1.5.K.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking, based on kindergarten level and content.
CC.1.5.1.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking, based on Grade 1 level and content.
CC.1.5.2.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking, based on Grade 2 level and content.
CC.1.5.3.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking, based on Grade 3 level and content.
CC.1.5.4.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking, based on Grade 4 level and content.
CC.1.5.5.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking, based on Grade 5 level and content.


Pennsylvania Core Standards for English Language Arts
Grades 6-12


INTRODUCTION

 These standards describe what students should know and be able to do with the English language, prekindergarten through Grade 12. The standards provide the targets for instruction and student learning essential for success in all academic areas, not just language arts classrooms. Although the standards are not a curriculum or a prescribed series of activities, school entities will use them to develop a local school curriculum that will meet local students’ needs.

 Five standard categories are designed to provide a Pre K-12 continuum to reflect the demands of a college- and career-ready graduate:

Standard 1: Foundational Skills begin at prekindergarten and focus on early childhood, with some standards reflected through Grade 5. These foundational skills are a necessary and important component of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend text, both literary and informational, across disciplines.
Standard 2: Reading Informational Text enables students to read, understand, and respond to informational text.
Standard 3: Reading Literature enables students to read, understand, and respond to works of literature.
Standard 4:Writing develops the skills of informational, argumentative, and narrative writing, as well as the ability to engage in evidence-based analysis of text and research.
Standard 5: Speaking and Listening focuses students on communication skills that enable critical listening and effective presentation of ideas.

 With a focus on college and career readiness, the instructional shifts as reflected in Common Core are evident throughout the PA Core Standards:

 • Balancing the reading of informational and literary texts so that students can access nonfiction and authentic texts, as well as literature

 • Focusing on close and careful reading of text so that students are learning from the text

 • Building a staircase of complexity (i.e., each grade level requires a ‘‘step’’ of growth on the ‘‘staircase’’) so that students graduate college or career ready

 • Supporting writing from sources (i.e., using evidence from text to inform or make an argument) so that students use evidence and respond to the ideas, events, facts, and arguments presented in the texts they read

 • Stressing an academically focused vocabulary so that students can access more complex texts

 The English Language Arts Standards also provide parents and community members with information about what students should know and be able to do as they progress through the educational program and at graduation. With a clearly defined target provided by the standards, parents, students, educators, and community members become partners in learning. Each standard implies an end-of-year goal—with the understanding that exceeding the standard is an even more desirable end goal.

 Note: The Aligned Eligible Content is displayed with the standard statement. On Standard Aligned System portal, it is a live link.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

   Foundational Skills (Pre K-5)… 1.1

 Students gain a working knowledge of concepts of print, alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, students apply them as effective readers.

 • Book Handling

 • Print Concepts

 • Phonological Awareness

 • Phonics and Word Recognition

 • Fluency

   Reading Informational Text… 1.2

 Students read, understand, and respond to informational text-with an emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with a focus on textual evidence.

 • Key Ideas and Details

 • Craft and Structure

 • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

 • Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

 • Range of Reading

   Reading Literature… 1.3

 Students read and respond to works of literature-with an emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with a focus on textual evidence.

 • Key Ideas and Details

 • Craft and Structure

 • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

 • Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

 • Range of Reading

   Writing… 1.4

 Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.

 • Informative/Explanatory

 • Opinion/Argumentative

 • Narrative

 • Response to Literature

 • Production and Distribution of Writing

 • Technology and Publication

 • Conducting Research

 • Credibility, Reliability, and Validity of Sources

 • Range of Writing

   Speaking and Listening… 1.5

 Students present appropriately in formal speaking situations, listen critically, and respond intelligently as individuals or in group discussions.

 • Comprehension and Collaboration

 • Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

 • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

 • Conventions of Standard English

1.2 Reading Informational Text
Students read, understand, and respond to informational text—with an emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with focus on textual evidence.
 Grade 6  Grade 7  Grade 8  Grades 9-10  Grades 11-12
Key Ideas and Details
Main Idea
CC.1.2.6.A
Determine the central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

E06.B-K.1.1.2
CC.1.2.7.A
Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

E07.B-K.1.1.2
CC.1.2.8.A
Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.

E08.B-K.1.1.2
CC.1.2.9-10.A
Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
L.N.1.3.1
L.N.1.3.2
L.N.2.3.3
CC.1.2.11-12.A
Determine and analyze the relationship between two or more central ideas of a text, including the development and interaction of the central ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
Key Ideas and Details
Text Analysis
CC.1.2.6.B
Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and/or generalizations drawn from the text.

E06.B-K.1.1.1
CC.1.2.7.B
Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences, conclusions, and/or generalizations drawn from the text.

E07.B-K.1.1.1
CC.1.2.8.B
Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences, conclusions, and/or generalizations drawn from the text.

E08.B-K.1.1.1
CC.1.2.9-10.B
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and conclusions based on an author’s explicit assumptions and beliefs about a subject.

L.N.1.3.1
L.N.2.1.1
L.N.2.1.2
CC.1.2.11-12.B
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and conclusions based on and related to an author’s implicit and explicit assumptions and beliefs.
Key Ideas and Details
Text Analysis
CC.1.2.6.C
Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text.

E06.B-K.1.1.3
CC.1.2.7.C
Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text.

E07.B-K.1.1.3
CC.1.2.8.C
Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events.

E08.B-K.1.1.3
CC.1.2.9-10.C
Apply appropriate strategies to analyze, interpret, and evaluate how an author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

L.N.1.1.3
L.N.1.3.3
L.N.2.3.3
L.N.2.3.5
L.N.2.4.1
L.N.2.4.3
CC.1.2.11-12.C
Analyze the interaction and development of a complex set of ideas, sequence of events, or specific individuals over the course of the text.
Craft and Structure
Point of View
CC.1.2.6.D
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

E06.B-C.2.1.1
CC.1.2.7.D
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.

E07.B-C.2.1.1
CC.1.2.8.D
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

E08.B-C.2.1.1
CC.1.2.9-10.D
Determine an author’s particular point of view and analyze how rhetoric advances the point of view.

L.N.2.3.6
CC.1.2.11-12.D
Evaluate how an author’s point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Craft and Structure
Text Structure
CC.1.2.6.E
Analyze the author’s structure through the use of paragraphs, chapters, or sections.

E06.B-C.2.1.2
CC.1.2.7.E
Analyze the structure of the text through evaluation of the author’s use of graphics, charts, and the major sections of the text.

E07.B-C.2.1.2
CC.1.2.8.E
Analyze the structure of the text through evaluation of the author’s use of specific sentences and paragraphs to develop and refine a concept.

E08.B-C.2.1.2
CC.1.2.9-10.E
Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text.

L.N.1.1.3
L.N.2.4.1
L.N.2.4.3
CC.1.2.11-12.E
Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
Craft and Structure
Vocabulary
CC.1.2.6.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level reading and content, including interpretation of figurative language in context.

E06.B-V.4.1.1
E06.B-V.4.1.2
CC.1.2.7.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level reading and content, including interpretation of figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.

E07.B-V.4.1.1
E07.B-V.4.1.2
E07.B-C.2.1.3
CC.1.2.8.F
Analyze the influence of the words and phrases in a text including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings, and how they shape meaning and tone.

E08.B-V.4.1.1
E08.B-V.4.1.2
E08.B-C.2.1.3
CC.1.2.9-10.F
Analyze how words and phrases shape meaning and tone in texts.

L.N.1.1.4
CC.1.2.11-12.F
Evaluate how words and phrases shape meaning and tone in texts.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Diverse Media
CC.1.2.6.G
Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
CC.1.2.7.G
Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words).
CC.1.2.8.G
Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
CC.1.2.9-10.G
Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

L.N.2.2.3
CC.1.2.11-12.G
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Evaluating Arguments
CC.1.2.6.H
Evaluate an author’s argument by examining claims and determining if they are supported by evidence.

E06.B-C.3.1.1
CC.1.2.7.H
Evaluate an author’s argument, reasoning, and specific claims for the soundness of the argument and the relevance of the evidence.

E07.B-C.3.1.1
CC.1.2.8.H
Evaluate an author’s argument, reasoning, and specific claims for the soundness of the arguments and the relevance of the evidence.

E08.B-C.3.1.1
CC.1.2.9-10.H
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing the validity of reasoning and relevance of evidence.

L.N.2.5.4
L.N.2.5.5
L.N.2.5.6
CC.1.2.11-12.H
Analyze seminal texts based upon reasoning, premises, purposes, and arguments.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Analysis Across Texts
CC.1.2.6.I
Examine how two authors present similar information in different types of text.

E06.B-C.3.1.2
CC.1.2.7.I
Analyze how two or more authors present and interpret facts on the same topic.

E07.B-C.3.1.2
CC.1.2.8.I
Analyze two or more texts that provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

E08.B-C.3.1.2
CC.1.2.9-10.I
Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance, including how they address related themes and concepts.
CC.1.2.11-12.I
Analyze foundational U.S. and world documents of historical, political, and literary significance for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
CC.1.2.6.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

E06.B-V.4.1.1
E06.B-V.4.1.2
CC.1.2.7.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

E07.B-V.4.1.1
E07.B-V.4.1.2
CC.1.2.8.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

E08.B-V.4.1.1
E08.B-V.4.1.2
CC.1.2.9-10.J
Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

L.N.1.2.4
L.N.1.2.1
L.N.1.2.2
L.N.1.2.3
CC.1.2.11-12.J
Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
CC.1.2.6.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E06.B-V.4.1.1
CC.1.2.7.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E07.B-V.4.1.1
CC.1.2.8.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E08.B-V.4.1.1
CC.1.2.9-10.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

L.N.1.2.1
L.N.1.2.2
L.N.1.2.3
L.N.1.2.4
CC.1.2.11-12.K
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.
Range of Reading
CC.1.2.6.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.2.7.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.2.8.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.2.9-10.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.2.11-12.L
Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.


1.3 Reading Literature
Students read and respond to works of literature—with an emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with a focus on textual evidence.
 Grade 6  Grade 7  Grade 8  Grades 9-10  Grades 11-12
Key Ideas and Details
Theme
CC.1.3.6.A
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

E06.A-K.1.1.2
CC.1.3.7.A
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

E07.A-K.1.1.2
CC.1.3.8.A
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.

E08.A-K.1.1.2
CC.1.3.9-10.A
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.

L.F.1.1.2
L.F.1.3.1
L.F.1.3.2
L.F.2.3.4
CC.1.3.11-12.A
Determine and analyze the relationship between two or more themes or central ideas of a text, including the development and interaction of the themes; provide an objective summary of the text.
Key Ideas and Details
Text Analysis
CC.1.3.6.B
Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and/or generalizations drawn from the text.

E06.A-K.1.1.1
CC.1.3.7.B
Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences, conclusions, and/or generalizations drawn from the text.

E07.A-K.1.1.1
CC.1.3.8.B
Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences, conclusions, and/or generalizations drawn from the text.

E08.A-K.1.1.1
CC.1.3.9-10.B
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and conclusions based on an author’s explicit assumptions and beliefs about a subject.

L.F.1.1.1
L.F.1.3.1
L.F.2.1.2
CC.1.3.11-12.B
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly, as well as inferences and conclusions based on and related to an author’s implicit and explicit assumptions and beliefs.
Key Ideas and Details
Literary Elements
CC.1.3.6.C
Describe how a particular story or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes, as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

E06.A-K.1.1.3
CC.1.3.7.C
Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact and how setting shapes the characters or plot.

E07.A-K.1.1.3
CC.1.3.8.C
Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

E08.A-K.1.1.3
CC.1.3.9-10.C
Analyze how complex characters develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

L.F.1.1.3
L.F.2.3.1
L.F.2.3.4
CC.1.3.11-12.C
Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama.
Craft and Structure
Point of View
CC.1.3.6.D
Determine an author’s purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in a text.

E06.A-C.2.1.1
CC.1.3.7.D
Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.

E07.A-C.2.1.1
CC.1.3.8.D
Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.

E08.A-C.2.1.1
CC.1.3.9-10.D
Determine the point of view of the text and analyze the impact the point of view has on the meaning of the text.

L.F.2.3.6
CC.1.3.11-12.D
Evaluate how an author’s point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Craft and Structure
Text Structure
CC.1.3.6.E
Analyze how the structure of a text contributes to the development of theme, setting, and plot.

E06.A-C.2.1.2
CC.1.3.7.E
Analyze how the structure or form of a text contributes to its meaning.

E07.A-C.2.1.2
CC.1.3.8.E
Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.

E08.A-C.2.1.2
CC.1.3.9-10.E
Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it, and manipulate time create an effect.

L.F.1.1.3
L.F.2.3.2
L.F.2.3.3
L.F.2.5.3
CC.1.3.11-12.E
Evaluate the structure of texts including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the texts relate to each other and the whole.
Craft and Structure
Vocabulary
CC.1.3.6.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level reading and content, including interpretation of figurative language in context.

E06.A-C.2.1.3
E06.A-V.4.1.1
E06.A-V.4.1.2
CC.1.3.7.F
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level reading and content, including interpretation of figurative, connotative meanings.

E07.A-C.2.1.3
E07.A-V.4.1.1
E07.A-V.4.1.2
CC.1.3.8.F
Analyze the influence of the words and phrases in a text including figurative and connotative meanings and how they shape meaning and tone.

E08.A-C.2.1.3
E08.A-V.4.1.1
E08.A-V.4.1.2
CC.1.3.9-10.F
Analyze how words and phrases shape meaning and tone in texts.

L.F.2.3.5
L.F.2.5.1
CC.1.3.11-12.F
Evaluate how words and phrases shape meaning and tone in texts.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Sources of Information
CC.1.3.6.G
Compare and contrast the experiences of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what is ‘‘seen’’ and ‘‘heard’’ when reading the text to what is perceived when listening or watching.
CC.1.3.7.G
Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).
CC.1.3.8.G
Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by directors or actors.
CC.1.3.9-10.G
Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment.

L.F.2.2.1
L.F.2.2.3
L.F.2.2.4
CC.1.3.11-12.G
Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
CC.1.3.6.H
Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics as well as their use of additional literary elements.

E06.A-C.3.1.1
CC.1.3.7.H
Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.

E07.A-C.3.1.1
CC.1.3.8.H
Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from traditional works, including describing how the material is rendered new.

E08.A-C.3.1.1
CC.1.3.9-10.H
Analyze how an author draws on and transforms themes, topics, character types, and/or other text elements from source material in a specific work.

L.F.2.2.2
L.F.2.4.1
CC.1.3.11-12.H
Demonstrate knowledge of foundational works of literature that reflect a variety of genres in the respective major periods of literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
CC.1.3.6.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E06.A-V.4.1.1
CC.1.3.7.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E07.A-V.4.1.1
CC.1.3.8.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

E08.A-V.4.1.1
CC.1.3.9-10.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.

L.F.1.2.1
L.F.1.2.2
L.F.1.2.3
L.F.1.2.4
CC.1.3.11-12.I
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CC.1.3.6.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

E06.A-V.4.1.1
E06.A-V.4.1.2
CC.1.3.7.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

E07.A-V.4.1.1
E07.A-V.4.1.2
CC.1.3.8.J
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

E08.A-V.4.1.1
E08.A-V.4.1.2
CC.1.3.9-10.J
Acquire and use accurately grade appropriate general academic and domain specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

L.F.1.2.1
L.F.1.2.2
L.F.1.2.3
L.F.1.2.4
CC.1.3.11-12.J
Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
Range of Reading CC.1.3.6.K
Read and comprehend literary fiction on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.3.7.K
Read and comprehend literary fiction on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.3.8.K
Read and comprehend literary fiction on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.3.9-10.K
Read and comprehend literary fiction on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.
CC.1.3.11-12.K
Read and comprehend literary fiction on grade level, reading independently and proficiently.

 

1.4 Writing
Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.
 Grade 6  Grade 7  Grade 8  Grades 9-10  Grades 11-12
Informative/
Explanatory
CC.1.4.6.A
Write informative/
explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information clearly.
CC.1.4.7.A
Write informative/
explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information clearly.
CC.1.4.8.A
Write informative/
explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information clearly.
CC.1.4.9-10.A
Write informative/
explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately.
CC.1.4.11-12.A
Write informative/
explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately.
Informative/Explanatory
Focus
CC.1.4.6.B
Identify and introduce the topic for the intended audience.

E06.C.1.2.1
E06.E.1.1.1
CC.1.4.7.B
Identify and introduce the topic clearly, including a preview of what is to follow.

E07.C.1.2.1
E07.E.1.1.1
CC.1.4.8.B
Identify and introduce the topic clearly, including a preview of what is to follow.

E08.C.1.2.1
E08.E.1.1.1
CC.1.4.9-10.B
Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task, and audience.

C.E.1.1.1
CC.1.4.11-12.B
Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task, and audience.
Informative/Explanatory
Content
CC.1.4.6.C
Develop and analyze the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples; include graphics and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

E06.C.1.2.2
E06.E.1.1.2
CC.1.4.7.C
Develop and analyze the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples; include graphics and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

E07.C.1.2.2
E07.E.1.1.2
CC.1.4.8.C
Develop and analyze the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples; include graphics and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

E08.C.1.2.2
E08.E.1.1.2
CC.1.4.9-10.C
Develop and analyze the topic with relevant, well-chosen, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic; include graphics and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

C.E.1.1.2
CC.1.4.11-12.C
Develop and analyze the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic; include graphics and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
Informative/Explanatory
Organization
CC.1.4.6.D
Organize ideas, concepts, and information using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts; provide a concluding statement or section; include formatting when useful to aiding comprehension.

E06.C.1.2.1
E06.C.1.2.3
E06.C.1.2.6
E06.E.1.1.1
E06.E.1.1.3
E06.E.1.1.6
CC.1.4.7.D
Organize ideas, concepts, and information using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts; provide a concluding statement or section; include formatting when useful to aiding comprehension.

E07.C.1.2.1
E07.C.1.2.3
E07.C.1.2.6
E07.E.1.1.1
E07.E.1.1.3
E07.E.1.1.6
CC.1.4.8.D
Organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts; provide a concluding statement or section; include formatting when useful to aiding comprehension.

E08.C.1.2.1
E08.C.1.2.3
E08.C.1.2.6
E08.E.1.1.1
E08.E.1.1.3
E08.E.1.1.6
CC.1.4.9-10.D
Organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text; include formatting when useful to aiding comprehension; provide a concluding statement or section.

C.E.1.1.3
C.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.11-12.D
Organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a whole; use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text; provide a concluding statement or section that supports the information presented; include formatting when useful to aiding comprehension.
Informative/Explanatory
Style
CC.1.4.6.E
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
• Use sentences of varying lengths and complexities.
• Develop and maintain a consistent voice.
• Establish and maintain a formal style.

E06.C.1.2.4
E06.C.1.2.5
E06.D.2.1.1
E06.D.2.1.2
E06.D.2.1.3
E06.D.2.1.4
E06.D.2.1.5
E06.E.1.1.4
E06.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.7.E
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
• Use sentences of varying lengths and complexities.
• Develop and maintain a consistent voice.
• Establish and maintain a formal style.

E07.C.1.2.4
E07.C.1.2.5
E07.D.2.1.1
E07.D.2.1.2
E07.D.2.1.3
E07.D.2.1.4
E07.D.2.1.5
E07.E.1.1.4
E07.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.8.E
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
• Use sentences of varying lengths and complexities.
• Create tone and voice through precise language.
• Establish and maintain a formal style.

E08.C.1.2.4
E08.C.1.2.5
E08.D.2.1.1
E08.D.2.1.2
E08.D.2.1.3
E08.D.2.1.4
E08.D.2.1.5
E08.D.2.1.6
E08.E.1.1.4
E08.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.9-10.E
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms of the discipline in which they are writing.

C.E.1.1.4
C.E.2.1.1
C.E.2.1.2
C.E.2.1.3
C.E.2.1.4
C.E.2.1.6
C.E.2.1.7
CC.1.4.11-12.E
• Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms of the discipline in which they are writing.
Informative/Explanatory
Conventions of Language
CC.1.4.6.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E06.D.1.1.1
E06.D.1.1.2
E06.D.1.1.3
E06.D.1.1.4
E06.D.1.1.5
E06.D.1.1.6
E06.D.1.1.7
E06.D.1.1.8
E06.D.1.2.1
E06.D.1.2.2
E06.D.1.2.3
CC.1.4.7.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E07.D.1.1.1
E07.D.1.1.2
E07.D.1.1.3
E07.D.1.1.4
E07.D.1.1.5
E07.D.1.1.6
E07.D.1.1.7
E07.D.1.1.8
E07.D.1.1.9
E07.D.1.2.1
E07.D.1.2.2
E07.D.1.2.3
E07.D.1.2.4
CC.1.4.8.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E08.D.1.1.1
E08.D.1.1.2
E08.D.1.1.3
E08.D.1.1.4
E08.D.1.1.5
E08.D.1.1.6
E08.D.1.1.7
E08.D.1.1.8
E08.D.1.1.9
E08.D.1.1.10
E08.D.1.1.11
E08.D.1.2.1
E08.D.1.2.2
E08.D.1.2.3
E08.D.1.2.4
E08.D.1.2.5
CC.1.4.9-10.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

C.E.1.1.5
C.E.3.1.1
C.E.3.1.2
C.E.3.1.3
C.E.3.1.4
C.E.3.1.5
CC.1.4.11-12.F
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
Opinion/Argumentative CC.1.4.6.G
Write arguments to support claims.
CC.1.4.7.G
Write arguments to support claims.
CC.1.4.8.G
Write arguments to support claims.
CC.1.4.9-10.G
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics.
CC.1.4.11-12.G
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics.
Opinion/Argumentative
Focus
CC.1.4.6.H
Introduce and state an opinion on a topic.

E06.C.1.1.1
E06.E.1.1.1
CC.1.4.7.H
Introduce and state an opinion on a topic.

E07.C.1.1.1
E07.E.1.1.1
CC.1.4.8.H
Introduce and state an opinion on a topic.

E08.C.1.1.1
E08.E.1.1.1
CC.1.4.9-10.H
Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task, and audience.
• Introduce the precise claim.

C.P.1.1.1
CC.1.4.11-12.H
Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task, and audience.
• Introduce the precise, knowledgeable claim.
Opinion/Argumentative
Content
CC.1.4.6.I
Use clear reasons and relevant evidence to support claims, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic.

E06.C.1.1.2
E06.E.1.1.2
CC.1.4.7.I
Acknowledge alternate or opposing claims and support claim with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic.

E07.C.1.1.2
E07.E.1.1.2
CC.1.4.8.I
Acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims and support claim with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic.

E08.C.1.1.2
E08.E.1.1.2
CC.1.4.9-10.I
Distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims; develop claim(s) fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.

C.P.1.1.2
C.P.1.1.3
CC.1.4.11-12.I
Distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims; develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
Opinion/Argumentative
Organization
CC.1.4.6.J
Organize the claim(s) with clear reasons and evidence clearly; clarify relationships among claim(s) and reasons by using words, phrases, and clauses; provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

E06.C.1.1.1
E06.C.1.1.3
E06.C.1.1.5
E06.E.1.1.1
E06.E.1.1.3
E06.E.1.1.6
CC.1.4.7.J
Organize the claim(s) with clear reasons and evidence clearly; clarify relationships among claim(s) and reasons by using words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion; provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

E07.C.1.1.1
E07.C.1.1.3
E07.C.1.1.5
E07.E.1.1.1
E07.E.1.1.3
E07.E.1.1.6
CC.1.4.8.J
Organize the claim(s) with clear reasons and evidence clearly; clarify relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence by using words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion; provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

E08.C.1.1.1
E08.C.1.1.3
E08.C.1.1.5
E08.E.1.1.1
E08.E.1.1.3
E08.E.1.1.6
CC.1.4.9-10.J
Create organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence; use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims; provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

C.P.1.1.2
C.P.1.1.3
C.P.2.1.5
C.P.2.1.6
CC.1.4.11-12.J
Create organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence; use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text to create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims; provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
Opinion/Argumentative
Style
CC.1.4.6.K
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
• Use sentences of varying lengths and complexities.
• Develop and maintain a consistent voice.
• Establish and maintain a formal style.

E06.C.1.1.4
E06.D.2.1.1
E06.D.2.1.2
E06.D.2.1.3
E06.D.2.1.4
E06.D.2.1.5
E06.E.1.1.4
E06.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.7.K
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
• Use sentences of varying lengths and complexities.
• Develop and maintain a consistent voice.
• Establish and maintain a formal style.

E07.C.1.1.4
E07.D.2.1.1
E07.D.2.1.2
E07.D.2.1.3
E07.D.2.1.4
E07.D.2.1.5
E07.E.1.1.4
E07.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.8.K
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
• Use sentences of varying lengths and complexities.
• Create tone and voice through precise language.
• Establish and maintain a formal style.

E08.C.1.1.4
E08.D.2.1.1
E08.D.2.1.2
E08.D.2.1.3
E08.D.2.1.4
E08.D.2.1.5
E08.D.2.1.6
E08.E.1.1.4
E08.E.1.1.5
CC.1.4.9-10.K
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms of the discipline in which they are writing.

C.P.1.1.4
C.P.2.1.1
C.P.2.1.2
C.P.2.1.3
C.P.2.1.4
C.P.2.1.6
C.P.2.1.7
CC.1.4.11-12.K
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage
the complexity of the topic.
• Establish and maintain
a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms
of the discipline in which they are writing.
Opinion/Argumentative
Conventions of Language
CC.1.4.6.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E06.D.1.1.1
E06.D.1.1.2
E06.D.1.1.3
E06.D.1.1.4
E06.D.1.1.5
E06.D.1.1.6
E06.D.1.1.7
E06.D.1.1.8
E06.D.1.2.1
E06.D.1.2.2
E06.D.1.2.3
CC.1.4.7.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E07.D.1.1.1
E07.D.1.1.2
E07.D.1.1.3
E07.D.1.1.4
E07.D.1.1.5
E07.D.1.1.6
E07.D.1.1.7
E07.D.1.1.8
E07.D.1.1.9
E07.D.1.2.1
E07.D.1.2.2
E07.D.1.2.3
E07.D.1.2.4
CC.1.4.8.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E08.D.1.1.1
E08.D.1.1.2
E08.D.1.1.3
E08.D.1.1.4
E08.D.1.1.5
E08.D.1.1.6
E08.D.1.1.7
E08.D.1.1.8
E08.D.1.1.9
E08.D.1.1.10
E08.D.1.1.11
E08.D.1.2.1
E08.D.1.2.2
E08.D.1.2.3
E08.D.1.2.4
E08.D.1.2.5
CC.1.4.9-10.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

C.P.1.1.5
C.P.3.1.1
C.P.3.1.2
C.P.3.1.3
C.P.3.1.4
C.P.3.1.5
CC.1.4.11-12.L
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

Narrative CC.1.4.6.M
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.7.M
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.8.M
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.9-10.M
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.
CC.1.4.11-12.M
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events.
Narrative
Focus
CC.1.4.6.N
Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters.

E06.C.1.3.1
CC.1.4.7.N
Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters.

E07.C.1.3.1
CC.1.4.8.N
Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters.

E08.C.1.3.1
CC.1.4.9-10.N
Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple points of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters.
CC.1.4.11-12.N
Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple points of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters.
Narrative
Content
CC.1.4.6.O
Use narrative techniques such as dialogue, description, and pacing to develop experiences, events, and/or characters; use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.

E06.C.1.3.2
E06.C.1.3.4
CC.1.4.7.O
Use narrative techniques such as dialogue, description, and pacing to develop experiences, events, and/or characters; use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.

E07.C.1.3.2
E07.C.1.3.4
CC.1.4.8.O
Use narrative techniques such as dialogue, description, reflection, and pacing to develop experiences, events, and/or characters; use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.

E08.C.1.3.2
E08.C.1.3.4
CC.1.4.9-10.O
Use narrative techniques such as dialogue, description, reflection, multiple plotlines, and pacing to develop experiences, events, and/or characters; use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, settings, and/or characters.
CC.1.4.11-12.O
Use narrative techniques such as dialogue, description, reflection, multiple plotlines, and pacing to develop experiences, events, and/or characters; use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, settings, and/or characters.
Narrative
Organization
CC.1.4.6.P
Organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically, using a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another; provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences and events.

E06.C.1.3.1
E06.C.1.3.3
E06.C.1.3.5
CC.1.4.7.P
Organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically, using a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another; provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences and events.

E07.C.1.3.1
E07.C.1.3.3
E07.C.1.3.5
CC.1.4.8.P
Organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically using a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another and show the relationships among experiences and events; provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

E08.C.1.3.1
E08.C.1.3.3
E08.C.1.3.5
CC.1.4.9-10.P
Create a smooth progression of experiences or events using a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole; provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
CC.1.4.11-12.P
Create a smooth progression of experiences or events using a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome; provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
Narrative
Style
CC.1.4.6.Q
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of writing.
• Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
• Use precise language.
• Develop and maintain a consistent voice.

E06.C.1.3.4
E06.D.2.1.1
E06.D.2.1.2
E06.D.2.1.3
E06.D.2.1.4
E06.D.2.1.5
E06.E.1.1.4
CC.1.4.7.Q
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of writing.
• Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.
• Use sentences of varying lengths and complexities.
• Use precise language.
• Develop and maintain a consistent voice.

E07.C.1.3.4
E07.D.2.1.1
E07.D.2.1.2
E07.D.2.1.3
E07.D.2.1.4
E07.D.2.1.5
CC.1.4.8.Q
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of writing.
• Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects.
• Use sentences of varying lengths and complexities.
• Create tone and voice through precise language.

E08.C.1.3.4
E08.D.2.1.1
E08.D.2.1.2
E08.D.2.1.3
E08.D.2.1.4
E08.D.2.1.5
E08.D.2.1.6
CC.1.4.9-10.Q
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of writing.
• Use parallel structure.
• Use various types of phrases and clauses to convey meaning and add variety and interest.
CC.1.4.11-12.Q
Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of writing.
• Use parallel structure.
• Use various types of phrases and clauses to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest.
• Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
Narrative
Conventions of Language
CC.1.4.6.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E06.D.1.1.1
E06.D.1.1.2
E06.D.1.1.3
E06.D.1.1.4
E06.D.1.1.5
E06.D.1.1.6
E06.D.1.1.7
E06.D.1.1.8
E06.D.1.2.1
E06.D.1.2.2
E06.D.1.2.3
CC.1.4.7.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E07.D.1.1.1
E07.D.1.1.2
E07.D.1.1.3
E07.D.1.1.4
E07.D.1.1.5
E07.D.1.1.6
E07.D.1.1.7
E07.D.1.1.8
E07.D.1.1.9
E07.D.1.2.1
E07.D.1.2.2
E07.D.1.2.3
E07.D.1.2.4
CC.1.4.8.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

E08.D.1.1.1
E08.D.1.1.2
E08.D.1.1.3
E08.D.1.1.4
E08.D.1.1.5
E08.D.1.1.6
E08.D.1.1.7
E08.D.1.1.8
E08.D.1.1.9
E08.D.1.1.10
E08.D.1.1.11
E08.D.1.2.1
E08.D.1.2.2
E08.D.1.2.3
E08.D.1.2.4
E08.D.1.2.5
CC.1.4.9-10.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
CC.1.4.11-12.R
Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.
Response to Literature CC.1.4.6.S
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research, applying grade-level reading standards for literature and literary nonfiction.

E06.E.1.1.1
E06.E.1.1.2
E06.E.1.1.3
E06.E.1.1.4
E06.E.1.1.5
E06.E.1.1.6
CC.1.4.7.S
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research, applying grade-level reading standards for literature and literary nonfiction.

E07.E.1.1.1
E07.E.1.1.2
E07.E.1.1.3
E07.E.1.1.4
E07.E.1.1.5
E07.E.1.1.6
CC.1.4.8.S
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research, applying grade-level reading standards for literature and literary nonfiction.

E08.E.1.1.1
E08.E.1.1.2
E08.E.1.1.3
E08.E.1.1.4
E08.E.1.1.5
E08.E.1.1.6
CC.1.4.9-10.S
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research, applying grade-level reading standards for literature and literary nonfiction.
CC.1.4.11-12.S
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research, applying grade-level reading standards for literature and literary nonfiction.
Production and Distribution of Writing
Writing Process
CC.1.4.6.T
With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
CC.1.4.7.T
With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
CC.1.4.8.T
With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
CC.1.4.9-10.T
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
CC.1.4.11-12.T
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
Technology and
Publication
CC.1.4.6.U
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.
CC.1.4.7.U
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.
CC.1.4.8.U
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
CC.1.4.9-10.U
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
CC.1.4.11-12.U
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments and information.
Conducting Research CC.1.4.6.V
Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
CC.1.4.7.V
Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.
CC.1.4.8.V
Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
CC.1.4.9-10.V
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
CC.1.4.11-12.V
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Credibility, Reliability, and Validity of
Sources
CC.1.4.6.W
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.
CC.1.4.7.W
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
CC.1.4.8.W
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
CC.1.4.9-10.W
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
CC.1.4.11-12.W
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
Range of Writing CC.1.4.6.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CC.1.4.7.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CC.1.4.8.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CC.1.4.9-10.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CC.1.4.11-12.X
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

1.5 Speaking and Listening
Students present appropriately in formal speaking situations, listen critically, and respond intelligently as individuals or in group discussions.
 Grade 6  Grade 7  Grade 8  Grades 9-10  Grades 11-12
Comprehension and Collaboration
Collaborative Discussion
CC.1.5.6.A
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions, on grade-level topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
CC.1.5.7.A
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions, on grade-level topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
CC.1.5.8.A
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions, on grade-level topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
CC.1.5.9-10.A
Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions on grade-level topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CC.1.5.11-12.A
Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions on grade-level topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
Comprehension and Collaboration
Critical Listening
CC.1.5.6.B
Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims by identifying specific reasons and evidence and recognize arguments or claims not supported by factual evidence.
CC.1.5.7.B
Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
CC.1.5.8.B
Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
CC.1.5.9-10.B
Evaluate a speaker’s perspective, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
CC.1.5.11-12.B
Evaluate how the speaker’s perspective, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric affect the credibility of an argument through the author’s stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone.
Comprehension and Collaboration
Evaluating Information
CC.1.5.6.C
Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.
CC.1.5.7.C
Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.
CC.1.5.8.C
Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
CC.1.5.9-10.C
Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
CC.1.5.11-12.C
Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Purpose, Audience, and Task
CC.1.5.6.D
Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
CC.1.5.7.D
Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
CC.1.5.8.D
Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound, valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume and clear pronunciation.
CC.1.5.9-10.D
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning; ensure that the presentation is appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
CC.1.5.11-12.D
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective; organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
Context
CC.1.5.6.E
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.
CC.1.5.7.E
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.
CC.1.5.8.E
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.
CC.1.5.9-10.E
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.
CC.1.5.11-12E
Adapt speech to a variety
of contexts and tasks.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
Multimedia
CC.1.5.6.F
Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.
CC.1.5.7.F
Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.
CC.1.5.8.F
Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to add interest, clarify information, and strengthen claims and evidence.
CC.1.5.9-10.F
Make strategic use of digital media in presentations to add interest and enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence.
CC.1.5.11-12.F
Make strategic use of digital media in presentations to add interest and enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence.
Conventions of Standard English CC.1.5.6.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking based on Grade 6 level and content.
CC.1.5.7.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking based on Grade 7 level and content.
CC.1.5.8.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking based on Grade 8 level and content.
CC.1.5.9-10.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking based on Grades 9-10 level and content.
CC.1.5.11-12.G
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English when speaking based on Grades 11-12 level and content.

Pennsylvania Core Standards for Mathematics
Grades PreK—High School


INTRODUCTION

 The Pennsylvania Core Standards in Mathematics in grades PreK-5 lay a solid foundation in whole numbers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, and decimals. Taken together, these elements support a student’s ability to learn and apply more demanding math concepts and procedures. The middle school and high school standards call on students to practice applying mathematical ways of thinking to real world issues and challenges; they prepare students to think and reason mathematically. Additionally, they set a rigorous definition of college and career readiness by demanding that students develop a depth of understanding and ability to apply mathematics to novel situations, as college students and employees regularly do. Although the standards are not a curriculum or a prescribed series of activities, school entities will use them to develop a local school curriculum that will meet local students’ needs.

 This document includes PA Core Standards for Mathematical Content and Mathematical Practice. The mathematics standards define what students should understand and be able to do. Mathematical Practice Standards describes the habits of mind required to reach a level of mathematical proficiency.

PA Core Standards
Mathematical Content and Mathematical Practice
Standards for Mathematical ContentStandards for Mathematical Practice
 2.1 Numbers and Operations
A) Counting and Cardinality
B) Numbers and Operations in Base Ten
C) Numbers and Operations—Fractions
D) Ratios and Proportional Relationships
E) The Number System
F) Number and Quantity
• Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
• Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
• Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
• Model with mathematics.
• Use appropriate tools strategically.
• Attend to precision.
• Look for and make use of structure.
• Look for and make sense of regularity in repeated reasoning.
 2.2 Algebraic Concepts
A) Operations and Algebraic Thinking
B) Expressions & Equations
C) Functions
D) Algebra
 2.3 Geometry
A) Geometry
 2.4 Measurement, Data, and Probability
A) Measurement and Data
B) Statistics and Probability

 Standards cannot be viewed or addressed in isolation, as each standard depends upon or may lead into multiple standards across grades; thus, it is imperative that educators are familiar with both the standards that come before and those that follow a particular grade level. These revised standards reflect instructional shifts that cannot occur without the integrated emphasis on content and practice.

 Standards are overarching statements of what a proficient math student should know and be able to do. The Pennsylvania Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content closely align with the revised standards and are an invaluable source for greater detail.

 Key Points in Mathematics

 • The standards stress both procedural skills and conceptual understanding to ensure students are learning and applying the critical information they need to succeed at higher levels.

 • K-5 standards, which provide students with a solid foundation in whole numbers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, and decimals, help young students build the foundation to successfully apply more demanding math concepts and procedures, and move into application. They also provide detailed guidance to teachers on how to navigate their way through topics such as fractions, negative numbers, and geometry, and do so by maintaining a continuous progression from grade to grade.

 • Having built a strong foundation at K-5, students can do hands-on learning in geometry, algebra, and probability and statistics. Students who have mastered the content and skills through the seventh grade will be well-prepared for algebra in grade 8.

 • High school standards emphasize practicing applying mathematical ways of thinking to real world issues and challenges.

 The PA Core Standards for Mathematics detail four standard areas: Numbers and Operations, Algebraic Concepts, Geometry, and Measurement, Data, and Probability. These standard areas are reflective of the reporting categories in the PA Core Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content. The intent of this document is to provide a useful tool for designing curriculum, instruction, and assessment. The grade level curriculum and instructional shifts in mathematics cannot occur without the integrated emphasis on content and practice. The chart below illustrates the four standard areas and the development and progression of the strands, with an understanding that all is framed around the Standards for Mathematical Practice.

Mathematical Standards: Development and Progression
Standards for Mathematical Practice
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated
 reasoning.
PreKK12345678HS
2.1
Numbers and
Operations
(A) Counting &
Cardinality
(B) Numbers and Operations in Base Ten(D) Ratios and Proportional Relationships(F) Number and Quantity
(C) Numbers and Operations—Fractions(E) The Number System
2.2
Algebraic
Concepts
(A) Operations and Algebraic Thinking(B) Expressions and Equations(D) Algebra
(C) Functions
2.3
Geometry
(A) Geometry
2.4
Measurement,
Data, and
Probability
(A) Measurement and Data(B) Statistics and Probability


2.1 Numbers and Operations
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Grade PreK
2.1.PreK
Grade K
2.1.K
Grade 1
2.1.1
Grade 2
2.1.2
Grade 3
2.1.3
Grade 4
2.1.4
Grade 5
2.1.5
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
(A) Counting & Cardinality
 CC.2.1.PreK.A.1
 Know number names  and the count sequence.
CC.2.1.K.A.1
Know number names and write and recite the count sequence.
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 CC.2.1.PreK.A.2
 Count to tell the  number of objects.
CC.2.1.K.A.2
Apply one-to-one correspondence to count the number of objects.
 CC.2.1.PreK.A.3
 Compare numbers.
CC.2.1.K.A.3
Apply the concept of magnitude to compare numbers and quantities.


2.1 Numbers and Operations
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Grade PreK
2.1.PreK
Grade K
2.1.K
Grade 1
2.1.1
Grade 2
2.1.2
Grade 3
2.1.3
Grade 4
2.1.4
Grade 5
2.1.5
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
      (B) Numbers & Operations in Base TenIntentionally
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 CC.2.1.K.B.1
Use place value to compose and decompose numbers within 19.
 CC.2.1.1.B.1
Extend the counting sequence to read and write numerals to represent objects.
 CC.2.1.2.B.1
Use place-value concepts to represent amounts of tens and ones and to compare three digit numbers.
 CC.2.1.3.B.1
Apply place-value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

M03.A-T.1.1.1
M03.A-T.1.1.2
M03.A-T.1.1.3
M03.A-T.1.1.4
 CC.2.1.4.B.1
Apply place-value concepts to show an understanding of multi-digit whole numbers.

M04.A-T.1.1.1
M04.A-T.1.1.2
M04.A-T.1.1.3
M04.A-T.1.1.4
CC.2.1.5.B.1
Apply place-value concepts to show an understanding of operations and rounding as they pertain to whole numbers and decimals.
M05.A-T.1.1.1
M05.A-T.1.1.2
M05.A-T.1.1.3
M05.A-T.1.1.4
M05.A-T.1.1.5
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 CC.2.1.1.B.2
Use place-value concepts to represent amounts of tens and ones and to compare two digit numbers.
 CC.2.1.2.B.2
Use place-value concepts to read, write, and skip count to 1000.
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 CC.2.1.4.B.2
Use place-value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
M04.A-T.2.1.1
M04.A-T.2.1.2
M04.A-T.2.1.3
M04.A-T.2.1.4
CC.2.1.5.B.2
Extend an understanding of operations with whole numbers to perform operations including decimals.
M05.A-T.2.1.1
M05.A-T.2.1.2
M05.A-T.2.1.3
 CC.2.1.1.B.3
Use place-value concepts and properties of opera-
tions to add and subtract within 100.
 CC.2.1.2.B.3
Use place-value understanding and properties of opera-
tions to add and subtract within 1000.
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2.1 Numbers and Operations
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Grade PreK
2.1.PreK
Grade K
2.1.K
Grade 1
2.1.1
Grade 2
2.1.2
Grade 3
2.1.3
Grade 4
2.1.4
Grade 5
2.1.5
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
(C) Numbers & Operations—Fractions
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CC.2.1.3.C.1
Explore and develop an understanding of frac-
tions as numbers.

M03.A-F.1.1.1
M03.A-F.1.1.2
M03.A-F.1.1.3
M03.A-F.1.1.4
M03.A-F.1.1.5
CC.2.1.4.C.1
Extend the understanding of fractions to show equivalence and ordering.

M04.A-F.1.1.1
M04.A-F.1.1.2
 CC.2.1.5.C.1
Use the understanding of equivalency to add and subtract fractions.

M05.A-F.1.1.1
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CC.2.1.4.C.2
Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

M04.A-F.2.1.1
M04.A-F.2.1.2
M04.A-F.2.1.3
M04.A-F.2.1.4
M04.A-F.2.1.5
M04.A-F.2.1.6
M04.A-F.2.1.7
CC.2.1.5.C.2
Apply and extend previous understand-
ings of multi-
plication and division to multiply and divide fractions.

M05.A-F.2.1.1
M05.A-F.2.1.2
M05.A-F.2.1.3
M05.A-F.2.1.4
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CC.2.1.4.C.3
Connect decimal notation to fractions, and compare decimal fractions (base 10 denominator, e.g., 19/100).

M04.A-F.3.1.1
M04.A-F.3.1.2
M04.A-F.3.1.3
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2.2 Algebraic Concepts
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Grade PreK
2.2.PreK
Grade K
2.2.K
Grade 1
2.2.1
Grade 2
2.2.2
Grade 3
2.2.3
Grade 4
2.2.4
Grade 5
2.2.5
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
(A) Operations and Algebraic Thinking
CC.2.2.PreK.A.1
Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.
CC.2.2.K.A.1
Extend the concepts of putting together and taking apart to add and subtract within 10.
CC.2.2.1.A.1
Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction within 20.
CC.2.2.2.A.1
Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction within 100.
CC.2.2.3.A.1
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.
M03.B-O.1.1.1
M03.B-O.1.1.2
M03.B-O.1.2.1
M03.B-O.1.2.2
CC.2.2.4.A.1
Represent and solve problems involving the four operations.

M04.B-O.1.1.1
M04.B-O.1.1.2
M04.B-O.1.1.3
M04.B-O.1.1.4
CC.2.2.5.A.1
Interpret and evaluate numerical expressions using order of operations.

M05.B-O.1.1.1
M05.B-O.1.1.2
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CC.2.2.1.A.2
Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
CC.2.2.2.A.2
Use mental strategies to add and subtract within 20.
CC.2.2.3.A.2
Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.
M03.B-O.2.1.1
M03.B-O.2.1.2
M03.B-O.2.2.1
CC.2.2.4.A.2
Develop and/or apply number theory concepts to find factors and multiples.

M04.B-O.2.1.1
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CC.2.2.2.A.3
Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.
CC.2.2.3.A.3
Demonstrate multiplication and division fluency.
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CC.2.2.3.A.4
Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.
M03.B-O.3.1.1
M03.B-O.3.1.2
M03.B-O.3.1.3
M03.B-O.3.1.4
M03.B-O.3.1.5
M03.B-O.3.1.6
M03.B-O.3.1.7
CC.2.2.4.A.4
Generate and analyze patterns using one rule.

M04.B-O.3.1.1
M04.B-O.3.1.2
M04.B-O.3.1.3
CC.2.2.5.A.4
Analyze patterns and relationships using two rules.

M05.B-O.2.1.1
M05.B-O.2.1.2


2.3 Geometry
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Grade PreK
2.3.PreK
Grade K
2.3.K
Grade 1
2.3.1
Grade 2
2.3.2
Grade 3
2.3.3
Grade 4
2.3.4
Grade 5
2.3.5
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
(A) Geometry
CC.2.3.PreK.A.1
Identify and describe shapes.
CC.2.3.K.A.1
Identify and describe two- and three-dimensional shapes.
CC.2.3.1.A.1
Compose and distinguish between two- and three-dimensional shapes based on their attributes.
CC.2.3.2.A.1
Analyze and draw two- and three-dimensional shapes having specified attributes.
CC.2.3.3.A.1
Identify, compare, and classify shapes and their attributes.

M03.C-G.1.1.1
M03.C-G.1.1.2
CC.2.3.4.A.1
Draw lines and angles and identify these in two-dimensional figures.

M04.C-G.1.1.1
CC.2.3.5.A.1
Graph points in the first quadrant on the coordinate plane and interpret these points when solving real world and mathematical problems.

M05.C-G.1.1.1
M05.C-G.1.1.2
CC.2.3.PreK.A.2
Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.
CC.2.3.K.A.2
Analyze, compare, create, and compose two- and three-dimensional shapes.
CC.2.3.1.A.2
Use the understanding of fractions to partition shapes into halves and quarters.
CC.2.3.2.A.2
Use the understanding of fractions to partition shapes into halves, quarters, and thirds.
CC.2.3.3.A.2
Use the understanding of fractions to partition shapes into parts with equal areas and express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole.

M03.C-G.1.1.3
C.2.3.4.A.2
Classify two-dimensional figures by properties of their lines and angles.

M04.C-G.1.1.2
CC.2.3.5.A.2
Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on an understanding of their properties.

M05.C-G.2.1.1
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CC.2.3.4.A.3
Recognize symmetric shapes and draw lines of symmetry.

M04.C-G.1.1.3
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2.4 Measurement, Data, and Probability
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Grade PreK
2.4.PreK
Grade K
2.4.K
Grade 1
2.4.1
Grade 2
2.4.2
Grade 3
2.4.3
Grade 4
2.4.4
Grade 5
2.4.5
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
(A) Measurement and Data
CC.2.4.PreK.A.1

Describe and compare measurable attributes of length and weight of everyday objects.
CC.2.4.K.A.1
Describe and compare attributes of length, area, weight, and capacity of everyday objects.
CC.2.4.1.A.1
Order lengths and measure them both indirectly and by repeating length units.
CC.2.4.2.A.1
Measure and estimate lengths in standard units using appropriate tools.
CC.2.4.3.A.1
Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of temperature, liquid volume, mass, and length.

M03.D-M.1.2.1
M03.D-M.1.2.2
M03.D-M.1.2.3
CC.2.4.4.A.1
Solve problems involving measurement and conversions from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

M04.D-M.1.1.1
M04.D-M.1.1.2
M04.D-M.1.1.3
M04.D-M.1.1.4
CC.2.4.5.A.1
Solve problems using conversions within a given measurement system.

M05.D-M.1.1.1
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CC.2.4.1.A.2
Tell and write time to the nearest half hour using both analog and digital clocks.
CC.2.4.2.A.2
Tell and write time to the nearest five minutes using both analog and digital clocks.
CC.2.4.3.A.2
Tell and write time to the nearest minute and solve problems by calculating time intervals.

M03.D-M.1.1.1
M03.D-M.1.1.2
CC.2.4.4.A.2
Translate information from one type of data display to another.

M04.D-M.2.1.3
CC.2.4.5.A.2
Represent and interpret data using appropriate scale.

M05.D-M.2.1.2
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CC.2.4.2.A.3
Solve problems and make change using coins and paper currency with appropriate symbols.
CC.2.4.3.A.3
Solve problems and make change involving money using a combination of coins and bills.

M03.D-M.1.3.1
M03.D-M.1.3.2
M03.D-M.1.3.3
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(A) Measurement and Data
CC.2.4.PreK.A.4
Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category.
CC.2.4.K.A.4
Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category.
CC.2.4.1.A.4
Represent and interpret data using tables/charts.
CC.2.4.2.A.4
Represent and interpret data using line plots, picture graphs, and bar graphs.
CC.2.4.3.A.4
Represent and interpret data using tally charts, tables, pictographs, line plots, and bar graphs.

M03.D-M.2.1.1
M03.D-M.2.1.2
M03.D-M.2.1.3
M03.D-M.2.1.4
CC.2.4.4.A.4
Represent and interpret data involving fractions using information provided in a line plot.

M04.D-M.2.1.1
M04.D-M.2.1.2
CC.2.4.5.A.4
Solve problems involving computation of fractions using information provided in a line plot.

M05.D-M.2.1.1
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CC.2.4.3.A.5
Determine the area of a rectangle and apply the concept to multiplication and to addition.

M03.D-M.3.1.1
M03.D-M.3.1.2
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CC.2.4.5.A.5
Apply concepts of volume to solve problems and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.

M05.D-M.3.1.1
M05.D-M.3.1.2
CC.2.4.2.A.6
Extend the concepts of addition and subtraction to problems involving length.
CC.2.4.3.A.6
Solve problems involving perimeters of polygons and distinguish between linear and area measures.

M03.D-M.4.1.1
CC.2.4.4.A.6
Measure angles and use properties of adjacent angles to solve problems.

M04.D-M.3.1.1
M04.D-M.3.1.2
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2.1 Numbers and Operations
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in  repeated reasoning.
2.1.6 Grade 62.1.7 Grade 72.1.8 Grade 82.1.HS High School
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
(D) Ratios & Proportional Relationships
CC.2.1.6.D.1
Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.

M06.A-R.1.1.1
M06.A-R.1.1.2
M06.A-R.1.1.3
M06.A-R.1.1.4
M06.A-R.1.1.5
CC.2.1.7.D.1
Analyze proportional relationships and use them to model and solve real-world and mathematical problems.

M07.A-R.1.1.1
M07.A-R.1.1.2
M07.A-R.1.1.3
M07.A-R.1.1.4
M07.A-R.1.1.5
M07.A-R.1.1.6
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(F) Number and Quantity
 CC.2.1.HS.F.1
Apply and extend the properties of exponents to solve problems with rational exponents.
 A1.1.1.1.1, A1.1.1.1.2, A1.1.1.3.1, A2.1.2.1.1, A2.1.2.1.2, A2.1.2.1.3, A2.1.2.1.4
CC.2.1.HS.F.2
Apply properties of rational and irrational numbers to solve real world or mathematical problems.
 A1.1.1.1.1, A1.1.1.1.2, A1.1.1.3.1,  A1.1.1.2.1
CC.2.1.HS.F.3
Apply quantitative reasoning to choose and interpret units and scales in formulas, graphs, and data displays.
 A1.1.2.1.1, A1.1.2.1.2, A1.1.2.1.3, A1.2.1.2.1, A1.2.1.2.2, A2.2.2.1.1, A2.2.2.1.2, A2.2.3.1.1, A2.2.3.1.2
CC.2.1.HS.F.4
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems.
 A1.1.2.1.1, A1.1.2.1.2, A1.1.2.1.3, A1.2.1.2.1, A1.2.1.2.2, A2.2.2.1.1, A2.2.2.1.2
(E) The Number System
CC.2.1.6.E.1
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.

M06.A-N.1.1.1
CC.2.1.7.E.1
Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to operations with rational numbers.

M07.A-N.1.1.1
M07.A-N.1.1.2
M07.A-N.1.1.3
CC.2.1.8.E.1
Distinguish between rational and irrational numbers using their properties.

M08.A-N.1.1.1
M08.A-N.1.1.2
A1.1.1.1.1
A1.1.1.1.2
 CC.2.1.6.E.2
Identify and choose appropriate processes to compute fluently with multi-digit numbers.

M06.A-N.2.1.1
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 CC.2.1.HS.F.5
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
 A1.1.2.1.1, A1.1.2.1.2, A1.1.2.1.3, A1.1.2.2.1, A1.1.2.2.2, A1.1.3.1.1, A1.1.3.1.2, A1.1.3.1.3, A1.1.3.2.1, A1.1.3.2.2, A2.2.3.1.1, A2.2.3.1.2
CC.2.1.HS.F.6
Extend the knowledge of arithmetic operations and apply to complex numbers.
 A2.1.1.1.1, A2.1.1.1.2, A2.1.1.2.1,  A2.1.1.2.2
CC.2.1.HS.F.7
Apply concepts of complex numbers in polynomial identities and quadratic equations to solve problems.
 A2.2.1.1.1, A2.2.1.1.2, A2.2.1.1.3,  A2.2.1.1.4
 CC.2.1.6.E.3
Develop and/or apply number theory concepts to find common factors and multiples.

M06.A-N.2.2.1
M06.A-N.2.2.2
A1.1.1.2.1


2.1 Numbers and Operations
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in  repeated reasoning.
2.1.6 Grade 62.1.7 Grade 72.1.8 Grade 82.1.HS High School
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
CC.2.1.6.E.4
Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.

M06.A-N.3.1.1
M06.A-N.3.1.2
M06.A-N.3.1.3
M06.A-N.3.2.1
M06.A-N.3.2.2
M06.A-N.3.2.3
Intentionally
Blank
CC.2.1.8.E.4
Estimate irrational numbers by comparing them to rational numbers.

M08.A-N.1.1.3
M08.A-N.1.1.4
M08.A-N.1.1.5
A1.1.1.1.1


2.2 Algebraic Concepts
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated
 reasoning.
2.2.6 Grade 62.2.7 Grade 72.2.8 Grade 82.2.HS High School
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
(B) Expressions and Equations
CC.2.2.6.B.1
Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.

M06.B-E.1.1.1
M06.B-E.1.1.2
M06.B-E.1.1.3
M06.B-E.1.1.4
M06.B-E.1.1.5
CC.2.2.7.B.1
Apply properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.

M07.B-E.1.1.1
CC.2.2.8.B.1
Apply concepts of radicals and integer exponents to generate equivalent expressions.

M08.B-E.1.1.1
M08.B-E.1.1.2
M08.B-E.1.1.3
M08.B-E.1.1.4
A1.1.1.3.1
(D) Algebra CC.2.2.HS.D.1
Interpret the structure of expressions to represent a quantity in terms of its context.
 A1.1.1.5.1, A1.1.1.5.2, A1.1.1.5.3, A2.1.2.2.1, A2.1.2.2.2
CC.2.2.HS.D.2
Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems.
 A1.1.1.5.1, A1.1.1.5.2, A1.1.1.5.3, A2.1.2.1.1, A2.1.2.1.2, A2.1.2.1.3, A2.1.2.1.4, A2.1.2.2.1, A2.1.2.2.2
CC.2.2.HS.D.3
Extend the knowledge of arithmetic operations and apply to polynomials.
 A1.1.1.5.1, A1.1.1.5.2, A1.1.1.5.3, A2.1.2.2.1, A2.1.2.2.2
 CC.2.2.6.B.2
Understand the process of solving a one-variable equation or inequality and apply it to real-world and mathematical problems.

M06.B-E.2.1.1
M06.B-E.2.1.2
M06.B-E.2.1.3
M06.B-E.2.1.4
Intentionally
Blank
CC.2.2.8.B.2
Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.

M08.B-E.2.1.1
M08.B-E.2.1.2
M08.B-E.2.1.3
A1.2.1.2.2
CC.2.2.HS.D.4
Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials to make generalizations about functions and their graphs.
 A2.1.2.2.1, A2.1.2.2.2
CC.2.2.HS.D.5
Use polynomial identities to solve problems.
 A1.1.1.5.1, A1.1.1.5.2, A1.1.1.5.3, A2.1.2.2.1, A2.1.2.2.2, A2.1.3.1.1, A2.1.3.1.2, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.4
CC.2.2.HS.D.6
Extend the knowledge of rational functions to rewrite in equivalent forms.
 A1.1.1.5.1, A1.1.1.5.2, A1.1.1.5.3, A2.1.3.1.1, A2.1.3.1.2, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.4
CC.2.2.HS.D.7
Create and graph equations or inequalities to describe numbers or relationships.
 A1.1.2.1.1, A1.1.2.1.2, A1.1.2.1.3, A1.1.2.2.1, A1.1.2.2.2, A1.1.3.1.1, A1.1.3.1.2, A1.1.3.1.3, A1.1.3.2.1, A1.1.3.2.2, A2.1.3.1.1, A2.1.3.1.2, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.4, A2.1.3.2.1, A2.1.3.2.2, A2.2.2.1.1, A2.2.2.1.2, A2.2.2.1.3, A2.2.2.1.4
CC.2.2.HS.D.8
Apply inverse operations to solve equations or formulas for a given variable.
 A1.1.2.1.1, A1.1.2.1.2, A1.1.2.1.3, A2.1.3.1.1, A2.1.3.1.2, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.4, A2.1.3.2.1, A2.1.3.2.2
(B) Expressions and Equations
CC.2.2.6.B.3
Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.

M06.B-E.3.1.1
M06.B-E.3.1.2
CC.2.2.7.B.3
Model and solve real-world and mathematical problems by using and connecting numerical, algebraic, and/or graphical representations.

M07.B-E.2.1.1
M07.B-E.2.2.1
M07.B-E.2.2.2
M07.B-E.2.3.1
A1.1.1.4.1
CC.2.2.8.B.3
Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

M08.B-E.3.1.1
M08.B-E.3.1.2
M08.B-E.3.1.3
M08.B-E.3.1.4
M08.B-E.3.1.5
A1.1.2.1.1
A1.1.2.2.1
A1.1.2.2.2
(D) Algebra
CC.2.2.HS.D.9
Use reasoning to solve equations and justify the solution method.
 A1.1.1.4.1, A1.1.2.1.1, A1.1.2.1.2, A1.1.2.1.3, A1.1.2.2.1, A1.1.2.2.2, A1.1.3.1.1, A1.1.3.1.2, A1.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.1, A2.1.3.1.2, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.4, A2.1.3.2.1, A2.1.3.2.2
CC.2.2.HS.D.10
Represent, solve, and interpret equations/inequalities and systems of equations/inequalities algebraically and graphically.
 A1.1.2.1.1, A1.1.2.1.2, A1.1.2.1.3, A1.1.2.2.1, A1.1.2.2.2, A1.1.3.1.1, A1.1.3.1.2, A1.1.3.1.3, A1.1.3.2.1, A1.1.3.2.2, A2.1.3.1.1, A2.1.3.1.2, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.4
(C) Functions
Intentionally
Blank
Intentionally
Blank
 CC.2.2.8.C.1
Define, evaluate, and compare functions.

M08.B-F.1.1.1
M08.B-F.1.1.2
M08.B-F.1.1.3
A1.1.2.1.1
A1.2.1.1.2
A1.2.1.2.1
A1.2.1.2.2

  



 CC.2.2.8.C.2
Use concepts of
functions to model
relationships between
quantities.

M08.B-F.2.1.1
M08.B-F.2.1.2
A1.1.2.1.3
A1.2.1.1.1
A1.2.1.2.2
A1.2.2.1.3
A1.2.2.1.4
(C) Functions
 CC.2.2.HS.C.1
Use the concept and notation of functions to interpret and apply them in terms of their context.
 A1.2.1.1.1, A1.2.1.1.2, A1.2.1.1.3, A1.2.2.1.1, A1.2.2.1.2, A1.2.2.1.3, A1.2.2.1.4, A2.2.1.1.1, A2.2.1.1.2, A2.2.1.1.3, A2.2.1.1.4, G.2.2.2.1, G.2.2.2.2, G.2.2.2.3, G.2.2.2.4, G.2.2.2.5
CC.2.2.HS.C.2
Graph and analyze functions and use their properties to make connections between the different representations.
 A1.2.1.1.1, A1.2.1.1.2, A1.2.1.1.3, A1.2.1.2.1, A1.2.1.2.2, A1.2.2.1.1, A2.1.3.1.4, A2.1.3.2.1, A2.1.3.2.2, A2.2.1.1.1, A2.2.1.1.2, A2.2.1.1.3, A2.2.1.1.4
CC.2.2.HS.C.3
Write functions or sequences that model relationships between two quantities.
 A1.1.2.1.1, A1.1.2.1.2, A1.1.2.1.3, A1.2.1.1.1, A1.2.1.1.2, A1.2.1.1.3, A1.2.1.2.1, A1.2.1.2.2, A1.2.2.1.3, A1.2.2.1.4, A2.1.3.1.1, A2.1.3.1.2, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.4, A2.1.3.2.1, A2.1.3.2.2, A2.2.1.1.1, A2.2.1.1.2, A2.2.1.1.3, A2.2.1.1.4, A2.2.2.1.1, A2.2.2.1.2, A2.2.2.1.3, A2.2.2.1.4
CC.2.2.HS.C.4
Interpret the effects transformations have on functions and find the inverses of functions.
 A1.2.1.2.1, A1.2.1.2.2, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.4, A2.1.3.2.1, A2.2.2.1.1, A2.2.2.1.2, A2.2.2.1.3, A2.2.2.1.4, A2.2.2.2.1
 CC.2.2.HS.C.5
Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models to solve problems.
 A1.2.2.1.1, A1.2.2.1.2, A1.2.2.1.3, A1.2.2.1.4, A2.1.3.1.1, A2.1.3.1.2, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.1.3.1.4, A2.2.1.1.1, A2.2.1.1.2, A2.2.1.1.3, A2.2.1.1.4, A2.2.2.1.1, A2.2.2.1.2, A2.2.2.1.3, A2.2.2.1.4, A2.2.2.2.1
CC.2.2.HS.C.6
Interpret functions in terms of the situations they model.
 A1.2.1.2.1, A1.2.2.1.2, A1.2.2.1.3, A1.2.2.2.1, A2.1.3.1.3, A2.2.1.1.1, A2.2.1.1.2, A2.2.1.1.3, A2.2.1.1.4, A2.2.2.1.3, A2.2.2.1.4, A2.2.2.2.1
CC.2.2.HS.C.7
Apply radian measure of an angle and the unit circle to analyze the trigonometric functions.
CC.2.2.HS.C.8
Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena and describe the properties of the graphs.
CC.2.2.HS.C.9
Prove the Pythagorean identity and use it to calculate trigonometric ratios.
 G.1.3.2.1, G.2.1.1.1, G.2.1.1.2


2.3 Geometry
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated
 reasoning.
2.3.6 Grade 62.3.7 Grade 72.3.8 Grade 82.3.HS High School
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
(A) Geometry
CC.2.3.6.A.1
Apply appropriate tools to solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.

M06.C-G.1.1.1
M06.C-G.1.1.2
M06.C-G.1.1.3
M06.C-G.1.1.4
M06.C-G.1.1.5
M06.C-G.1.1.6
CC.2.3.7.A.1
Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, circumference, and volume.

M07.C-G.2.1.1
M07.C-G.2.1.2
M07.C-G.2.2.1
M07.C-G.2.2.2
CC.2.3.8.A.1
Apply the concepts of volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

M08.C-G.3.1.1
G.2.3.1.2
(A) Geometry
 CC.2.3.HS.A.1
Use geometric figures and their properties to represent transformations in the plane.
 G.1.3.1.1, G.1.3.1.2
CC.2.3.HS.A.2
Apply rigid transformations to determine and explain congruence.
 G.1.3.1.1, G.1.3.1.2
CC.2.3.HS.A.3
Verify and apply geometric theorems as they relate to geometric figures.
 G.1.2.1.1, G.1.2.1.2, G.1.2.1.3, G.1.2.1.4, G.1.2.1.5, G.1.3.2.1, G.2.2.1.1, G.2.2.1.2, G.2.2.2.1, G.2.2.2.2, G.2.2.2.3, G.2.2.2.4, G.2.2.2.5
CC.2.3.HS.A.4
Apply the concept of congruence to create geometric constructions.
 CC.2.3.HS.A.5
Create justifications based on transformations to establish similarity of plane figures.
 G.1.3.1.1, G.1.3.1.2
CC.2.3.HS.A.6
Verify and apply theorems involving similarity as they relate to plane figures.
 G.1.3.1.1, G.1.3.1.2, G.1.3.2.1
CC.2.3.HS.A.7
Apply trigonometric ratios to solve problems involving right triangles.
 G.2.1.1.1, G.2.1.1.2
CC.2.3.HS.A.8
Apply geometric theorems to verify properties of circles.
 G.1.1.1.1, G.1.1.1.2, G.1.1.1.3, G.1.1.1.4, G.1.3.2.1, G.2.2.3.1
CC.2.3.HS.A.9
Extend the concept of similarity to determine arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles.
 G.1.1.1.1, G.1.1.1.2, G.1.1.1.3, G.1.1.1.4, G.2.2.2.1, G.2.2.2.2, G.2.2.2.3, G.2.2.2.4, G.2.2.2.5, G.2.2.3.1
Intentionally
Blank
CC.2.3.7.A.2
Visualize and represent geometric figures and describe the relationships between them.

M07.C-G.1.1.1
M07.C-G.1.1.2
M07.C-G.1.1.3
M07.C-G.1.1.4
CC.2.3.8.A.2
Understand and apply congruence, similarity, and geometric transformations using various tools.

M08.C-G.1.1.1
M08.C-G.1.1.2
M08.C-G.1.1.3
M08.C-G.1.1.4
G.1.2.1.1
G.1.2.1.4
G.2.2.1.1
(A) Geometry
Intentionally
Blank
Intentionally
Blank
CC.2.3.8.A.3
Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem to solve problems.

M08.C-G.2.1.1
M08.C-G.2.1.2
M08.C-G.2.1.3
G.2.1.1.1
G.2.1.2.1
(A) Geometry
CC.2.3.HS.A.10
Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section.
 A2.2.1.1.4, A2.2.2.1.1
CC.2.3.HS.A.11
Apply coordinate geometry to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.
 G.2.1.2.1, G.2.1.2.2, G.2.1.2.3
CC.2.3.HS.A.12
Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems.
 G.2.3.1.1, G.2.3.1.2, G.2.3.1.3
CC.2.3.HS.A.13
Analyze relationships between two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects.
 G.1.1.1.1, G.1.1.1.2, G.1.1.1.3, G.1.1.1.4, G.1.2.1.1, G.1.2.1.2, G.1.2.1.3, G.1.2.1.4, G.1.2.1.5, G.2.3.2.1
C.2.3.HS.A.14
Apply geometric concepts to model and solve real world problems.
 G.2.2.4.1, G.2.3.1.1, G.2.3.1.2, G.2.3.1.3


2.4 Measurement, Data, and Probability
The Standards of Mathematical Practices
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Use appropriate tools strategically.
Look for and make use of structure.
Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Model with mathematics.
Attend to precision.
Look for and express regularity in repeated
 reasoning.
2.4.6 Grade 62.4.7 Grade 72.4.8 Grade 82.4.HS High School
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge, and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
(B) Statistics and Probability
CC.2.4.6.B.1
Demonstrate an understanding of statistical variability by displaying, analyzing, and summarizing distributions.

M06.D-S.1.1.1
M06.D-S.1.1.2
M06.D-S.1.1.3
M06.D-S.1.1.4
CC.2.4.7.B.1
Draw inferences about populations based on random sampling concepts.

M07.D-S.1.1.1
M07.D-S.1.1.2
CC.2.4.8.B.1
Analyze and/or interpret bivariate data displayed in multiple representations.

M08.D-S.1.1.1
M08.D-S.1.1.2
M08.D-S.1.1.3
A1.2.2.2.1
(B) Statistics and Probability
 CC.2.4.HS.B.1
Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable.
 A1.2.2.1.2, A1.2.3.1.1, A1.2.3.2.1, A1.2.3.2.2, A1.2.3.2.3,
CC.2.4.HS.B.2

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables.
 A1.2.1.1.1, A1.2.1.1.2, A1.2.1.1.3, A1.2.1.2.1, A1.2.1.2.2, A1.2.2.2.1, A2.2.1.1.1, A2.2.3.1.1, A2.2.3.1.2
CC.2.4.HS.B.3
Analyze linear models to make interpretations based on the data.
 A1.2.2.2.1, A1.2.3.1.1, A1.2.3.2.1, A1.2.3.2.2, A1.2.3.2.3, A2.2.3.1.1, A2.2.3.1.2
CC.2.4.HS.B.4
Recognize and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments.
 A1.2.3.3.1, A2.2.3.2.1, A2.2.3.2.2, A2.2.3.2.3
CC.2.4.HS.B.5
Make inferences and justify conclusions based on sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies.
 A1.2.3.2.1, A1.2.3.2.2, A1.2.3.2.3, A2.2.3.2.1, A2.2.3.2.2, A2.2.3.2.3
CC.2.4.HS.B.6
Use the concepts of independence and conditional probability to interpret data.
 A2.2.3.2.1, A2.2.3.2.2, A2.2.3.2.3
CC.2.4.HS.B.7
Apply the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model.
 A1.2.3.3.1, A2.2.3.2.1, A2.2.3.2.2, A2.2.3.2.3
Intentionally
Blank
CC.2.4.7.B.2
Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations.

M07.D-S.2.1.1
CC.2.4.8.B.2
Understand that patterns of association can be seen in bivariate data utilizing frequencies.

M08.D-S.1.2.1
Intentionally
Blank
CC.2.4.7.B.3
Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.

M07.D-S.3.1.1
M07.D-S.3.2.1
M07.D-S.3.2.2
M07.D-S.3.2.3
A1.2.3.3.1
Intentionally
Blank

 Key Terms for this Document

 Standards for Mathematical Contents—These standards define what students should know and be able to do in their study of mathematics.

 Standards for Mathematical Practice—These standards describe the processes and proficiencies in which all students grades K-12 should engage. Educators must instill these standards of practice in their students so that they become habitual. The standards for mathematical practice should be used as the vehicle to deliver the standards of mathematical content.

 Standard Algorithm—A locally agreed upon method of computation which is conventionally taught for solving mathematical problems.

 Decimal Fraction—A fraction whose denominator is a power of ten (examples: 2/100, 8/10). These fractions are commonly expressed as decimals.

 Unit Fraction—A rational number written as a fraction where the numerator is one and the denominator is a positive integer (example: 1/20).

 Bivariate Data—The data involves two variables and is usually represented as a scatter plot.

 Rule—A single operation (examples: add 5, multiply by 2).

APPENDIX B


Academic Standards for Science and Technology and
Environment and Ecology
Grades 6-12


Authority

   The provisions of this Appendix B amended under sections 121, 2603-B and 2604-B of the Public School Code of 1949 (24 P. S. § §  1-121, 26-2603-B and 26-2604-B).

Source

   The provisions of this Appendix B adopted January 4, 2002, effective January 5, 2002, 32 Pa.B. 17; amended February 28, 2014, effective March 1, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 1131; corrected March 21, 2014, effective March 1, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 1754, unless otherwise noted. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (367435) to (367436), (286565) to (286652) and (294913).

Cross References

   This appendix cited in 22 Pa. Code §  4.24 (relating to high school graduation requirements); 22 Pa. Code §  4.51 (relating to State assessment system); 22 Pa. Code §  4.51a (relating to Pennsylvania System of School Assessment); and 22 Pa. Code §  4.51b (relating to Keystone Exams).

VII. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction… VIII.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

Unifying Themes…3.1.
 A. Systems
 B. Models
 C. Patterns
 D. Scale
 E. Change
Inquiry and Design…3.2.
 A. Nature of Scientific Knowledge
 B. Process Knowledge
 C. Scientific Method
 D. Problem Solving in Technology
Biological Sciences…3.3.
 A. Living Forms
 B. Structure and Function
 C. Inheritance
 D. Evolution
Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics…3.4.
 A. Matter
 B. Energy
 C. Forces and Motion
 D. Astronomy
Earth Sciences…3.5.
 A. Land Forms and Processes
 B. Resources
 C. Meteorology
 D. Hydrology and Oceanography
Reading
 Students read, understand, and respond to informational text—with an emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with a focus on textual evidence.
 • Key Ideas and Details
 • Craft and Structure
 • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
 • Range and Level of Complex Texts
Technology Education…3.6.
 A. Biotechnology
 B. Information Technology
 C. Physical Technologies
   (Construction, Manufacturing, and Transportation)
Writing
 Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.
 • Text Types and Purposes
 • Production and Distribution of Writing
 • Research to Build and Present Knowledge
 • Range of Writing
Technological Devices…3.7.
 A. Tools
 B. Instruments
 C. Computer Operations
 D. Computer Software
 E. Computer Communication Systems
Science, Technology and Human Endeavors…3.8.
 A. Constraints
 B. Meeting Human Needs
 C. Consequences and Impacts
Glossary…IX.

VIII. INTRODUCTION


 This document describes what students should know and be able to do in the following eight areas:

 • 3.1. Unifying Themes of Science

 • 3.2. Inquiry and Design

 • 3.3. Biological Sciences

 • 3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics

 • 3.5. Earth Sciences

 • 3.6. Technology Education

 • 3.7. Technological Devices

 • 3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors

 These standards describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of fourth, seventh, tenth and twelfth grade. In addition, these standards reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students are expected to achieve as they progress through school.

 This document avoids repetition, making an obvious progression across grade levels less explicit. Teachers shall expect that students know and can apply the concepts and skills expressed at the preceding level. Consequently, previous learning is reinforced but not retaught.

 Standards are arranged by categories, for example, 3.5 Earth Science. Under each category are standard statements that are preceded by a capital letter; for example, in 3.1 Unifying Themes, grade 10.B, ‘‘Describe concepts of models as a way to predict and understand science and technology.’’ Following the standard statements are bulleted standard descriptors, which explain the nature and scope of the standard. Descriptors specify the nature of the standard and the level of complexity needed in meeting that standard in a proficient manner. Descriptorsserve to benchmark the standard statement. Curriculum, instruction and assessment should focus on meeting the standard statement. Technology education, computer applications and science are separate curricular areas. Meeting standards should be approached as a collaborative effort among all curricular areas.

 The following descriptors explain the intent of each standard category:

3.1. Unifying
Themes
Unifying themes of science and technology provide big ideas that integrate with significant concepts. There are only a few fundamental concepts and processes that form the framework upon which science and technology knowledges are organized—motion and forces, energy, structure of matter, change over time and machines. These themes create the context through which the content of the disciplines can be taught and are emphasized in each standard.
3.2. Inquiry and Design The nature of science and technology is characterized by applying process knowledge that enables students to become independent learners. These skills include observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, computing, estimating, communicating, using space/time relationships, defining operationally, raising questions, formulating hypotheses, testing and experimenting, designing controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, formulating models, designing models, and producing solutions. Everyone can use them to solve real-life problems. These process skills are developed across the grade levels and differ in the degree of sophistication, quantitative nature and application to the content.
3.3. Biological Sciences Biology concerns living things, their appearance, different types of life, the scope of their similarities and differences, where they live and how they live. Living things are made of the same components as all other matter, involve the same kinds of transformations of energy and move using the same basic kinds of forces as described in chemistry and physics standards. Through the study of the diversity of life, students learn to understand how life has changed over a long period of time. This great variety of life forms continues to change even today as genetic instructions within cells are passed from generation to generation, yet the amazing integrity of most species remain.
3.4. Physical Science Chemistry and Physics Physics and chemistry involve the study of objects and their properties. Students examine changes to materials during mixing, freezing, heating and dissolving and then learn how to observe and measure results. In chemistry students study the relationship between matter, atomic structure and its activity. Laboratory investigations of the properties of substances and their changes through a range of chemical interactions provide a basis for students to understand atomic theory and a variety of reaction types and their applications in business, agriculture and medicine. Physics deepens the understanding of the structure and properties of materials and includes atoms, waves, light, electricity, magnetism and the role of energy, forces and motion.
3.5. Earth Sciences The dynamics of earth science include the studies of forces of nature that build the earth and wear down the earth. The understanding of these concepts uses principles from physical sciences, geography and mathematics.
3.6. Technology Education Technology education is the use of accumulated knowledge to process resources to meet human needs and improve the quality of life. Students develop the ability to select and correctly use materials, tools, techniques and processes to answer questions, understand explanations and solve problems encountered in real life situations. These overriding themes require students to design, create, use, evaluate and modify systems of Biotechnologies, Information Technologies, and Physical Technologies.
3.7. Technological Devices Students use tools to observe, measure, move and make things. New technological tools and techniques make it possible to enact far-reaching changes in our world. Technology enhances the students’ abilities to identify problems and determine solutions. Computers play an integral role in every day life by extending our abilities to collect, analyze and communicate information and ideas.
3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors Scientific knowledge and societal needs often create a demand for new technology. Conversely, new technology advances scientific knowledge. Both influence society through the impact of their products and processes.

 What Is Science? Any study of science includes the search for understanding the natural world and facts, principles, theories and laws that have been verified by the scientific community and are used to explain and predict natural phenomena and events.

 Acquiring scientific knowledge involves constructing hypotheses using observation and knowledge in the content area in order to formulate useful questions that provoke scientific inquiry. As a result of repeated, rigorous testing over time and applying multiple perspectives to a problem, consistent information emerges. A theory describes this verifiable event or phenomena. Theories are powerful elements in science and are used to predict other events. As theories lose their ability to predict, they are modified, expanded or generalized or incorporated into a broader theory.

 Knowledge of what science is incorporates carefully developed and integrated components:

 • Nature of science—the ways in which scientists search for answers to questions and explanations of observations about the natural world; includes process knowledge of observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, hypothesizing, experimenting and interpreting data

 • Unifying themes of science—concepts, generalizations and principles that result from and lead to inquiry

 • Knowledge—facts, principles, theories and laws verifiable through scientific inquiry by the world community of scientists; includes physics, chemistry, earth science and biological sciences

 • Inquiry—an intellectual process of logic that includes verification of answers to questions about and explanations for natural objects, events and phenomena

 • Process skills—Recognition by students how knowledge is acquired and applied in science by observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, computing, estimating, communicating, using space/time relationships, defining operationally, formulating hypotheses, testing and experimenting, designing controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, formulating models, designing models and producing solutions.

 • Problem solving—application of concepts to problems of human adaptation to the environment that often leads to recognition of new problems; has social implications and leads to personal decision-making and action; a process which forms the link for interactions between scientific and technological results or findings; involves operational definitions, recognizing variables, formulating models and asking questions

 • Scientific thinking—the disposition to suspend judgment, not make decisions and not take action until results, explanations or answers have been tested and verified with information.

 What Is Technology Education? It is the means by which we teach technology. Technology is a body of knowledge separate from but related to the sciences, with specific content, curriculum and specific certification requirements. Technology is the application of tools, materials, processes and systems by humans to solve problems and provide benefits to humankind. We use technology in an attempt to improve our environment. These improvements may relate to survival needs (e.g., food, shelter, defense) or they may relate to human aspirations (e.g., knowledge, art, control). They can include unexpected benefits, unexpected costs and unexpected risks.

 Technology education involves a broad spectrum of knowledge and activities. Effective technology education combines knowledge of content, process and skills to provide students with a holistic approach to learning. Technology education offers unique opportunities to apply numerous academic concepts through practical, hands-on applications. Instructional technology, on the other hand, deals specifically with use of computers and different software to solve problems and communicate effectively. Knowledge of content, process and skills should be used together to effectively engage students and promote a complete understanding of the sciences, related technologies and their interrelationship. The relationship between science and technology is one where science builds principles or theories and technology provides the practical application of those principles or theories.

 Knowledge of content, process and skills in technology involves learning processes that include these components:

 • Methods of designing and developing solutions

 • Standards for selecting and using appropriate materials, tools and processes

 • Experimental and design specifications for testing and evaluating solutions

 • Criteria for judging the performance and impact of the solutions

 • Evaluating the impact of modifying a system to improve performance.

 Technology education can be divided into three main systems that include biotechnological, informational, and physical technologies:

Biotechnological
 Systems
Bioconversion
Bioprocessing
Environment
Ergonomics
Engineering/Design  Systems
Research and  Development
Informational Systems
Computer-Aided
 Drafting/Design
 (CADD)
Drafting & Design
Desktop Publishing
Electronic
 Communications
Engineering/
 Design Systems
Graphic
 Communications
Communications Systems
Multimedia Technology
Networking Systems
Research and
 Development
Video and Television Production
World Wide Web
 Design & Publishing
Physical Systems
Automation/Robotics
Computer-Aided and
Integrated
Manufacturing (CAM/CIM)
Construction
Electronic Circuits/
 Control Systems
Energy Systems
Architecture and Community Planning
Engineering/Design Systems
Enterprise Organization
 & Operation
Manufacturing
Material Processes
Research and Development
Transportation


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A.Know that natural and human-made objects are made up of parts.
• Identify and describe what parts make up a system.
• Identify system parts that are natural and human-made (e.g., ball point pen, simple electrical circuits, plant anatomy).
• Describe the purpose of analyzing systems.
• Know that technologies include physical technology systems (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational systems and biochemical-related systems.
A.Explain the parts of a simple system and their relationship to each other.
• Describe a system as a group of related parts that work together to achieve a desired result (e.g., digestive system).
• Explain the importance of order in a system.
• Distinguish between system inputs, system processes and system outputs.
• Distinguish between open loop and closed loop systems.
• Apply systems analysis to solve problems.
A.Discriminate among the concepts of systems, subsystems, feedback and control in solving technological problems.
• Identify the function of subsystems within a larger system (e.g., role of thermostat in an engine, pressure switch).
• Describe the interrelationships among inputs, processes, outputs, feedback and control in specific systems.
• Explain the concept of system redesign and apply it to improve technological systems.
• Apply the universal systems model to illustrate specific solutions and troubleshoot specific problems.
• Analyze and describe the effectiveness of systems to solve specific problems.
A.Apply concepts of systems, subsystems, feedback and control to solve complex technological problems.
• Apply knowledge of control systems concept by designing and modeling control systems that solve specific problems.
• Apply systems analysis to predict results.
• Analyze and describe the function, interaction and relationship among subsystems and the system itself.
• Compare and contrast several systems that could be applied to solve a single problem.
• Evaluate the causes of a system’s inefficiency.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
B.Know models as useful simplifications of objects or processes.
• Identify different types of models.
• Identify and apply models as tools for prediction and insight.
• Apply appropriate simple modeling tools and techniques.
• Identify theories that serve as models (e.g., molecules).
B.Describe the use of models as an application of scientific or technological concepts.
• Identify and describe different types of models and their functions.
• Apply models to predict specific results and observations (e.g., population growth, effects of infectious organisms).
• Explain systems by outlining a system’s relevant parts and its purpose and/or designing a model that illustrates its function.
B.Describe concepts of models as a way to predict and understand science and technology.
• Distinguish between different types of models and modeling techniques and apply their appropriate use in specific applications (e.g., kinetic gas theory, DNA).
• Examine the advantages of using models to demonstrate processes and outcomes (e.g., blue print analysis, structural stability).
• Apply mathematical models to science and technology.
B.Apply concepts of models as a method to predict and understand science and technology.
• Evaluate technological processes by collecting data and applying mathematical models (e.g., process control).
• Apply knowledge of complex physical models to interpret data and apply mathematical models.
• Appraise the importance of computer models in interpreting science and technological systems.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
C.Illustrate patterns that regularly occur and reoccur in nature.
• Identify observable patterns (e.g., growth patterns in plants, crystal shapes in minerals, climate, structural patterns in bird feathers).
• Use knowledge of natural patterns to predict next occurrences (e.g., seasons, leaf patterns, lunar phases).
C.Identify patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.
• Identify different forms of patterns and use them to group and classify specific objects.
• Identify repeating structure patterns.
• Identify and describe patterns that occur in physical systems (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational systems and biochemical-related systems.
C.Apply patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.
• Examine and describe recurring patterns that form the basis of biological classification, chemical periodicity, geological order and astronomical order.
• Examine and describe stationary physical patterns.
• Examine and describe physical patterns in motion.
C.Assess and apply patterns in science and technology.
• Assess and apply recurring patterns in natural and technological systems.
• Compare and contrast structure and function relationships as they relate to patterns.
• Assess patterns in nature using mathematical formulas.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
D.Know that scale is an important attribute of natural and human made objects, events and phenomena.
• Identify the use of scale as it relates to the measurement of distance, volume and mass.
• Describe scale as a ratio (e.g., map scales).
• Explain the importance of scale in producing models and apply it to a model.
D.Explain scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
• Apply various applications of size and dimensions of scale to scientific, mathematical, and technological applications.
• Describe scale as a form of ratio and apply to a life situation.
D.Apply scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
• Apply dimensional analysis and scale as a ratio.
• Convert one scale to another.
D.Analyze scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
• Compare and contrast various forms of dimensional analysis.
• Assess the use of several units of measurement to the same problem.
• Analyze and apply appropriate measurement scales when collecting data.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
E.Recognize change in natural and physical systems.
• Recognize change as fundamental to science and technology concepts.
• Examine and explain change by using time and measurement.
• Describe relative motion.
• Describe the change to objects caused by heat, cold, light or chemicals.
E.Identify change as a variable in describing natural and physical systems.
• Describe fundamental science and technology concepts that could solve practical problems.
• Explain how ratio is used to describe change.
• Describe the effect of making a change in one part of a system on the system as a whole.
E.Describe patterns of change in nature, physical and man made systems.
• Describe how fundamental science and technology concepts are used to solve practical problems (e.g., momentum, Newton’s laws of universal gravitation, tectonics, conservation of mass and energy, cell theory, theory of evolution, atomic theory, theory of relativity, Pasteur’s germ theory, relativity, heliocentric theory, gas laws, feedback systems).
• Recognize that stable systems often involve underlying dynamic changes (e.g., a chemical reaction at equilibrium has molecules reforming continuously).
E.Evaluate change in nature, physical systems and man made systems.
• Evaluate fundamental science and technology concepts and their development over time (e.g., DNA, cellular respiration, unified field theory, energy measurement, automation, miniaturization, Copernican and Ptolemaic universe theories).
• Analyze how models, systems and technologies have changed over time (e.g., germ theory, theory of evolution, solar system, cause of fire).
• Explain how correlation of variables does not necessarily imply causation.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
• Describe the effects of error in measurements.
• Describe changes to matter
caused by heat, cold, light
or chemicals using a rate
function.
• Evaluate the patterns of change within a technology (e.g., changes in engineering in the automotive industry).


3.2. Inquiry and Design
3.2.4. GRADE 43.2.7. GRADE 73.2.10. GRADE 103.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Identify and use the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.
• Distinguish between a scientific fact and a belief.
• Provide clear explanations that account for observations and results.
• Relate how new information can change existing perceptions.
A.Explain and apply scientific and technological knowledge.
• Distinguish between a scientific theory and a belief.
• Answer ‘‘What if’’ questions based on observation, inference or prior knowledge or experience.
• Explain how skepticism about an accepted scientific explanation led to a new understanding.
• Explain how new information may change existing theories and practice.
A.Apply knowledge and understanding about the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.
• Compare and contrast scientific theories and beliefs.
• Know that science uses both direct and indirect observation means to study the world and the universe.
• Integrate new information into existing theories and explain implied results.
A.Evaluate the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.
• Know and use the ongoing scientific processes to continually improve and better understand how things work.
• Critically evaluate the status of existing theories (e.g., germ theory of disease, wave theory of light, classification of subatomic particles, theory of evolution, epidemiology of AIDS).
B.Describe objects in the world using the five senses.
• Recognize observational descriptors from each of the five senses (e.g., see-blue, feel-rough).
• Use observations to develop a descriptive vocabulary.
B.Apply process knowledge to make and interpret observations.
• Measure materials using a variety of scales.
• Describe relationships by making inferences and predictions.
• Communicate, use space/time relationships, define operationally, raise questions, formulate hypotheses, test and experiment.
• Design controlled experiments, recognize variables, and manipulate variables.
• Interpret data, formulate models, design models, and produce solutions.
B.Apply process knowledge and organize scientific and technological phenomena in varied ways.
• Describe materials using precise quantitative and qualitative skills based on observations.
• Develop appropriate scientific experiments: raising questions, formulating hypotheses, testing, controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, and producing solutions.
• Use process skills to make inferences and predictions using collected information and to communicate, using space/time relationships, defining operationally.
B.Evaluate experimental information for appropriateness and adherence to relevant science processes.
• Evaluate experimental data correctly within experimental limits.
• Judge that conclusions are consistent and logical with experimental conditions.
• Interpret results of experimental research to predict new information or improve a solution.
C.Recognize and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.
• Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
• Design an investigation.
• Conduct an experiment.
• State a conclusion that is consistent with the information.
C.Identify and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.
• Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
• Evaluate the appropriateness of questions.
• Design an investigation with limited variables to investigate a question.
• Conduct a two-part experiment.
• Judge the significance of experimental information in answering the question.
• Communicate appropriate conclusions from the experiment.
C.Apply the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.
• Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
• Evaluate the appropriateness of questions.
• Design an investigation with adequate control and limited variables to investigate a question.
• Conduct a multiple step experiment.
• Organize experimental information using a variety of analytic methods.
• Judge the significance of experimental information in answering the question.
• Suggest additional steps that might be done experimentally.
C.Apply the elements of scientific inquiry to solve multi-step problems.
• Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
• Evaluate the appropriateness of questions.
• Design an investigation with adequate control and limited variables to investigate a question.
• Organize experimental information using analytic and descriptive techniques.
• Evaluate the significance of experimental information in answering the question.
• Project additional questions from a research study that could be studied.
D.Recognize and use the technological design process to solve problems.
• Recognize and explain basic problems.
• Identify possible solutions and their course of action.
• Try a solution.
• Describe the solution, identify its impacts and modify if necessary.
• Show the steps taken and the results.
D.Know and use the technological design process to solve problems.
• Define different types of problems.
• Define all aspects of the problem, necessary information and questions that must be answered.
• Propose the best solution.
• Design and propose alternative methods to achieve solutions.
• Apply a solution.
• Explain the results, present improvements, identify and infer the impacts of the solution.
D.Identify and apply the technological design process to solve problems.
• Examine the problem, rank all necessary information and all questions that must be answered.
• Propose and analyze a solution.
• Implement the solution.
• Evaluate the solution, test, redesign and improve as necessary.
• Communicate the process and evaluate and present the impacts of the solution.
D.Analyze and use the technological design process to solve problems.
• Assess all aspects of the problem, prioritize the necessary information and formulate questions that must be answered.
• Propose, develop and appraise the best solution and develop alternative solutions.
• Implement and assess the solution.
• Evaluate and assess the solution, redesign and improve as necessary.
• Communicate and assess the process and evaluate and present the impacts of the solution.


3.3. Biological Sciences
3.3.4. GRADE 43.3.7. GRADE 73.3.10. GRADE 103.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Know the similarities and differences of living things.
• Identify life processes of living things (e.g., growth, digestion, react to environment).
• Know that some organisms have similar external characteristics (e.g., anatomical characteristics; appendages, type of covering, body segments) and that similarities and differences are related to environmental habitat.
• Describe basic needs of plants and animals.
A.Describe the similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things.
• Describe how the structures of living things help them function in unique ways.
• Explain how to use a dichotomous key to identify plants and animals.
• Account for adaptations among organisms that live in a particular environment.
A.Explain the structural and functional similarities and differences found among living things.
• Identify and characterize major life forms according to their placement in existing classification groups.
• Explain the relationship between structure and function at the molecular and cellular levels.
• Describe organizing schemes of classification keys.
• Identify and characterize major life forms by kingdom, phyla, class and order.
A.Explain the relationship between structure and function at all levels of organization.
• Identify and explain interactions among organisms (e.g., mutually beneficial, harmful relationships).
• Explain and analyze the relationship between structure and function at the molecular, cellular and organ-system level.
• Describe and explain structural and functional relationships in each of the five (or six) kingdoms.
• Explain significant biological diversity found in each of the biomes.
B.Know that living things are made up of parts that have specific functions.
• Identify examples of unicellular and multicellular organisms.
• Determine how different parts of a living thing work together to make the organism function.
B.Describe the cell as the basic structural and functional unit of living things.
• Identify the levels of organization from cell to organism.
• Compare life processes at the organism level with life processes at the cell level.
• Explain that cells and organisms have particular structures that underlie their functions.
• Describe and distinguish among cell cycles, reproductive cycles and life cycles.
• Explain disease effects on structures or functions of an organism.
B.Describe and explain the chemical and structural basis of living organisms.
• Describe the relationship between the structure of organic molecules and the function they serve in living organisms.
• Identify the specialized structures and regions of the cell and the functions of each.
• Explain how cells store and use information to guide their functions.
• Explain cell functions and processes in terms of chemical reactions and energy changes.
B.Analyze the chemical and structural basis of living organisms.
• Identify and describe factors affecting metabolic function (e.g., temperature, acidity, hormones).
• Evaluate metabolic activities using experimental knowledge of enzymes.
• Evaluate relationships between structure and functions of different anatomical parts given their structure.
• Describe potential impact of genome research on the biochemistry and physiology of life.
C.Know that characteristics are inherited and, thus, offspring closely resemble their parents.
• Identify characteristics for animal and plant survival in different climates.
• Identify physical characteristics that appear in both parents and offspring and differ between families, strains or species.
C.Know that every organism has a set of genetic instructions that determines its inherited traits.
• Identify and explain inheritable characteristics.
• Identify that the gene is the basic unit of inheritance.
• Identify basic patterns of inheritance (e.g., dominance, recessive, codominance).
• Describe how traits are inherited.
• Distinguish how different living things reproduce (e.g., vegetative budding, sexual).
• Recognize that mutations can alter a gene.
• Describe how selective breeding, natural selection and genetic technologies can change genetic makeup of organisms.
C.Describe how genetic information is inherited and expressed.
• Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.
• Describe mutations’ effects on a trait’s expression.
• Distinguish different reproductive patterns in living things (e.g., budding, spores, fission).
• Compare random and selective breeding practices and their results (e.g., antibiotic resistant bacteria).
• Explain the relationship among DNA, genes and chromosomes.
• Explain different types of inheritance (e.g., multiple allele, sex-influenced traits).
• Describe the role of DNA in protein synthesis as it relates to gene expression.
C.Explain gene inheritance and expression at the molecular level.
• Analyze gene expression at the molecular level.
• Describe the roles of nucleic acids in cellular reproduction and protein synthesis.
• Describe genetic engineering techniques, applications and impacts.
• Explain birth defects from the standpoint of embryological development and/or changes in genetic makeup.
D.Identify changes in living things over time.
• Compare extinct life forms with living organisms.
D.Explain basic concepts of natural selection.
• Identify adaptations that allow organisms to survive in their environment.
• Describe how an environmental change can affect the survival of organisms and entire species.
• Know that differences in individuals of the same species may give some advantage in surviving and reproducing.
• Recognize that populations of organisms can increase rapidly.
• Describe the role that fossils play in studying the past.
• Explain how biologic extinction is a natural process.
D.Explain the mechanisms of the theory of evolution.
• Analyze data from fossil records, similarities in anatomy and physiology, embryological studies and DNA studies that are relevent to the theory of evolution.
• Explain the role of mutations and gene recombination in changing a population of organisms.
• Compare modern day descendents of extinct species and propose possible scientific accounts for their present appearance.
• Describe the factors (e.g., isolation, differential reproduction) affecting gene frequency in a population over time and their consequences.
D.Analyze the theory of evolution.
• Examine human history by describing the progression from early hominids to modern humans.
• Apply the concept of natural selection as a central concept in illustrating evolution theory.


3.3. Biological Sciences
3.3.4. GRADE 43.3.7. GRADE 73.3.10. GRADE 103.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Describe and differentiate between the roles of natural selection and genetic drift.
• Describe changes that illustrate major events in the earth’s development based on a time line.
• Explain why natural selection can act only on inherited traits.
• Apply the concept of natural selection to illustrate and account for a species’ survival, extinction or change over time.
Ecosystem Standards are in the Environment and Ecology Standard Category (4.6).


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Recognize basic concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
• Describe properties of matter (e.g., hardness, reactions to simple chemical tests).
• Know that combining two or more substances can make new materials with different properties.
• Know different material characteristics (e.g., texture, state of matter, solubility).
A.Describe concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
• Identify elements as basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down chemically.
• Distinguish compounds from mixtures.
• Describe and conduct experiments that identify chemical and physical properties.
• Describe reactants and products of simple chemical reactions.
A.Explain concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
• Know that atoms are composed of even smaller sub-atomic structures whose properties are measurable.
• Explain the repeating pattern of chemical properties by using the repeating patterns of atomic structure within the periodic table.
• Predict the behavior of gases through the use of Boyle’s, Charles’ or the ideal gas law, in everyday situations.
• Describe phases of matter according to the Kinetic Molecular Theory.
• Explain the formation of compounds and their resulting properties using bonding theories (ionic and covalent).
A.Apply concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
• Apply rules of systematic nomenclature and formula writing to chemical substances.
• Classify and describe, in equation form, types of chemical and nuclear reactions.
• Explain how radioactive isotopes that are subject to decay can be used to estimate the age of materials.
• Explain how the forces that bind solids, liquids and gases affect their properties.
• Characterize and identify important classes of compounds (e.g., acids, bases, salts).


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Recognize formulas for simple inorganic compounds.
• Describe various types of chemical reactions by applying the laws of conservation of mass and energy.
• Apply knowledge of mixtures to appropriate separation techniques.
• Understand that carbon can form several types of compounds.
• Apply the conservation of energy concept to fields as diverse as mechanics, nuclear particles and studies of the origin of the universe.
• Apply the predictability of nuclear decay to estimate the age of materials that contain radioactive isotopes.
• Quantify the properties of matter (e.g., density, solubility coefficients) by applying mathematical formulas.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Know basic energy types, sources and conversions.
• Identify energy forms and examples (e.g., sunlight, heat, stored, motion).
• Know the concept of the flow of energy by measuring flow through an object or system.
• Describe static electricity in terms of attraction, repulsion and sparks.
• Apply knowledge of the basic electrical circuits to design and construction simple direct current circuits.
• Classify materials as conductors and nonconductors.
• Know and demonstrate the basic properties of heat by producing it in a variety of ways.
B.Relate energy sources and transfers to heat and temperature.
• Identify and describe sound changes in moving objects.
• Know that the sun is a major source of energy that emits wavelengths of visible light, infrared and ultraviolet radiation.
• Explain the conversion of one form of energy to another by applying knowledge of each form of energy.
• Explain the parts and functions in an electrical circuit.
B.Analyze energy sources and transfers of heat.
• Determine the efficiency of chemical systems by applying mathematical formulas.
• Use knowledge of chemical reactions to generate an electrical current.
• Evaluate energy changes in chemical reactions.
• Use knowledge of conservation of energy and momentum to explain common phenomena (e.g., refrigeration system, rocket propulsion).
• Explain resistance, current and electro-motive force (Ohm’s Law).
B.Apply and analyze energy sources and conversions and their relationship to heat and temperature.
• Determine the heat involved in illustrative chemical reactions.
• Evaluate mathematical formulas that calculate the efficiency of specific chemical and mechanical systems.
• Use knowledge of oxidation and reduction to balance complex reactions.
• Apply appropriate thermodynamic concepts (e.g., conservation, entropy) to solve problems relating to energy and heat.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Know the characteristics of light (e.g., reflection, refraction, absorption) and use them to produce heat, color or a virtual image.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .TrC.
Observe and describe different types of force and motion.
• Identify characteristics of sound (pitch, loudness and echoes).
• Recognize forces that attract or repel other objects and demonstrate them.
• Describe various types of motions.
• Compare the relative movement of objects and describe types of motion that are evident.
• Describe the position of an object by locating it relative to another object or the background (e.g., geographic direction, left, up).
C.Identify and explain the principles of force and motion.
• Describe the motion of an object based on its position, direction and speed.
• Classify fluid power systems according to fluid used or mode of power transmission (e.g., air, oil).
• Explain various motions using models.
• Explain how convex and concave mirrors and lens change light images.
• Explain how sound and light travel in waves of differing speeds, sizes and frequencies.
C.Distinguish among the principles of force and motion.
• Identify the relationship of electricity and magnetism as two aspects of a single electromagnetic force.
• Identify elements of simple machines in compound machines.
• Explain fluid power systems through the design and construction of appropriate models.
• Describe sound effects (e.g., Doppler effect, amplitude, frequency, reflection, refraction, absorption, sonar, seismic).
• Describe light effects (e.g., Doppler effect, dispersion, absorption, emission spectra, polarization, interference).
• Describe and measure the motion of sound, light and other objects.
C.Apply the principles of motion and force.
• Evaluate wave properties of frequency, wavelength and speed as applied to sound and light through different media.
• Propose and produce modifications to specific mechanical power systems that will improve their efficiency.
• Analyze the principles of translational motion, velocity and acceleration as they relate to free fall and projectile motion.
• Analyze the principles of rotational motion to solve problems relating to angular momentum, and torque.
• Interpret a model that illustrates circular motion and acceleration.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Know Newton’s laws of motion (including inertia, action and reaction) and gravity and apply them to solve problems related to forces and mass.
• Determine the efficiency of mechanical systems by applying mathematical formulas.
• Describe inertia, motion, equilibrium, and action/reaction concepts through words, models and mathematical symbols.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
D.Describe the composition and structure of the universe and the earth’s place in it.
• Recognize earth’s place in the solar system.
• Explain and illustrate the causes of seasonal changes.
• Identify planets in our solar system and their general characteristics.
• Describe the solar system motions and use them to explain time (e.g., days, seasons), major lunar phases and eclipses.
D.Describe essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe and the earth’s place in it.
• Compare various planets’ characteristics.
• Describe basic star types and identify the sun as a star type.
• Describe and differentiate comets, asteroids and meteors.
• Identify gravity as the force that keeps planets in orbit around the sun and governs the rest of the movement of the solar system and the universe.
• Illustrate how the position of stars and constellations change in relation to the Earth during an evening and from month to month.
• Identify equipment and instruments that explore the universe.
D.Explain essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe.
• Compare the basic structures of the universe (e.g., galaxy types, nova, black holes, neutron stars).
• Describe the structure and life cycle of star, using the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
• Describe the nuclear processes involved in energy production in a star.
• Explain the ‘‘red-shift’’ and Hubble’s use of it to determine stellar distance and movement.
• Compare absolute versus apparent star magnitude and their relation to stellar distance.
• Explain the impact of the Copernican and Newtonian thinking on man’s view of the universe.
D.Analyze the essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe.
• Analyze the Big Bang Theory’s use of gravitation and nuclear reaction to explain a possible origin of the universe.
• Compare the use of visual, radio and x-ray telescopes to collect data regarding the structure and evolution of the universe.
• Correlate the use of the special theory of relativity and the life of a star.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Identify the accomplishments and contributions provided by selected past and present scientists in the field of astronomy.
• Identify and articulate space program efforts to investigate possibilities of living in space and on other planets.
• Identify and analyze the findings of several space instruments in regard to the extent and composition of the solar system and universe.
Refer to Technology Standard Category 3.6 for applied uses of these concepts and principles.


3.5. Earth Sciences
3.5.4. GRADE 43.5.7. GRADE 73.5.10. GRADE 103.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Know basic landforms and earth history.
• Describe earth processes (e.g., rusting, weathering, erosion) that have affected selected physical features in students’ neighborhoods.
• Identify various earth structures (e.g., mountains, faults, drainage basins) through the use of models.
• Identify the composition of soil as weathered rock and decomposed organic remains.
• Describe fossils and the type of environment they lived in (e.g., tropical, aquatic, desert).
A.Describe earth features and processes.
• Describe major layers of the earth.
• Describe the processes involved in the creation of geologic features (e.g., folding, faulting, volcanism, sedimentation) and that these processes seen today (e.g., erosion, weathering crustal plate movement) are similar to those in the past.
• Describe the processes that formed Pennsylvania geologic structures and resources including mountains, glacial formations, water gaps and ridges.
• Explain how the rock cycle affected rock formations in the state of Pennsylvania.
A.Relate earth features and processes that change the earth.
• Illustrate and explain plate tectonics as the mechanism of continental movement and sea floor changes.
• Compare examples of change to the earth’s surface over time as they related to continental movement and ocean basin formation (e.g., Delaware, Susquehanna, Ohio Rivers system formations, dynamics).
• Interpret topographic maps to identify and describe significant geologic history/structures in Pennsylvania.
• Evaluate and interpret geologic history using geologic maps.
• Explain several methods of dating earth materials and structures.
A.Analyze and evaluate earth features and processes that change the earth.
• Apply knowledge of geophysical processes to explain the formation and degradation of earth structures (e.g., mineral deposition, cave formations, soil composition).
• Interpret geological evidence supporting evolution.
• Apply knowledge of radioactive decay to assess the age of various earth features and objects.


3.5. Earth Sciences
3.5.4. GRADE 43.5.7. GRADE 73.5.10. GRADE 103.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Distinguish between examples of rapid surface changes (e.g., landslides, earthquakes) and slow surface changes (e.g., weathering).
• Identify living plants and animals that are similar to fossil forms.
• Correlate rock units with general geologic time periods in the history of the earth.
• Describe and identify major types of rocks and minerals.


3.5. Earth Sciences
3.5.4. GRADE 43.5.7. GRADE 73.5.10. GRADE 103.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Know types and uses of earth materials.
• Identify uses of various earth materials (e.g., buildings, highways, fuels, growing plants).
• Identify and sort earth materials according to a classification key (e.g., soil/rock type).
B.Recognize earth resources and how they affect everyday life.
• Identify and locate significant earth resources (e.g., rock types, oil, gas, coal deposits) in Pennsylvania.
• Explain the processes involved in the formation of oil and coal in Pennsylvania.
• Explain the value and uses of different earth resources (e.g., selected minerals, ores, fuel sources, agricultural uses).
• Compare the locations of human settlements as related to available resources.
B.Explain sources and uses of earth resources.
• Compare the locations of strategic minerals and earth resources in the world with their geologic history using maps and global information systems.
• Demonstrate the effects of sedimentation and erosion before and after a conservation plan is implemented.
• Evaluate the impact of geologic activities/hazards (e.g., earthquakes, sinkholes, landslides).
• Evaluate land use (e.g., agricultural, recreational, residential, commercial) in Pennsylvania based upon soil characteristics.
B.Analyze the availability, location and extraction of earth resources.
• Describe how the location of earth’s major resources has affected a country’s strategic decisions.
• Compare locations of earth features and country boundaries.
• Analyze the impact of resources (e.g., coal deposits, rivers) on the life of Pennsylvania’s settlements and cities.
C.Know basic weather elements.
• Identify cloud types.
• Identify weather patterns from data charts (including temperature, wind direction and speed, precipitation) and graphs of the data.
• Explain how the different seasons effect plants, animals, food availability and daily human life.
C.Describe basic elements of meteorology.
• Explain weather forecasts by interpreting weather data and symbols.
• Explain the oceans’ impact on local weather and the climate of a region.
• Identify how cloud types, wind directions and barometric pressure changes are associated with weather patterns in different regions of the country.
• Explain and illustrate the processes of cloud formation and precipitation.
• Describe and illustrate the major layers of the earth’s atmosphere.
• Identify different air masses and global wind patterns and how they relate to the weather patterns in different regions of the U.S.
C.Interpret meteorological data.
• Analyze information from meteorological instruments and online sources to predict weather patterns.
• Describe weather and climate patterns on global levels.
• Evaluate specific adaptations plants and animals have made that enable them to survive in different climates.
C.Analyze atmospheric energy transfers.
• Describe how weather and climate involve the transfer of energy in and out of the atmosphere.
• Explain how unequal heating of the air, ocean and land produces wind and ocean currents.
• Analyze the energy transformations that occur during the greenhouse effect and predict the long-term effects of increased pollutant levels in the atmosphere.
• Analyze the mechanisms that drive a weather phenomena (e.g., El Nino, hurricane, tornado) using the correlation of three methods of heat energy transfer.
D.Recognize the earth’s different water resources.
• Know that approximately three-fourths of the earth is covered by water.
• Identify and describe types of fresh and saltwater bodies.
• Identify examples of water in the form of solid, liquid and gas on or near the surface of the earth.
• Explain and illustrate evaporation and condensation.
• Recognize other resources available from water (e.g., energy, transportation, minerals, food).
D.Explain the behavior and impact of the earth’s water systems.
• Explain the water cycle using the processes of evaporation and condensation.
• Describe factors that affect evaporation and condensation.
• Distinguish salt from fresh water (e.g., density, electrical conduction).
• Compare the effect of water type (e.g., polluted, fresh, salt water) and the life contained in them.
• Identify ocean and shoreline features (e.g., bays, inlets, spit, tidal marshes).
D.Assess the value of water as a resource.
• Compare specific sources of potable water (e.g., wells, public systems, rivers) used by people in Pennsylvania.
• Identify the components of a municipal/agricultural water supply system and a wastewater treatment system.
• Relate aquatic life to water conditions (e.g., turbidity, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen levels, pressure).
• Compare commercially important aquatic species in or near Pennsylvania.
• Identify economic resources found in marine areas.
• Assess the natural and man-made factors that affect the availability of clean water (e.g., rock and mineral deposits, man-made pollution).
D.Analyze the principles and history of hydrology.
• Analyze the operation and effectiveness of a water purification and desalination system.
• Evaluate the pros and cons of surface water appropriation for commercial and electrical use.
• Analyze the historical development of water use in Pennsylvania (e.g., recovery of Lake Erie).
• Compare the marine life and type of water found in the intertidal, neritic and bathyal zones.


3.5. Earth Sciences
3.5.4. GRADE 43.5.7. GRADE 73.5.10. GRADE 103.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
Refer to Environment and Ecology Standards Categories 4.1, 4.3, 4.8 for standards that deal with environmental impact of Earth structures and forces.


Pennsylvania Core Standards for Reading in
Science and Technology
Grades 6-12


INTRODUCTION

 These standards describe what students in the science classroom should know and be able to do with the English language in reading, grade 6 through 12. The standards provide the targets for instruction and student learning essential for success in all academic areas, not just language arts classrooms. Although the standards are not a curriculum or a prescribed series of activities, school entities will use them to develop a local school curriculum that will meet local students’ needs.

 The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K-5 reading in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K-5 Reading standards.

 The English Language Arts Standards for Science and Technical Subjects also provide parents and community members with information about what students should know and be able to do as they progress through the educational program and at graduation. With a clearly defined target provided by the standards, parents, students, educators and community members become partners in learning. Each standard implies an end of year goal—with the understanding that exceeding the standard is an even more desirable end goal.

3.5
Reading Informational Text
Students read, understand, and respond to informational text—with emphasis on comprehension, making connections among ideas and between texts with focus on textual evidence.
 GRADE 6-8  GRADE 9-10  GRADE 11-12
Key Ideas and Details  CC.3.5.6-8.A.
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.
CC.3.5.9-10.A.
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.
 CC.3.5.11-12.A.
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
 CC.3.5.6-8.B.
Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
CC.3.5.9-10.B.
Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.
 CC.3.5.11-12.B.
Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.
 CC.3.5.6-8.C.
Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.
CC.3.5.9-10.C.
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.
 CC.3.5.11-12.C.
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.
Craft and Structure  CC.3.5.6-8.D.
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.
CC.3.5.9-10.D.
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
 CC.3.5.11-12.D.
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
 CC.3.5.6-8.E.
Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic.
CC.3.5.9-10.E.
Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
 CC.3.5.11-12.E.
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
 CC.3.5.6-8.F.
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text.
CC.3.5.9-10.F.
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.
 CC.3.5.11-12.F.
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas  CC.3.5.6-8.G.
Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
CC.3.5.9-10.G.
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
 CC.3.5.11-12.G.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
 CC.3.5.6-8.H.
Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation
in a text.
CC.3.5.9-10.H.
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific
or technical problem.
 CC.3.5.11-12.H.
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
 CC.3.5.6-8.I.
Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
CC.3.5.9-10.I.
Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
 CC.3.5.11-12.I.
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
Range and Level of
Complex Texts
 CC.3.5.6-8.J.
By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
CC.3.5.9-10.J.
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
 CC.3.5.11-12.J.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-12 text complexity band independently and proficiently.


3.6. Technology Education
3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Know that biotechnologies relate to propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.
• Identify agricultural and industrial production processes that involve plants and animals.
• Identify waste management treatment processes.
• Describe how knowledge of the human body influences or impacts ergonomic design.
• Describe how biotechnology has impacted various aspects of daily life (e.g., health care, agriculture, waste treatment).
A.Explain biotechnologies that relate to related technologies of propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.
• Identify the environmental, societal and economic impacts that waste has in the environment.
• Identify and explain the impact that a specific medical advancement has had on society.
• Explain the factors that were taken into consideration when a specific object was designed.
• Define and describe how fuels and energy can be generated through the process of biomass conversion.
• Identify and group basic plant and animal production processes.
A.Apply biotechnologies that relate to propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.
• Apply knowledge of plant and animal production processes in designing an improvement to existing processes.
• Apply knowledge of biomedical technology applications in designing a solution to a simple medical problem (e.g., wheel chair design, artificial arteries).
• Apply knowledge of how biomedical technology affects waste products in designing a solution that will result in reduced waste.
• Apply ergonomic engineering factors when devising a solution to a specific problem.
• Describe various methods of biochemical conversion.
A.Analyze biotechnologies that relate to propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.
• Analyze and solve a complex production process problem using biotechnologies (e.g., hydroponics, fish farming, crop propagation).
• Analyze specific examples where engineering has impacted society in protection, personal health application or physical enhancement.
• Appraise and evaluate the cause and effect and subsequent environmental, economic and societal impacts that result from biomass and biochemical conversion.


3.6. Technology Education
3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Explain the impact that agricultural science has had on biotechnology.
• Describe specific examples that reflect the impact that agricultural science has had on biotechnology.
• Evaluate and apply biotechnical processes to complex plant and animal production methods.
• Apply knowledge of biochemical-related technologies to propose alternatives to hazardous waste treatment.
• Apply knowledge of agricultural science to solve or improve a biochemical related problem.


3.6. Technology Education
3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Know that information technologies involve encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.
• Identify electronic communication methods that exist in the community (e.g., digital cameras, telephone, internet, television, fiber optics).
• Identify graphic reproduction methods.
• Describe appropriate image generating techniques (e.g., photography, video).
• Demonstrate the ability to communicate an idea by applying basic sketching and drawing techniques.
B.Explain information technologies of encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.
• Demonstrate the effectiveness of image generating technique to communicate a story (e.g., photography, video).
• Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of a graphic object designed and produced to communicate a thought or concept.
• Apply basic technical drawing techniques to communicate an idea or solution to a problem.
• Apply the appropriate method of communications technology to communicate a thought.
B.Apply knowledge of information technologies of encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.
• Describe the proper use of graphic and electronic communication systems.
• Apply a variety of advanced mechanical and electronic drafting methods to communicate a solution to a specific problem.
• Apply and analyze advanced communication techniques to produce an image that effectively conveys a message (e.g., desktop publishing, audio and/or video production).
• Illustrate an understanding of a computer network system by modeling, constructing or assembling its components.
B.Analyze knowledge of information technologies of processes encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.
• Apply and analyze advanced information techniques to produce a complex image that effectively conveys a message (e.g., desktop publishing, audio and/or video production).
• Analyze and evaluate a message designed and produced using still, motion and animated communication techniques.
• Describe the operation of fiber optic, microwave and satellite informational systems.
• Apply various graphic and electronic information techniques to solve real world problems (e.g., data organization and analysis, forecasting, interpolation).


3.6. Technology Education
3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
C.Know physical technologies of structural design, analysis and engineering, finance, production, marketing, research and design.
• Identify and group a variety of construction tasks.
• Identify the major construction systems present in a specific local building.
• Identify specific construction systems that depend on each other in order to complete a project.
• Know skills used in construction.
• Identify examples of manufactured goods present in the home and school.
• Identify basic resources needed to produce a manufactured item.
• Identify basic component operations in a specific manufacturing enterprise (e.g., cutting, shaping, attaching).
C.Explain physical technologies of structural design, analysis and engineering, personnel relations, financial affairs, structural production, marketing, research and design.
• Use knowledge of material effectiveness to solve specific construction problems (e.g., steel vs. wood bridges).
• Differentiate among the different types of construction applications (e.g., microwave tower, power plants, aircrafts).
• Explain basic material processes that manufactured objects undergo during production (e.g., separating, forming, combining).
• Evaluate a construction activity by specifying task analyses and necessary resources.
C.Apply physical technologies to structural design, analysis and engineering, personnel relations, financial affairs, structural production, marketing, research and design to real world problems.
• Describe and classify common construction by their characteristics and composition.
• Compare and contrast specific construction systems that depend on each other in order to complete a project.
• Evaluate material failure common to specific applications.
• Demonstrate knowledge of various construction systems by building or interpreting models.
• Select and apply the necessary resources to successfully conduct a manufacturing enterprise.
C.Analyze physical technologies of structural design, analysis and engineering, personnel relations, financial affairs, structural production, marketing, research and design to real world problems.
• Apply knowledge of construction technology by designing, planning and applying all the necessary resources to successfully solve a construction problem.
• Compare resource options in solving a specific manufacturing problem.
• Analyze and apply complex skills needed to process materials in complex manufacturing enterprises.
• Apply advanced information collection and communication techniques to successfully convey solutions to specific construction problems.


3.6. Technology Education
 3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
 Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge  and skills needed to. . .
 • Identify waste and pollution resulting from a manufacturing enterprise.
• Explain and demonstrate the concept of manufacturing (e.g., assemble a set of papers or ball point pens sequentially, mass produce an object).
• Identify transportation technologies of propelling, structuring, suspending, guiding, controlling and supporting.
• Identify and experiment with simple machines used in transportation systems.
• Explain how improved transportation systems have changed society.
• Explain the relationships among
the basic resources needed in the production process for a specific manufactured object.
• Explain the difference between design engineering and production engineering processes.
• Analyze manufacturing steps that affect waste and pollutants.
• Explain transportation technologies of propelling, structuring, suspending, guiding, controlling and supporting.
• Identify and explain the workings of several mechanical power systems.
• Model and explain examples of vehicular propulsion, control, guidance, structure and suspension systems.
• Explain the limitations of land, marine, air and space transportation systems.
 • Apply concepts of design engineering and production engineering in the organization and application of a manufacturing activity.
• Apply the concepts of manufacturing by redesigning an enterprise to improve productivity or reduce or eliminate waste and/or pollution.
• Evaluate the interrelationship of various transportation systems in the community.
• Analyze the impacts that transportation systems have on a community.
• Assess the importance of capital on specific construction applications.
• Analyze the positive and negative qualities of several different types of materials as they would relate to specific construction applications.
• Analyze transportation technologies of propelling, structuring, suspending, guiding, controlling and supporting.
• Analyze the concepts of vehicular propulsion, guidance, control, suspension and structural systems while designing and producing specific complex transportation systems.

Pennsylvania Core Standards for Writing in
Science and Technology
Grades 6-12


INTRODUCTION

 These standards describe what students in the social studies classroom should know and be able to do with the English language in writing, grade 6 through 12. The standards provide the targets for instruction and student learning essential for success in all academic areas, not just language arts classrooms. Although the standards are not a curriculum or a prescribed series of activities, school entities will use them to develop a local school curriculum that will meet local students’ needs.

 The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K-5 reading in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K-5 Writing standards.

 The English Language Arts Standards for History and Social Studies also provide parents and community members with information about what students should know and be able to do as they progress through the educational program and at graduation. With a clearly defined target provided by the standards, parents, students, educators and community members become partners in learning. Each standard implies an end of year goal—with the understanding that exceeding the standard is an even more desirable end goal.

3.6 Writing
Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and
appropriate content.
 GRADES 6-8  GRADES 9-10  GRADES 11-12
Text Types and Purposes  CC.3.6.6-8.A.
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
• Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
• Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
• Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
• Establish and maintain a formal style.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
 CC.3.6.9-10.A.
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
• Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
• Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge
level and concerns.
• Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion,
and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
 CC.3.6.11-12.A.
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
• Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
• Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
• Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
 CC.3.6.6-8.B. *
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
• Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
• Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
• Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
 CC.3.6.9-10.B. *
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
• Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful
to aiding comprehension.
• Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
• Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
 CC.3.6.11-12.B. *
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
• Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
• Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
• Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
• Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance
in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
Production and Distribution of Writing  CC.3.6.6-8.C.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.3.6.9-10.C.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.3.6.11-12.C.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.3.6.6-8.D.
With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
 CC.3.6.9-10.D.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
 CC.3.6.11-12.D.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
 CC.3.6.6-8.E.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
 CC.3.6.9-10.E.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
 CC.3.6.11-12.E.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  CC.3.6.6-8.F.
Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
 CC.3.6.9-10.F.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve
a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry
when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding
of the subject under investigation.
 CC.3.6.11-12.F.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
 CC.3.6.6-8.G.
Gather relevant information from multiple
print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
 CC.3.6.9-10.G.
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into
the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
 CC.3.6.11-12.G.
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
 CC.3.6.6-8.H.
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
 CC.3.6.9-10.H.
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
 CC.3.6.11-12.H.
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Range of Writing  CC.3.6.6-8.J.I.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CC.3.6.9-10.I.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
 CC.3.6.11-12.I.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 * Students’ narrative skills continue to grow in these grades. The Standards require that students be able to incorporate narrative elements effectively into arguments and informative/explanatory texts. In history/social studies, students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of individuals or events of historical import. In science and technical subjects, students must be able to write precise enough descriptions of the step-by-step procedures they use in their investigations or technical work that others can replicate them and (possibly) reach the same results.

3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Explore the use of basic tools, simple materials and techniques to safely solve problems.
• Describe the scientific principles on which various tools are based.
• Group tools and machines by their function.
• Select and safely apply appropriate tools and materials to solve simple problems.
A.Describe the safe and appropriate use of tools, materials and techniques to answer questions and solve problems.
• Identify uses of tools, machines, materials, information, people, money, energy and time that meet specific design criteria.
• Describe safe procedures for using tools and materials.
• Assess materials for appropriateness of use.
A.Identify and safely use a variety of tools, basic machines, materials and techniques to solve problems and answer questions.
• Select and safely apply appropriate tools, materials and processes necessary to solve complex problems.
• Apply advanced tool and equipment manipulation techniques to solve problems.
A.Apply advanced tools, materials and techniques to answer complex questions.
• Demonstrate the safe use of complex tools and machines within their specifications.
• Select and safely apply appropriate tools, materials and processes necessary to solve complex problems that could result in more than one solution.
• Evaluate and use technological resources to solve complex multi-step problems.


3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Select appropriate instruments to study materials.
• Develop simple skills to measure, record, cut and fasten.
• Explain appropriate instrument selection for specific tasks.
B.Use appropriate instruments and apparatus to study materials.
• Select appropriate instruments to measure the size, weight, shape and temperature of living and non-living objects.
• Apply knowledge of different measurement systems to measure and record objects’ properties.
B.Apply appropriate instruments and apparatus to examine a variety of objects and processes.
• Describe and use appropriate instruments to gather and analyze data.
• Compare and contrast different scientific measurement systems; select the best measurement system for a specific situation.
• Explain the need to estimate measurements within error of various instruments.
• Apply accurate measurement knowledge to solve everyday problems.
• Describe and demonstrate the operation and use of advanced instrumentation in evaluating material and chemical properties (e.g., scanning electron microscope, nuclear magnetic resonance machines).
B.Evaluate appropriate instruments and apparatus to accurately measure materials and processes.
• Apply and evaluate the use of appropriate instruments to accurately measure scientific and technologic phenomena within the error limits of the equipment.
• Evaluate the appropriate use of different measurement scales (macro and micro).
• Evaluate the utility and advantages of a variety of absolute and relative measurement scales for their appropriate application.


3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
Computer literacy, including the use of hardware and software in standard statements C, D, and E, should be integrated across all content areas.
C.Identify basic computer operations and concepts.
• Identify the major parts necessary for a computer to input and output data.
• Explain and demonstrate the basic use of input and output devices (e.g., keyboard, monitor, printer, mouse).
• Explain and demonstrate the use of external and internal storage devices (e.g., disk drive, CD drive).
C.Explain and demonstrate basic computer operations and concepts.
• Know specialized computer applications used in the community.
• Describe the function of advanced input and output devices (e.g., scanners, video images, plotters, projectors) and demonstrate their use.
• Demonstrate age appropriate keyboarding skills and techniques.
C.Apply basic computer operations and concepts.
• Identify solutions to basic hardware and software problems.
• Apply knowledge of advanced input devices.
• Apply knowledge of hardware setup.
• Describe the process for basic software installation and demonstrate it.
• Analyze and solve basic operating systems problems.
• Apply touch keyboarding skills and techniques at expectable speed and accuracy.
• Demonstrate the ability to perform basic software installation.
C.Evaluate computer operations and concepts as to their effectiveness to solve specific problems.
• Describe and demonstrate atypical software installation.
• Analyze and solve hardware and advanced software problems.
• Assess and apply multiple input and output devices to solve specific problems.


3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
D.Use basic computer software.
• Apply operating system skills to perform basic computer tasks.
• Apply basic word processing skills.
• Identify and use simple graphic and presentation graphic materials generated by the computer.
• Apply specific instructional software.
D.Apply computer software to solve specific problems.
• Identify software designed to meet specific needs (e.g., Computer Aided Drafting, design software, tutorial, financial, presentation software).
• Identify and solve basic software problems relevant to specific software applications.
• Identify basic multimedia applications.
• Demonstrate a basic knowledge of desktop publishing applications.
• Apply intermediate skills in utilizing word processing, database and spreadsheet software.
• Apply basic graphic manipulation techniques.
D.Utilize computer software to solve specific problems.
• Identify legal restrictions in the use of software and the output of data.
• Apply advanced graphic manipulation and desktop publishing techniques.
• Apply basic multi-
media applications.
• Apply advanced word processing, database and spreadsheet skills.
• Describe and demonstrate how two or more software applications can be used to produce an output.
• Select and apply software designed to meet specific needs.
D.Evaluate the effectiveness of computer software to solve specific problems.
• Evaluate the effectiveness of software to produce an output and demonstrate the process.
• Design and apply advanced multimedia techniques.
• Analyze, select and apply the appropriate software to solve complex problems.
• Evaluate the effectiveness of the computer as a presentation tool.
• Analyze the legal responsibilities of computer users.


3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
E.Identify basic computer communications systems.
• Apply a web browser.
• Apply basic electronic mail functions.
• Use on-line searches to answer age appropriate questions.
E.Explain basic computer communications systems.
• Describe the organization and functions of the basic parts that make up the World Wide Web.
• Apply advanced electronic mail functions.
• Apply basic on-line research techniques to solve a specific problem.
E.Apply basic computer communications systems.
• Identify and explain various types of on-line services.
• Identify and explain the function of the parts of a basic network.
• Describe and apply the components of a web page and their function.
• Explain and demonstrate file transfer within and out side of a computer network.
• Identify, describe and complete advanced on-line research.
E.Assess the effectiveness of computer communications systems.
• Assess the effectiveness of a computer based communications system.
• Transfer files among different computer platforms.
• Analyze the effectiveness of on-line information resources to meet the needs for collaboration, research, publications, communications and productivity.
• Apply knowledge of protocol standards to solve connectivity problems.


3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
3.8.4. GRADE 43.8.7. GRADE 73.8.10. GRADE 103.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Know that people select, create and use science and technology and that they are limited by social and physical restraints.
• Identify and describe positive and negative impacts that influence or result from new tools and techniques.
• Identify how physical technology (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational technology and biotechnology are used to meet human needs.
• Describe how scientific discoveries and technological advancements are related.
• Identify interrelationships among technology, people and their world.
• Apply the technological design process to solve a simple problem.
A.Explain how sciences and technologies are limited in their effects and influences on society.
• Identify and describe the unavoidable constraints of technological design.
• Identify changes in society as a result of a technological development.
• Identify and explain improvements in transportation, health, sanitation and communications as a result of advancements in science and technology and how they effect our lives.
A.Analyze the relationship between societal demands and scientific and technological enterprises.
• Identify past and current tradeoffs between increased production, environmental harm and social values (e.g., increased energy needs, power plants, automobiles).
• Compare technologies that are applied and accepted differently in various cultures (e.g., factory farming, nuclear power).
• Describe and evaluate social change as a result of technological developments.
• Assess the social impacts of a specific international environmental problem by designing a solution that applies the appropriate technologies and resources.
A.Synthesize and evaluate the interactions and constraints of science and technology on society.
• Compare and contrast how scientific and technological knowledge is both shared and protected.
• Evaluate technological developments that have changed the way humans do work and discuss their impacts (e.g., genetically engineered crops).
• Evaluate socially proposed limitations of scientific research and technological application.


3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
3.8.4. GRADE 43.8.7. GRADE 73.8.10. GRADE 103.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Know how human ingenuity and technological resources satisfy specific human needs and improve the quality of life.
• Identify and distinguish between human needs and improving the quality of life.
• Identify and distinguish between natural and human-made resources.
• Describe a technological invention and the resources that were used to develop it.
B.Explain how human ingenuity and technological resources satisfy specific human needs and improve the quality of life.
• Identify interrelationships between systems and resources.
• Identify and describe the resources necessary to solve a selected problem in a community and improve the quality of life.
• Identify and explain specific examples of how agricultural science has met human needs and has improved the quality of life.
B.Analyze how human ingenuity and technological resources satisfy specific human needs and improve the quality of life.
• Identify several problems and opportunities that exist in your community, apply various problem-solving methods to design and evaluate possible solutions.
• Analyze a recently invented item, describing the human need that prompted its invention and the current and potential social impacts of the specific invention.
• Apply knowledge of oceanography, meteorology, geology and human anatomy to explain important considerations that need to be made for construction of homes, buildings and businesses in the United States.
B.Apply the use of ingenuity and technological resources to solve specific societal needs and improve the quality of life.
• Apply appropriate tools, materials and processes to solve complex problems.
• Use knowledge of human abilities to design or modify technologies that extend and enhance human abilities.
• Apply appropriate tools, materials and processes to physical, informational or biotechnological systems to identify and recommend solutions to international problems.
• Apply knowledge of agricultural science to develop a solution that will improve on a human need or want.


3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
3.8.4. GRADE 43.8.7. GRADE 73.8.10. GRADE 103.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Assess the impacts that agricultural science has had on meeting human needs and improving the qualify of life.


3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
3.8.4. GRADE 43.8.7. GRADE 73.8.10. GRADE 103.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
C.Know the pros and cons of possible solutions to scientific and technological problems in society.
• Compare the positive and negative expected and unexpected impacts of technological change.
• Identify and discuss examples of technological change in the community that have both positive and negative impacts.
C.Identify the pros and cons of applying technological and scientific solutions to address problems and the effect upon society.
• Describe the positive and negative expected and unexpected effects of specific technological developments.
• Describe ways technology extends and enhances human abilities.
C.Evaluate possibilities, consequences and impacts of scientific and technological solutions.
• Relate scientific and technological advancements in terms of cause and effect.
• Describe and evaluate the impacts that financial considerations have had on specific scientific and technological applications.
• Compare and contrast potential solutions to technological, social, economic and environmental problems.
• Analyze the impacts on society of accepting or rejecting scientific and technological advances.
C.Evaluate the consequences and impacts of scientific and technological solutions.
• Propose solutions to specific scientific and technological applications, identifying possible financial considerations.
• Analyze scientific and technological solutions through the use of risk/benefit analysis.
• Analyze and communicate the positive or negative impacts that a recent technological invention had on society.
• Evaluate and describe potential impacts from emerging technologies and the consequences of not keeping abreast of technological advancements (e.g., assessment alternatives, risks, benefits, costs, economic impacts, constraints).

IX. GLOSSARY

Allele: Any of a set of possible forms of a gene.
Biochemical conversion: The changing of organic matter into other chemical forms.
Biomass conversion: The changing of organic matter that has been produced by photosynthesis into useful liquid, gas or fuel.
Biomedical technology: The application of health care theories to develop methods, products and tools to maintain or improve homeostasis.
Biomes: A community of living organisms of a single major ecological region.
Biotechnology: The ways that humans apply biological concepts to produce products and provide services.
Carbon chemistry: The science of the composition, structure, properties and reactions of carbon based matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems; sometimes referred to as organic chemistry.
Construction technology: The ways that humans build structures on sites.
Desalinization: To remove salts and other chemicals from sea or saline water.
Dichotomous: Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
Electronic communication: System for the transmission of information using electronic technology (e.g., digital cameras, cellular telephones, Internet, television, fiber optics).
Embryology: The branch of biology dealing with the development of living things from fertilized egg to its developed state.
Engineering: The application of scientific, physical, mechanical and mathematical principles to design processes, products and structures that improve the quality of life.
Enzyme: A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction; an organic catalyst.
Ergonomical: Of or relating to the design of equipment or devices to fit the human body’s control, position, movement and environment.
Evolution: A process of change that explains why what we see today is different from what existed in the past; it includes changes in the galaxies, stars, solar system, earth and life on earth. Biological evolution is a change in hereditary characteristics of groups of organisms over the course of generations.
Fact: Information that has been objectively verified.
Geologic hazard: A naturally occurring or man-made condition or phenomenon that presents a risk or is a potential danger to life and property (e.g., landslides, floods, earthquakes, ground subsidence, coastal and beach erosion, faulting, dam leakage and failure, mining disasters, pollution and waste disposal, sinkholes).
Geologic map: A representation of a region on which is recorded earth information (e.g., the distribution, nature and age relationships of rock units and the occurrences of structural features, mineral deposits and fossil localities).
Hydrology: The scientific study of the properties, distribution and effects of water on the earth’s surface, in the soil and underlying rocks and in the atmosphere.
Hypothesis: An assertion subject to verification or proof as a premise from which a conclusion is drawn.
Information technology: The technical means that humans create to store and transmit information.
Inquiry: A systematic process for using knowledge and skills to acquire and apply new knowledge.
Instructional technology: Any mechanical aid (including computer technology) used to assist in or enhance the process of teaching and learning.
Law: Summarizing statement of observed experimental facts that has been tested many times and is generally accepted as true.
Manufacturing technology: The ways that humans produce goods and products.
Mitosis: The sequential differentiation and segregation of replicated chromosomes in a cell’s nucleus that precedes complete cell division.
Model: A description, analogy or a representation of something that helps us understand it better (e.g., a physical model, a conceptual model, a mathematical model).
Nova: A variable star that suddenly increases in brightness to several times its normal magnitude and returns to its original appearance in a few weeks to several months or years.
Patterns: Repeated processes that are exhibited in a wide variety of ways; identifiable recurrences of the element and/or the form.
Physical technology: The ways that humans construct, manufacture and transport products.
Radioactive isotope: An atom that gives off nuclear radiation and has the same number of protons (atomic number) as another atom but a different number of neutrons.
Relationship between
science and technology:
Science builds principles or theories while technology is the practical application of those principles or theories.
Scale: Relates concepts and ideas to one another by some measurement (e.g., quantitative, numeral, abstract, ideological); provides a measure of size and/or incremental change.
Science: Search for understanding the natural world using inquiry and experimentation.
System: A group of related objects that work together to achieve a desired result.
 Open Loop
system:
A group of related objects that do not have feedback and cannot modify themselves.
 Closed Loop system: A group of related objects that have feedback and can modify themselves.
 Subsystem: A group of related objects that make up a larger system (e.g., automobiles have electrical systems, fuel systems).
Technology education: The application of tools, materials, processes and systems to solve problems and extend human capabilities.
Technological design process: Recognizing the problem, proposing a solution, implementing the solution, evaluating the solution and communicating the problem, design and solution.
Theory: Systematically organized knowledge applicable in a relatively wide variety of circumstances; especially, a system of assumptions, accepted principles and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena.
Theory of evolution: A theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modification in successive generations.
Topographic map: A representation of a region on a sufficient scale to show detail, selected man-made and natural features of a portion of the land surface including its relief and certain physical and cultural features; the portrayal of the position, relation, size, shape and elevation of the area.
Transportation systems: A group of related parts that function together to perform a major task in any form of transportation.
Transportation technology: The physical ways humans move materials, goods and people.
Tool: Any device used to extend human capability including computer-based tools.





Academic Standards for Environment and Ecology



X. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction…XI.
THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS
Watersheds and Wetlands …4.1.
 A. Cycles
 B. Role of Watersheds
 C. Physical Factors
 D. Characteristics and Functions of
  Wetlands
 E. Impacts of Watersheds and Wetlands
Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources …4.2.
 A. Uses
 B. Availability
 C. Management
 D. Influential Factors
Environmental Health …4.3.
 A. Environmental Health Issues
 B. Human Actions
 C. Biological Diversity
Agriculture and Society …4.4.
 A. Society’s Needs
 B. Agricultural Science
 C. Agricultural Systems
 D. Technology
Integrated Pest Management …4.5.
 A. Effects, Benefits and Impacts
 B. Health Risks
 C. Management Practices
Ecosystems and their Interactions …4.6.
  A. Living and Nonliving Components
  B. Cycles
  C. Change over Time
Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species…4.7.
 A. Diversity
 B. Adaptation
 C. Management Strategies
Humans and the Environment…4.8.
 A. Societal Needs
 B. Sustainability
 C. Human Impacts
 D. Supply and Demand
Environmental Laws and Regulations…4.9.
 A. Environmental Laws and their Impact
Glossary…XII.



XI. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Environment and Ecology standards that describe what students should know and be able to do in these areas:

 • 4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands

 • 4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources

 • 4.3. Environmental Health

 • 4.4. Agriculture and Society

 • 4.5. Integrated Pest Management

 • 4.6. Ecosystems and their Interactions

 • 4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species

 • 4.8. Humans and the Environment

 • 4.9. Environmental Laws and Regulations

 The Declaration of Rights, Article l of the Pennsylvania Constitution states in Section 27: ‘‘The people have a right to clean air, pure water, and to the preservation of the natural, scenic, historic and aesthetic values of the environment. Pennsylvania’s public natural resources are the common property of all people, including generations yet to come. As trustee of these resources, the Commonwealth shall conserve and maintain them for the benefit of all the people.’’ To this end it is our responsibility to develop a citizenry that is aware of and concerned about the total environment and has the knowledge and skills to work toward solutions to current problems and the prevention of new ones.

 Environment and Ecology is grounded in the complexity of the world we live in and our impact on its sustainability. The human interactions with the ecosystem and the results of human decisions are the main components of this academic area. Environment and Ecology examines the world with respect to the economic, cultural, political and social structure as well as natural processes and systems. This integration across systems is what sets this academic area apart from all others.

 Environment and Ecology places its main emphasis in the real world. It allows students to understand, through a sound academic content base, how their everyday lives evolve around their use of the natural world and the resources it provides. As we move into a more technologically driven society, it is crucial for every student to be aware of his/her dependence on a healthy environment. The 2lst century will demand a more sophisticated citizen capable of making sound decisions that will impact our natural systems forever.

 These standards establish the essential elements of what students should know and be able to do at the end of grades four, seven, ten and twelve. The sequential nature of this document reflects the need for rigorous academic content that students will be expected to achieve. The standards will help students understand decision-making processes, the art of compromise and problem solving skills. The document reinforces all areas across the grade levels with increasing degrees of difficulty as the students mature intellectually.

 Environment and Ecology is a very engaging academic area that captivates students’ innate interests in their surroundings of the natural and built environment. The skills and knowledge that are addressed in this area of study will serve as tools for student participation in a democratic world of constantly evolving issues and concerns. As they achieve these standards, students will become aware of the role they play in the community in reaching decisions related to the environment.

 The study of Environment and Ecology will allow students to be active participants and problem solvers in real issues that affect them, their homes, schools and communities.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands
4.1.4. GRADE 44.1.7. GRADE 74.1.10. GRADE 104.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Identify various types of water environments.
• Identify the lotic system (e.g., creeks, rivers, streams).
• Identify the lentic system (e.g., ponds, lakes, swamps).
A.Explain the role of the water cycle within a watershed.
• Explain the water cycle.
• Explain the water cycle as it relates to a watershed.
A.Describe changes that occur from a stream’s origin to its final outflow.
• Identify Pennsylvania’s major watersheds and their related river systems.
• Describe changes by tracing a specific river’s origin back to its headwaters including its major tributaries.
A.Categorize stream order in a watershed.
• Explain the concept of stream order.
• Identify the order of watercourses within a major river’s watershed.
• Compare and contrast the physical differences found in the stream continuum from headwater to mouth.


4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands
4.1.4. GRADE 44.1.7. GRADE 74.1.10. GRADE 104.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Explain the differences between moving and still water.
• Explain why water moves or does not move.
• Identify types of precipitation.
B.Understand the role of the watershed.
• Identify and explain what determines the boundaries of a watershed.
• Explain how water enters a watershed.
• Explain factors that affect water quality and flow through a watershed.
B.Explain the relationship among landforms, vegetation and the amount and speed of water.
• Analyze a stream’s physical characteristics.
• Describe how topography influences streams.
• Explain the influence of mountains on precipitation.
• Explain how vegetation affects storm water runoff.
• Delineate the boundaries of a watershed.
• Describe factors that affect the quality of groundwater.
• Explain how the speed of water and vegetation cover relates to erosion.
B.Explain the relationships that exist within watersheds in the United States.
• Understand that various ecosystems may be contained in a watershed.
• Examine and describe the ecosystems contained within a specific watershed.
• Identify and describe the major watersheds in the United States.


4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands
4.1.4. GRADE 44.1.7. GRADE 74.1.10. GRADE 104.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Identify living things found in water environments.
• Identify fish, insects and amphibians that are found in fresh water.
• Identify plants found in fresh water.
C.Explain the effects of water on the life of organisms in a watershed.
• Explain how water is necessary for all life.
• Explain how the physical components of aquatic systems influence the organisms that live there in terms of size, shape and physical adaptations.
• Describe the life cycle of organisms that depend on water.
• Identify organisms that have aquatic stages of life and describe those stages.
C.Describe the physical characteristics of a stream and determine the types of organisms found in aquatic environments.
• Describe and explain the physical factors that affect a stream and the organisms living there.
• Identify terrestrial and aquatic organisms that live in a watershed.
• Categorize aquatic organisms found in a watershed continuum from headwater to mouth (e.g., shredder, predator, decomposer).
• Identify the types of organisms that would live in a stream based on the stream’s physical characteristics.
• Explain the habitat needs of specific aquatic organisms.
C.Analyze the parameters of a watershed.
• Interpret physical, chemical and biological data as a means of assessing the environmental quality of a watershed.
• Apply appropriate techniques in the analysis of a watershed (e.g., water quality, biological diversity, erosion, sedimentation).


4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands
4.1.4. GRADE 44.1.7. GRADE 74.1.10. GRADE 104.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
D.Identify a wetland and the plants and animals found there.
• Identify different kinds of wetlands.
• Identify plants and animals found in wetlands.
• Explain wetlands as habitats for plants and animals.
D.Explain and describe characteristics of a wetland.
• Identify specific characteristics of wetland plants and soils.
• Recognize the common types of plants and animals.
• Describe different types of wetlands.
• Describe the different functions of a wetland.
D.Describe the multiple functions of wetlands.
• Describe wetlands in terms of their effects (e.g., habitat, flood, buffer zones, prevention areas, nurseries, food production areas).
• Explain how a wetland influences water quality, wildlife and water retention.
• Analyze wetlands through their indicators (e.g., soils, plants, hydrology).
D.Analyze the complex and diverse ecosystems of wetlands.
• Explain the functions of habitat, nutrient production, migration stopover and groundwater recharge as it relates to wetlands.
• Explain the dynamics of a wetland ecosystem.
• Describe and analyze different types of wetlands.
E.Recognize the impact of watersheds and wetlands on animals and plants.
• Explain the role of watersheds in everyday life.
• Identify the role of watersheds and wetlands for plants and animals.
E.Describe the impact of watersheds and wetlands on people.
• Explain the impact of watersheds and wetlands in flood control, wildlife habitats and pollution abatement.
• Explain the influence of flooding on wetlands.
E.Identify and describe natural and human events on watersheds and wetlands.
• Describe how natural events affect a watershed (e.g., drought, floods).
• Identify the effects of humans and human events on watersheds.
E.Evaluate the trade-offs, costs and benefits of conserving watersheds and wetlands.
• Evaluate the effects of natural events on watersheds and wetlands.
• Evaluate the effects of human activities on watersheds and wetlands.


4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
4.2.4. GRADE 44.2.7. GRADE 74.2.10. GRADE 104.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Identify needs of people.
• Identify plants, animals, water, air, minerals and fossil fuels as natural resources.
• Explain air, water and nutrient cycles.
• Identify how the environment provides for the needs of people.
A.Know that raw materials come from natural resources.
• Identify resources used to provide humans with energy, food, housing and water.
• Explain how plants and animals may be classified as natural resources.
• Compare means of growing or acquiring food.
• Identify fiber and other raw materials used in clothing and shelter production.
• Identify types of minerals and fossil fuels used by humans.
A.Explain that renewable and nonrenewable resources supply energy and materials.
• Identify alternative sources of energy.
• Identify and compare fuels used in industrial and agricultural societies.
• Compare and contrast the cycles of various natural resources.
• Explain food and fiber as renewable resources.
A.Analyze the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
• Explain the effects on the environment and sustainability through the use of nonrenewable resources.
• Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of reusing our natural resources.


4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
4.2.4. GRADE 44.2.7. GRADE 74.2.10. GRADE 104.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Identify products derived from natural resources.
• Identify products made from trees.
• Identify by-products of plants and animals.
• Identify the sources of manmade products (e.g., plastics, metal, aluminum, fabrics, paper, cardboard).
B.Examine the renewability of the resources.
• Identify renewable resources and describe their uses.
• Identify nonrenewable resources and describe their uses.
• Compare finished products to their original raw material.
• Identify the waste derived from the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
• Determine how consumption may impact the availability of resources.
• Compare the time spans of renewability for fossil fuels and alternative fuels.
B.Evaluate factors affecting availability of natural resources.
• Describe natural occurrences that may affect the natural resources.
• Analyze technologies that affect the use of our natural resources.
• Evaluate the effect of consumer desires on various natural resources.
B.Analyze factors affecting the availability of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
• Evaluate the use of natural resources and offer approaches for using them while diminishing waste.
• Compare the economics of different areas based on the availability and accessibility of the natural resources.


4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
4.2.4. GRADE 44.2.7. GRADE 74.2.10. GRADE 104.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Know that some natural resources have limited life spans.
• Identify renewable and nonrenewable resources used in the local community.
• Identify various means of conserving natural resources.
• Know that natural resources have varying life spans.
C.Explain natural resource distribution.
• Distinguish between readily available and less accessible resources.
• Identify the locations of different concentrations of fossil fuels and mineral resources.
• Analyze the effects of management practices on air, land and water in forestry, agriculture, fisheries, wildlife, mining and food and fiber production that is unique to different climates.
C.Analyze how man-made systems have impacted the management and distribution of natural resources.
• Explain the complete cycle of a natural resource, from extraction to disposal, detailing its uses and effects on the environment.
• Analyze energy uses and energy conservation in different regions.
• Examine conservation practices in different countries.
• Analyze the costs and benefits of different man-made systems and how they use renewable and nonrenewable natural resources.
• Analyze the impact of information systems on management and distribution of natural resources.
C.Analyze factors that influence the availability of natural resources.
• Compare the use of natural resources in different countries.
• Determine how delivery systems influence the availability of resources at the local, regional and national level.


4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
4.2.4. GRADE 44.2.7. GRADE 74.2.10. GRADE 104.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
D.Identify by-products and their use of natural resources.
• Understand the waste stream.
• Identify those items that can be recycled and those that can not.
• Identify use of reusable products.
• Identify the use of compost, landfills and incinerators.
D.Describe the role of recycling and waste management.
• Identify materials that can be recycled in the community.
• Explain the process of closing the loop in recycling.
• Compare the decomposition rates of different organic materials.
• Describe methods that could be used to reuse materials for new products.
• Evaluate the costs and benefits of disposable products.
D.Explain different management alternatives involved in recycling and solid waste management.
• Analyze the manufacturing process (before, during and after) with consideration for resource recovery.
• Compare various methods dealing with solid waste (e.g., incineration, compost, land application).
• Differentiate between pre/post-consumer and raw materials.
• Illustrate how one natural resource can be managed through reduction, recycling, reuse or use.
D.Evaluate solid waste management practices.
• Examine and explain the path of a recyclable material from collection to waste, reuse or recycling identifying the market forces.
• Understand current regulations concerning recycling and solid waste.
• Research new technologies in the use, reuse or recycling of materials.


4.3. Environmental Health
4.3.4. GRADE 44.3.7. GRADE 74.3.10. GRADE 104.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Know that plants, animals and humans are dependent on air and water.
• Know that all living things need air and water to survive.
• Describe potentially dangerous pest controls used in the home.
• Identify things that cause sickness when put into the air, water or soil.
• Identify different areas where health can be affected by air, water or land pollution.
• Identify actions that can prevent or reduce waste pollution.
A.Identify environmental health issues.
• Identify various examples of long-term pollution and explain their effects on environmental health.
• Identify diseases that have been associated with poor environmental quality.
• Describe different types of pest controls and their effects on the environment.
• Identify alternative products that can be used in life to reduce pollution.
A.Describe environmental health issues.
• Identify the effects on human health of air, water and soil pollution and the possible economic costs to society.
• Describe how indoor pollution may affect human health (e.g., dust mites, fumes, cat dandruff).
• Explain the costs and benefits of cleaning up contaminants.
• Explain how common household cleaning products are manufactured and how to dispose of their by-products after use.
A.Analyze the complexity of environmental health issues.
• Identify environmental health issues and explain how they have been addressed on a worldwide level.
• Analyze efforts to prevent, control and/or reduce pollution through cost and benefit analysis and risk management.
• Describe the impact of occupational exposures as they relate to environmental health issues.
• Identify invisible pollutants and explain their effects on human health.
• Explain the relationship between wind direction and velocity as it relates to dispersal and occurrence of pollutants.
• Explain the different disposal methods used for toxic and hazardous waste.


4.3. Environmental Health
4.3.4. GRADE 44.3.7. GRADE 74.3.10. GRADE 104.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Identify how human actions affect environmental health.
• Identify pollutants.
• Identify sources of pollution.
• Identify litter and its effect on the environment.
• Describe how people can reduce pollution.
B.Describe how human actions affect the health of the environment.
• Identify land use practices and their relation to environmental health.
• Explain how natural disasters affect environmental health.
• Identify residential and industrial sources of pollution and their effects on environmental health.
• Explain the difference between point and nonpoint source pollution.
• Explain how nonpoint source pollution can affect the water supply and air quality.
• Explain how acid deposition can affect water, soil and air quality.
• Explain the relationship between resource use, reuse, recycling and environmental health.
B.Explain how multiple variables determine the effects of pollution on environmental health, natural processes and human practices.
• Explain how human practices affect the quality of the water and soil.
• Identify evidence of natural events around the world and their effects on environmental health (e.g., Yellowstone National Park fires).
• Identify local and state environmental regulations and their impact on environmental health.
• Analyze data and explain how point source pollution can be detected and eliminated.
• Identify and explain ways of detecting pollution by using state-of-the-art technologies.
B.Analyze the local, regional and national impacts of environmental health.
• Analyze the cost of natural disasters in both dollars and loss of natural habitat.
• Research and analyze the local, state and national laws that deal with point and nonpoint source pollution; evaluate the costs and benefits of these laws.
• Explain mitigation and its role in environmental health.
• Explain industry’s initiatives to meet state and federal mandates on clean air and water.
• Describe the impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on the Chesapeake Bay.
• Identify and evaluate the costs and benefits of laws regulating air and water quality and waste disposal.


4.3. Environmental Health
4.3.4. GRADE 44.3.7. GRADE 74.3.10. GRADE 104.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Understand that the elements of natural systems are interdependent.
• Identify some of the organisms that live together in an ecosystem.
• Understand that the components of a system all play a part in a healthy natural system.
• Identify the effects of a healthy environment on the ecosystem.
C.Explain biological diversity.
• Explain the complex, interactive relationships among members of an ecosystem.
• Explain how diversity affects ecological integrity of the natural resources.
C.Explain biological diversity as an indicator of a healthy environment.
• Explain species diversity.
• Analyze the effects of species extinction on the health of an ecosystem.
C.Analyze the need for a healthy environment.
• Research the relationship of some chronic diseases to an environmental pollutant.
• Explain how man-made systems may affect the environment.


4.4. Agriculture and Society
4.4.4. GRADE 44.4.7. GRADE 74.4.10. GRADE 104.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Know the importance of agriculture to humans.
• Identify people’s basic needs.
• Explain the influence of agriculture on food, clothing, shelter and culture from one area to another.
• Know how people depend on agriculture.
A.Explain society’s standard of living in relation to agriculture.
• Compare and contrast agricultural changes that have been made to meet society’s needs.
• Compare and contrast how animals and plants affect agricultural systems.
• Compare several technological advancements and their effect(s) on the historical growth of agriculture.
• Compare different environmental conditions related to agricultural production, cost and quality of the product.
A.Describe the importance of agriculture to society.
• Identify the major cash crops of Pennsylvania.
• Identify what percentage of the United States’ population is involved in the food and fiber industry.
• Compare and contrast the influence of agriculture on a nation’s culture, standard of living and foreign trade.
• Identify laws that affect conservation and management of food and fiber production in the local area and analyze their impact.
• Compare a contemporary economic issue in agriculture to its historical origin.
A.Analyze the management practices in the agriculture business.
• Define the components of an agriculture system that would result in a minimal waste of resources.
• Identify the diversity in crop production and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of such diversity.
• Research and analyze environmental practices related to agricultural systems.
• Analyze the effects of agricultural practices on the economy.
• Analyze the impact of nutrient management laws on Pennsylvania agriculture.
• Assess the role of agriculture cooperatives.


4.4. Agriculture and Society
4.4.4. GRADE 44.4.7. GRADE 74.4.10. GRADE 104.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Identify the role of the sciences in Pennsylvania agriculture.
• Identify common animals found on Pennsylvania farms.
• Identify common plants found on Pennsylvania farms.
• Identify the parts of important agricultural related plants (i.e., corn, soybeans, barley).
• Identify a fiber product from Pennsylvania farms.
B.Investigate how agricultural science has recognized the various soil types found in Pennsylvania.
• Explain the importance of particle sizes in different soil types.
• Determine how water has influenced the development of Pennsylvania soil types.
• Investigate how soil types have influenced the plant types used on Pennsylvania farms
• Analyze how soil types and geographic regions have impacted the profitability of Pennsylvania farms.
B.Assess the influence of agricultural science on farming practices.
• Compare the practices of no-till farming to traditional soil preparation (e.g., plow, disc).
• Analyze and explain the various practices of nutrient management on the farm.
• Analyze and explain how farm efficiencies have changed human nutrition.
B.Describe how agricultural science has influenced biotechnology.
• Investigate how bioengineered crops may influence the food supply.
• Analyze the use of specific bacteria for the control of agricultural pests.
• Evaluate the use of feed additives in shifting metabolism to increase muscle mass and reduce fat in farm animals.


4.4. Agriculture and Society
4.4.4. GRADE 44.4.7. GRADE 74.4.10. GRADE 104.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Know that food and fiber originate from plants and animals.
• Define and identify food and fiber.
• Identify what plants and animals need to grow.
• Identify agricultural products that are local and regional.
• Identify an agricultural product based on its origin.
• Describe several products and tell their origins.
• Describe the journey of a local agricultural product from production to the consumer.
C.Explain agricultural systems’ use of natural and human resources.
• Analyze the needs of plants and animals as they relate to climate and soil conditions.
• Identify the plants and animals that can be raised in the area and explain why.
• Identify natural resources necessary for agricultural systems.
• Compare the need for crop production to the need for animal production.
• Define issues associated with food and fiber production.
C.Explain the functions of the components of the food and fiber system.
• Compare and analyze growing conditions in the United States to determine which plants and animals are most suitable to each region.
• Compare the management practices needed for a commodity (i.e., production, processing, research and development, marketing, distribution and regulations).
• Identify a commodity, its origin and its steps of production.
• Compare and analyze the cost of a commodity to its production cost.
• Identify and describe how food safety issues have impacted production in agriculture.
C.Analyze and research the social, political and economic factors that affect agricultural systems.
• Analyze the costs and benefits associated with agriculture practices and how they affect economic and human needs.
• Analyze the costs and benefits of agriculture research practices in society.
• Research the use of by-products that are the results of agriculture production (e.g., manure handling, bird feathers).


4.4. Agriculture and Society
4.4.4. GRADE 44.4.7. GRADE 74.4.10. GRADE 104.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
D.Identify technology and energy use associated with agriculture.
• Identify the various tools and machinery necessary for farming.
• Identify the types of energy used in producing food and fiber.
• Identify tools and machinery used in the production of agricultural products.
D.Explain the improvement of agricultural production through technology.
• Compare the technologies that have advanced agricultural production.
• Explain how energy sources have changed to meet agricultural technology.
D.Analyze the efforts of increased efficiency in agriculture through technology.
• Compare various technological advancements and analyze each for its contribution toward labor and cost efficiency.
• Compare the current market value of both natural and alternative energy sources involved in the production of food and fiber.
D.Analyze research and development activities as they relate to agriculture.
• Analyze the role of research, development and technology as it relates to the food and fiber system.
• Research and analyze energy sources used and/or generated by producing, processing and marketing agricultural products.


4.5. Integrated Pest Management
4.5.4. GRADE 44.5.7. GRADE 74.5.10. GRADE 104.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Know types of pests.
• Identify classifications of pests.
• Identify and categorize pests.
• Know how pests fit into a food chain.
A.Explain benefits and harmful effects of pests.
• Identify different examples of pests and explain the beneficial or harmful effects of each.
• Identify several locations where pests can be found and compare the effects the pests have on each location.
A.Identify similar classifications of pests that may or may not have similar effects on different regions.
• Identify environmental effect(s) of pests on different regions of the world.
• Identify introduced species that are classified as pests in their new environments.
A.Research integrated pest management systems.
• Analyze the threshold limits of pests and the need for intervention in a managed environment.
• Research the types of germicides and analyze their effects on homes, industry, hospitals and institutions.
• Design and explain an integrated pest management plan that uses a range of pest controls.


4.5. Integrated Pest Management
4.5.4. GRADE 44.5.7. GRADE 74.5.10. GRADE 104.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Explain pest control.
• Know reasons why people control pests.
• Identify different methods for controlling specific pests in the home, school and community.
• Identify chemical labels (e.g., caution, poison, warning).
B.Explain how pest management affects the environment.
• Explain issues related to integrated pest management including biological technology, resistant varieties, chemical practices, medical technology and monitoring techniques.
• Describe how integrated pest management and related technology impact human activities.
• Identify issues related to integrated pest management that affect the environment.
B.Analyze health benefits and risks associated with integrated pest management.
• Identify the health risks associated with chemicals used in common pesticides.
• Assess various levels of control within different integrated pest management practices including increased immunity to pesticides, food safety, sterilization, nutrient management and weed control.
B.Research and analyze integrated pest management practices globally.
• Research worldwide integrated pest management systems and evaluate the level of impact.
• Research and analyze the international regulations that exist related to integrated pest management.
• Explain the complexities associated with moving from one level of control to the next with different integrated pest management practices and compare the related costs of each system.


4.5. Integrated Pest Management
4.5.4. GRADE 44.5.7. GRADE 74.5.10. GRADE 104.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Understand society’s need for integrated pest management.
• Identify integrated pest management practices in the home.
• Identify integrated pest management practices outside the home.
C.Explain various integrated pest management practices used in society.
• Compare and contrast integrated pest management monitoring methods utilized in different community settings.
• Compare integrated pest management to past practices.
• Compare and analyze the long-term effects of using integrated pest management products.
C.Determine the effects of integrated pest management practices on society over time.
• Analyze the risks to the environment and society associated with alternative practices used in integrated pest management.
• Analyze the benefits to the environment and society associated with alternative practices used in integrated pest management.
C.Analyze the historical significance of integrated pest management on society.
• Explain the dynamics of integrated pest management practices and their relative effects upon society.
• Identify historic events affecting integrated pest management and cite the practices used (e.g., avian flu, bubonic plague, potato blight).
• Research and analyze the long-term effects of pest management practices on the environment.


4.6. Ecosystems and their Interactions
4.6.4. GRADE 44.6.7. GRADE 74.6.10. GRADE 104.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Understand that living things are dependent on nonliving things in the environment for survival.
• Identify and categorize living and nonliving things.
• Describe the basic needs of an organism.
• Identify basic needs of a plant and an animal and explain how their needs are met.
• Identify plants and animals with their habitat and food sources.
• Identify environmental variables that affect plant growth.
• Describe how animals interact with plants to meet their needs for shelter.
• Describe how certain insects interact with soil for their needs.
• Understand the components of a food chain.
A.Explain the flows of energy and matter from organism to organism within an ecosystem.
• Identify and explain the characteristics of biotic and abiotic.
• Describe and explain the adaptations of plants and animals to their environment.
• Demonstrate the dependency of living components in the ecosystem on the nonliving components.
• Explain energy flow through a food web.
• Explain the importance of the predator/prey relationship and how it maintains the balances within ecosystems.
• Understand limiting factors and predict their effects on an organism.
A.Explain the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem and their interaction.
• Identify the major biomes and explain their similarities and differences.
• Compare and contrast the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in an ecosystem.
• Analyze the effects of abiotic factors on specific ecosystems.
• Describe how the availability of resources affects organisms in an ecosystem.
• Explain energy flow in a food chain through an energy pyramid.
• Evaluate the efficiency of energy flow in a food chain.
• Explain the concept of carrying capacity in an ecosystem.
• Explain trophic levels.
A.Analyze the interdependence of an ecosystem.
• Analyze the relationships among components of an ecosystem.
• Evaluate the efficiency of energy flow within an ecosystem.
• Explain limiting factors and their impact on carrying capacity.
• Understand how biological diversity impacts the stability of an ecosystem.
• Analyze the positive or negative impacts of outside influences on an ecosystem.
• Analyze how different land use practices can affect the quality of soils.


4.6. Ecosystems and their Interactions
4.6.4. GRADE 44.6.7. GRADE 74.6.10. GRADE 104.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
• Identify a local ecosystem and its living and nonliving components.
• Identify a simple ecosystem and its living and nonliving components.
• Identify common soil textures.
• Identify animals that live underground.
• Identify niches for producers, consumers and decomposers within an ecosystem.
• Compare and contrast the major ecosystems of Pennsylvania.
• Identify the major characteristics of a biome.
• Compare and contrast different biomes and their characteristics.
• Identify the relationship of abiotic and biotic components and explain their interaction in an ecosystem.
• Explain how different soil types determine the characteristics of ecosystems.
• Identify a specific environmental impact and predict what change may take place to affect homeostasis.
• Examine and explain how organisms modify their environments to sustain their needs.
• Assess the effects of latitude and altitude on biomes.
• Interpret possible causes of population fluctuations.
• Explain how erosion and sedimentation have changed the quality of soil related habitats.


4.6. Ecosystems and their Interactions
4.6.4. GRADE 44.6.7. GRADE 74.6.10. GRADE 104.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Understand the concept of cycles.
• Explain the water cycle.
• Explain the carbon dioxide/oxygen cycle (photosynthesis).
B.Explain the concepts of cycles.
• Identify and explain cycles within an ecosystem.
• Analyze the role of different cycles within an ecosystem.
B.Explain how cycles affect the balance in an ecosystem.
• Describe an element cycle and its role in an ecosystem.
• Explain the consequences of interrupting natural cycles.
B.Analyze the impact of cycles on the ecosystem.
• Evaluate the materials necessary for natural cycles.
• Explain the processes involved in the natural cycles.
C.Identify how ecosystems change over time.C.Explain how ecosystems change over time.
• Explain how ecosystems change.
• Identify the succession stages of a given ecosystem.
• Explain how specific organisms may change an ecosystem.
• Explain a change in an ecosystem that relates to humans.
C.Analyze how ecosystems change over time.
• Identify and explain the succession stages in an ecosystem.
• Identify causes of succession.
• Analyze consequences of interrupting natural cycles.
C.Analyze how human action and natural changes affect the balance within an ecosystem.
• Analyze the effects of substances that move through natural cycles.
• Analyze the effects of natural occurrences and their effects on ecosystems.
• Analyze effects of human action on an ecosystem.
• Compare the stages of succession and how they influence the cycles existing in an ecosystem.


4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species
4.7.4. GRADE 44.7.7. GRADE 74.7.10. GRADE 104.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Identify differences in living things.
• Explain why plants and animals are different colors, shapes and sizes and how these differences relate to their survival.
• Identify characteristics that living things inherit from their parents.
• Explain why each of the four elements in a habitat is essential for survival.
• Identify local plants or animals and describe their habitat.
A.Describe diversity of plants and animals in ecosystems.
• Select an ecosystem and describe different plants and animals that live there.
• Identify adaptations in plants and animals.
• Recognize that adaptations are developed over long periods of time and are passed on from one generation to the next.
• Understand levels of ecosystem organization (e.g., individuals, populations, species).
A.Explain the significance of diversity in ecosystems.
• Explain the role that specific organisms have in their ecosystem.
• Identify a species and explain what effects its increase or decline might have on the ecosystem.
• Identify a species and explain how its adaptations are related to its niche in the environment.
A.Analyze biological diversity as it relates to the stability of an ecosystem.
• Examine and explain what happens to an ecosystem as biological diversity changes.
• Explain the relationship between species’ loss and bio-diversity.
• Examine and explain how a specialized interaction between two species may affect the survival of both species.


4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species
4.7.4. GRADE 44.7.7. GRADE 74.7.10. GRADE 104.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Know that adaptations are important for survival.
• Explain how specific adaptations can help a living organism to survive.
• Explain what happens to a living thing when its food, water, shelter or space is changed.
B.Explain how species of living organisms adapt to their environment.
• Explain the role of individual variations in natural selection.
• Explain how an adaptation is an inherited structure or behavior that helps an organism survive and reproduce.
• Describe how a particular trait may be selected over time and account for a species’ adaptation.
• Compare and contrast animals and plants that have very specific survival requirements with those that have more general requirements for survival.
• Explain how living things respond to changes in their environment.
• Explain how one species may survive an environmental change while another might not.
B.Explain how structure, function and behavior of plants and animals affect their ability to survive.
• Describe an organism’s adaptations for survival in its habitat.
• Compare adaptations among species.
B.Examine the effects of extinction, both natural and human caused, on the environment.
• Predict how human or natural action can produce change to which organisms cannot adapt.
• Identify species that became extinct through natural causes and explain how that occurred.
• Identify a species that became extinct due to human actions and explain what occurred.


4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species
4.7.4. GRADE 44.7.7. GRADE 74.7.10. GRADE 104.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Define and understand extinction.
• Identify plants and animals that are extinct.
• Explain why some plants and animals are extinct.
• Know that there are local and state laws regarding plants and animals.
C.Explain natural or human actions in relation to the loss of species.
• Identify natural or human impacts that cause habitat loss.
• Explain how habitat loss can affect the interaction among species and the population of a species.
• Analyze and explain the changes in an animal population over time.
• Explain how a habitat management practice affects a population.
• Explain the differences among threatened, endangered and extinct species.
• Identify Pennsylvania plants and animals that are on the threatened or endangered list.
C.Identify and explain why adaptations can lead to specialization.
• Explain factors that could lead to a species’ increase or decrease.
• Explain how management practices may influence the success of specific species.
• Identify and explain criteria used by scientists for categorizing organisms as threatened, endangered or extinct.
C.Analyze the effects of threatened, endangered or extinct species on human and natural systems.
• Identify and explain how a species’ increase, decline or elimination affects the ecosystem and/or human social, cultural and economic structures.
• Explain why natural populations do not remain constant.
• Analyze management strategies regarding threatened or endangered species.
• Identify laws, agreements or treaties at national or international levels regarding threatened or endangered species.
• Analyze the role of zoos and wildlife preserves on species that have been identified as threatened or endangered.


4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species
4.7.4. GRADE 44.7.7. GRADE 74.7.10. GRADE 104.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
• Describe state laws passed regarding threatened and endangered species in Pennsylvania.
• Explain why one species may be more susceptible to becoming endangered than another species.
• Examine the influence of wildlife management in preserving different species in Pennsylvania (e.g., bobcat, elk, bald eagle).


4.8. Humans and the Environment
4.8.4. GRADE 44.8.7. GRADE 74.8.10. GRADE 104.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Identify the biological requirements of humans.
• Explain how a dynamically changing environment provides for sustainability of living systems.
• Identify several ways that people use natural resources.
A.Describe how the development of civilization relates to the environment.
• Explain how people use natural resources in their environment.
• Locate and identify natural resources in different parts of the world.
• Compare and contrast how people use natural resources throughout the world.
A.Analyze how society’s needs relate to the sustainability of natural resources.
• Explain why some societies have been unable to meet their natural resource needs.
• Compare and contrast the use of natural resources and the environmental conditions in several countries.
• Describe how uses of natural resources impact sustainability.
A.Explain how technology has influenced the sustainability of natural resources over time.
• Describe how technology has changed the use of natural resources by business and industry.
• Analyze the effect of natural resource conservation on a product over time (e.g., automobile manufacturing, aluminum can recycling, paper products).


4.8. Humans and the Environment
4.8.4. GRADE 44.8.7. GRADE 74.8.10. GRADE 104.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Know that environmental conditions influence where and how people live.
• Identify how regional natural resources influence what people use.
• Explain the influence of climate on how and where people live.
B.Explain how people use natural resources.
• Describe how natural resources are used for survival.
• Explain how natural resources and technological changes have affected the development of civilizations.
• Explain how climate and extreme weather events (e.g., drought, flood) influence people’s lives.
B.Analyze the relationship between the use of natural resources and sustaining our society.
• Explain the role of natural resources in sustaining society.
• Analyze the effects of a natural resource’s availability on a community or region.
B.Analyze technology’s role on natural resource sustainability.
• Explain how technology has decreased the use of raw natural resources.
• Explain how technology has impacted the efficiency of the use of natural resources.
• Analyze the role of technology in the reduction of pollution.


4.8. Humans and the Environment
4.8.4. GRADE 44.8.7. GRADE 74.8.10. GRADE 104.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Explain how human activities may change the environment.
• Identify everyday human activities and how they affect the environment.
• Identify examples of how human activities within a community affect the natural environment.
C.Explain how human activities may affect local, regional and national environments.
• Describe what effect consumption and related generation of wastes have on the environment.
• Explain how a particular human activity has changed the local area over the years.
C.Analyze how human activities may cause changes in an ecosystem.
• Analyze and evaluate changes in the environment that are the result of human activities.
• Compare and contrast the environmental effects of different industrial strategies (e.g., energy generation, transportation, logging, mining, agriculture).
C.Analyze how pollution has changed in quality, variety and toxicity as the United States developed its industrial base.
• Analyze historical pollution trends and project them for the future.
• Compare and contrast historical and current pollution levels at a given location.


4.8. Humans and the Environment
4.8.4. GRADE 44.8.7. GRADE 74.8.10. GRADE 104.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
D.Know the importance of natural resources in daily life.
• Identify items used in daily life that come from natural resources.
• Identify ways to conserve our natural resources.
• Identify major land uses in the community.
D.Explain the importance of maintaining the natural resources at the local, state and national levels.
• Explain how human activities and natural events have affected ecosystems.
• Explain how conservation practices have influenced ecosystems.
• Define the roles of Pennsylvania agencies that deal with natural resources.
D.Explain how the concept of supply and demand affects the environment.
• Identify natural resources for which societal demands have been increasing.
• Identify specific resources for which human consumption has resulted in scarcity of supply (e.g., buffalo, lobsters).
• Describe the relationship between population density and resource use and management.
D.Analyze the international implications of environmental occurrences.
• Identify natural occurrences that have international impact (e.g., El Nino, volcano eruptions, earthquakes).
• Analyze environmental issues and their international implications.


4.9. Environmental Laws and Regulations
4.9.4. GRADE 44.9.7. GRADE 74.9.10. GRADE 104.9.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Know that there are laws and regulations for the environment.
• Identify local and state laws and regulations regarding the environment.
• Explain how the recycling law impacts the school and home.
• Identify and describe the role of a local or state agency that deals with environmental laws and regulations.
A.Explain the role of environmental laws and regulations.
• Identify and explain environmental laws and regulations (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act, Act 26 on Agricultural Education).
• Explain the role of local and state agencies in enforcing environmental laws and regulations (e.g., Department of Environmen-
tal Protection, Department of Agriculture, Game Commission).
A.Explain why environmental laws and regulations are developed and enacted.
• Explain the positive and negative impacts associated with passing environmental laws and regulations.
• Understand conflicting rights of property owners and environmental laws and regulations.
• Analyze the roles that local, state and federal governments play in the development and enforcement of environmental laws.
• Identify local and state environmental regulations and their impact on environmental health.
• Explain the positive and negative impacts of the Endangered Species Act.
A.Analyze environmental laws and regulations as they relate to environmental issues.
• Analyze and explain how issues lead to environmental law or regulation (e.g., underground storage tanks, regulation of water discharges, hazardous, solid and liquid industrial waste, endangered species).
• Compare and contrast environmental laws and regulations that may have a positive or negative impact on the environment and the economy.
• Research and describe the effects of an environmental law or regulation and how it has impacted the environment.

Academic Standards for Environment and Ecology



XII. GLOSSARY

Abiotic: A nonliving factor or element (e.g., light, water, heat, rock, energy, mineral).
Acid deposition: Precipitation with a pH less than 5.6 that forms in the atmosphere when certain pollutants mix with water vapor.
Biological diversity: The variety and complexity of species present and interacting in an ecosystem and the relative abundance of each.
Biotic: An environmental factor related to or produced by living organisms.
Closing the loop: A link in the circular chain of recycling events that promotes the use of products made with recycled materials.
Commodities: Economic goods or products before they are processed and/or given a brand name, such as a product of agriculture.
Composting: The process of mixing decaying leaves, manure and other nutritive matter to improve and fertilize soil.
Consumer: 1) Those organisms that obtain energy by feeding on other organisms and their remains. 2) A person buying goods or services for personal needs or to use in the production of other goods for resale.
Decomposer: An organism, often microscopic in size, that obtains nutrients by consuming dead organic matter, thereby making nutrients accessible to other organisms; examples of decomposers include fungi, scavengers, rodents and other animals.
Delineate: To trace the outline; to draw; to sketch; to depict or picture.
Ecosystem: A community of living organisms and their interrelated physical and chemical environment.
Endangered Species: A species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
Environment: The total of the surroundings (air, water, soil, vegetation, people, wildlife) influencing each living being’s existence, including physical, biological and all other factors; the surroundings of a plant or animal, including other plants or animals, climate and location.
Equilibrium: The ability of an ecosystem to maintain stability among its biological resources (e.g., forest, fisheries, crops) so that there is a steady optimum yield.
Extinction: The complete elimination of a species from the earth.
Groundwater: Water that infiltrates the soil and is located in underground reservoirs called aquifers.
Hazardous waste: A solid that, because of its quantity or concentration or its physical, chemical or infectious characteristics, may cause or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Homeostasis: The tendency for a system by resisting change to remain in a state of equilibrium.
Incinerating: Burning to ashes; reducing to ashes.
Integrated pest management: A variety of pest control methods that include repairs, traps, bait, poison, etc. to eliminate pests.
Lentic: Relating to or living in still water.
Lotic: Relating to or living in actively moving water.
Mitigation: The policy of constructing or creating man-made habitats, such as wetlands, to replace those lost to development.
Niche (ecological): The role played by an organism in an ecosystem; its food preferences, requirements for shelter, special behaviors and the timing of its activities (e.g., nocturnal, diurnal), interaction with other organisms and its habitat.
Nonpoint source pollution: Contamination that originates from many locations that all discharge into a location (e.g., a lake, stream, land area).
Nonrenewable resources: Substances (e.g., oil, gas, coal, copper, gold) that, once used, cannot be replaced in this geological age.
Point source pollution: Pollutants discharged from a single identifiable location (e.g., pipes, ditches, channels, sewers, tunnels, containers of various types).
Pest: A label applied to an organism when it is in competition with humans for some resource.
Recycling: Collecting and reprocessing a resource or product to make into new products.
Regulation: A rule or order issued by an executive authority or regulatory agency of a government and having the force of law.
Renewable: A naturally occurring raw material or form of energy that will be replenished through natural ecological cycles or sound management practices (e.g., the sun, wind, water, trees).
Risk management: A strategy developed to reduce or control the chance of harm or loss to one’s health or life; the process of identifying, evaluating, selecting and implementing actions to reduce risk to human health and to ecosystems.
Shredder: Through chewing and/or grinding, microorganisms feed on non-woody coarse particulate matter, primarily leaves.
Stream order: Energy and nutrient flow that increases as water moves toward the oceans (e.g., the smallest stream (primary) that ends when rivers flow into oceans).
Succession: The series of changes that occur in an ecosystem with the passing of time.
Sustainability: The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained.
Trophic levels: The role of an organism in nutrient and energy flow within an ecosystem (e.g., herbivore, carnivore, decomposer).
Waste stream: The flow of (waste) materials from generation, collection and separation to disposal.
Watershed: The land area from which surface runoff drains into a stream, channel, lake, reservoir or other body of water; also called a drainage basin.
Wetlands: Lands where water saturation is the dominant factor determining the nature of the soil development and the plant and animal communities (e.g., sloughs, estuaries, marshes).



APPENDIX C
Academic Standards for Civics and Governmentand Economics and Geography and History



Academic Standards for History



Authority

   The provisions of this Appendix C amended under sections 121, 2603-B and 2604-B of the Public School Code of 1949 (24 P. S. § §  1-121, 26-2603-B and 26-2604-B), unless otherwise noted.

Source

   The provisions of this Appendix C adopted January 10, 2003, effective January 12, 2003, 33 Pa.B. 283; amended February 28, 2014, effective March 1, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 1131; corrected March 21, 2014, effective March 1, 2014, 44 Pa.B. 1754, unless otherwise noted. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (294913) to (295066), (320291) to (320310) and (367437).

Cross References

   This appendix cited in 22 Pa. Code §  4.24 (relating to high school graduation requirements); 22 Pa. Code §  4.51 (relating to State assessment system); and 22 Pa. Code §  4.51b (relating to Keystone Exams).

XIII. TABLE OF CONTENTS


   Introduction… XXIII.

   THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

   Historical Analysis and Skills Development …8.1.

 A. Chronological Thinking

 B. Historical Comprehension

 C. Historical Interpretation

 D. Historical Research

   Pennsylvania History …8.2.

 A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups

 B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places

 C. Influences of Continuity and Change

 D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups

   United States History …8.3.

 A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups

 B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places

 C. Influences of Continuity and Change

 D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups

   World History …8.4.

 A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups

 B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places

 C. Influences of Continuity and Change

 D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups

   Reading …8.5

 Students read, understand, and respond to informational text in the content area—with an emphasis on comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and making connections among ideas and between texts with a focus on textual evidence.

 • Key Ideas and Details

 • Craft and Structure

 • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

 • Range and Level of Complex Texts

   Writing …8.6

 Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.

 • Text Types and Purposes

 • Production and Distribution of Writing

 • Research to Build and Present Knowledge

 • Range of Writing

   Glossary …XXIV.

XIV. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Civics and Government that describe what students should know and be able to do in four areas:

 • 5.1. Principles and Documents of Government

 • 5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship

 • 5.3. How Government Works

 • 5.4. How International Relationships Function

 The Civics and Government Academic Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth). Throughout the standard statements, concepts found in lower grades must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.

 The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1790 was the basis for the Free Public School Act of 1834 that is the underpinning of today’s system of schools operating throughout the Commonwealth. These schools were created to educate children to be useful citizens, loyal to the principles upon which our Republic was founded, and aware of their duties as citizens to maintain those ideals.

 The Academic Standards for Civics and Government are based on the Public School Code of 1949 which directs ‘‘. . . teaching and presentation of the principles and ideals of the American republican representative form of government as portrayed and experienced by the acts and policies of the framers of the Declaration of Independence and framers of the Constitution of the United States and Bill of Rights. . .’’. The intent of the Code is that such instruction ‘‘shall have for its purpose also instilling into every boy and girl who comes out of public, private and parochial schools their solemn duty and obligation to exercise intelligently their voting privilege and to understand the advantages of the American republican form of government as compared with various other forms of governments.’’

 The Academic Standards for Civics and Government consist of four standard categories (designated as 5.1., 5.2., 5.3., and 5.4.). Each category has a number of standards statements designated by a capital letter. Some standard statements have bulleted items known as standard descriptors. The standard descriptors are items within the document to illustrate and enhance the standard statement. The categories, statements and descriptors are regulations. The descriptors may be followed by an “e.g.”. The “e.g.’s” are examples to clarify what type of information could be taught. These are suggestions and the choice of specific content is a local decision as is the method of instruction.

 Civics and Government along with Economics, Geography and History are identified as Social Studies in Chapter 4. This identification is consistent with citizenship education in Chapter 49 and Chapter 354. Based on these regulations, Social Studies/Citizenship Programs should include the four sets of standards as an entity in developing a scope and sequence for curriculum and planned instruction.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in clarifying terminology contained in the standards.

5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Describe what government is. A. Explain the purpose of government. A. Identify and explain the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government. A. Evaluate the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government.
B. Explain the purposes of rules and laws and why they are important in the classroom, school, community, state and nation. B. Explain the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good in the community, state, nation and world.  B. Describe historical examples of the importance of the rule of law.
• Sources
• Purposes
• Functions
 B. Analyze the sources, purposes and functions of law.
C. Define the principles and ideals shaping government.
• Justice
• Truth
• Diversity of people and  ideas
• Patriotism
• Common good
• Liberty
• Rule of law
• Leadership
• Citizenship
C. Describe the principles and ideals shaping government.
• Equality
• Majority rule/Minority  rights
• Popular sovereignty
• Privacy
• Checks and balances
• Separation of powers
 C. Analyze the principles and ideals that shape government.
• Constitutional govern-
 ment
• Liberal democracy
• Classical republican-
 ism
• Federalism
 C. Evaluate the importance of the principles and ideals of civic life.


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
D. Identify the document which created Pennsylvania.D. Explain the basic principles and ideals within documents of Pennsylvania government.
• Charter of 1681
• Charter of Privileges
• Pennsylvania  Constitution
• Pennsylvania  Declaration of Rights
D. Interpret significant changes in the basic documents shaping the government of Pennsylvania.
• The Great Law of 1682
• Constitution of 1776
• Constitution of 1790
• Constitution of 1838
• Constitution of 1874
• Constitution of 1968
D. Analyze the principles and ideals that shape the government of Pennsylvania and apply them to the government.
• The Charter of 1681
• Charter of Privileges
• PA Constitution, its revisions and Amend-
 ments


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
E. Identify documents of United States government.
• Declaration of Independence
• Constitution of the United States
• Bill of Rights
E. Explain the basic principles and ideals within documents of United States government. E. Analyze the basic documents shaping the government of the United States.
• Magna Carta
• English Bill of Rights
• Mayflower Compact
• Articles of Confederation
• Declaration of
 Independence
• Federalist papers
• Anti-federalist writings
• United States
 Constitution
E. Evaluate the principles and ideals that shape the United States and compare them to documents of government.


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
F. Explain the meaning of a preamble.
• Constitution of the United States
• Pennsylvania Constitution
F. Explain the meaning of the Preamble to the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and compare it to the Preamble of the Constitution of the United States. F. Contrast the individual rights created by the Pennsylvania Constitution and those created by the Constitution of the United States. F. Analyze and assess the rights of the people as listed in the Pennsylvania Constitution and the Constitution of the United States.
G. Describe the purpose of the United States Flag, The Pledge of Allegiance and The National Anthem. G. Describe the proper use, display and respect for the United States Flag and explain the significance of patriotic activities.
• Reciting The Pledge of  Allegiance
• Standing for The Na-
 tional Anthem
G. Describe the procedures for proper uses, display and respect for the United States Flag as per the National Flag Code. G. Analyze and interpret the role of the United States Flag in civil disobedience and in patriotic activities.


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
H. Identify framers of documents of governments.
• Pennsylvania
• United States
H. Describe the roles played by the framers of the basic documents of governments of Pennsylvania and the United States. H. Explain and interpret the roles of framers of basic documents of government from a national and Pennsylvania perspective. H. Analyze the competing positions held by the framers of the basic documents of government of Pennsylvania and United States.
I. Explain why government is necessary in the classroom, school, community, state and nation and the basic purposes of government in Pennsylvania and the United States. I. Describe and compare the making of rules by direct democracy and by republican form of government. I. Explain the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments and explain the advantages and disadvantages of systems of government.
• Confederal
• Federal
• Unitary
I. Analyze historical examples of the importance of the rule of law explaining the sources, purposes and functions of law.
J. Explain the importance of respect for the property and the opinions of others. J. Describe how the government protects individual and property rights and promotes the common good. J. Explain how law protects individual rights and the common good. J. Analyze how the law promotes the common good and protects individual rights.


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
K. Identify symbols and political holidays.
• Pennsylvania (e.g.,  Charter Day, Liberty  Bell, Keystone State)
• United States (e.g.,  Presidents’ Day, Statue  of Liberty, White  House)
K. Describe the purpose of symbols and holidays. K. Explain why symbols and holidays were created and the ideals they commemorate. K. Analyze the roles of symbols and holidays in society.
L. Identify ways courts resolve conflicts involving principles and ideals of government. L. Explain the role of courts in resolving conflicts involving the principles and ideals of government.
• Local
• State
• Federal
L. Interpret Pennsylvania and United States court decisions that have impacted the principles and ideals of government. L. Analyze Pennsylvania and United States court decisions that have affected principles and ideals of government in civic life.
• Civil rights
• Commerce
• Judicial review
• Federal supremacy


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
M. Identify portions of famous speeches and writings that reflect the basic principles and ideals of government (e.g., ‘‘I have a dream,’’ Reverend Martin Luther King; ‘‘One small step for man,’’ Neil Armstrong). M. Explain the basic principles and ideals found in famous speeches and writings (e.g., ‘‘Governments, like clocks, go from the motion people give them,’’ William Penn; ‘‘A date that will live in infamy,’’ Franklin D. Roosevelt). M. Interpret the impact of famous speeches and writings on civic life (e.g., The Gospel of Wealth, Declaration of Sentiments). M. Evaluate and analyze the importance of significant political speeches and writings in civic life (e.g., Diary of Anne Frank, Silent Spring).
Basic concepts found in lower grades for standard statements and their descriptors must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.


5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
5.2.3. GRADE 3 5.2.6. GRADE 6 5.2.9. GRADE 9 5.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Identify examples of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
• Personal rights
• Political rights
• Economic rights
• Personal responsibili-
 ties
• Civic responsibilities
A. Compare rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
• Political rights
• Economic rights
• Personal responsibilities of the individual and to society
• Civic responsibilities of  the individual and to  society
• Traits of character of  individuals and to a  republican form of  government
A. Contrast the essential rights and responsibilities of citizens in systems of government.
• Autocracy
• Democracy
• Oligarchy
• Republic
A. Evaluate an individual’s civic rights, responsibilities and duties in various governments.
B. Identify personal rights and responsibilities.B. Explain the relationship between rights and responsibilities. B. Analyze citizens’ rights and responsibilities in local, state and national government. B. Evaluate citizen’s participation in government and civic life.


5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
5.2.3. GRADE 3 5.2.6. GRADE 6 5.2.9. GRADE 9 5.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
C. Identify sources of conflict and disagreement and different ways conflicts can be resolved.C. Explain ways citizens resolve conflicts in society and government.C. Analyze skills used to resolve conflicts in society and government.C. Interpret the causes of conflict in society and analyze techniques to resolve those conflicts.
D. Identify the importance of political leadership and public service in the school, community, state and nation.D. Describe the importance of political leadership and public service.D. Analyze political leadership and public service in a republican form of government. D. Evaluate political leadership and public service in a republican form of government.
E. Describe ways citizens can influence the decisions and actions of government.E. Identify examples of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.E. Explain the importance of the political process to competent and responsible participation in civic life. E. Analyze how participation in civic and political life leads to the attainment of individual and public goals.
F. Explain the benefits of following rules and laws and the consequences of violating them.F. Describe the impact of the consequences of violating rules and laws in a civil society.F. Analyze the consequences of violating laws of Pennsylvania compared to those of the United States. F. Evaluate how individual rights may conflict with or support the common good.
G. Identify ways to participate in government and civic life.G. Explain the importance of participating in government and civic life.G. Analyze political and civic participation in government and society. G. Evaluate what makes a competent and responsible citizen.


5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
5.2.3. GRADE 3 5.2.6. GRADE 6 5.2.9. GRADE 9 5.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
Basic concepts found in lower grades for standard statements and their descriptors must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.


5.3. How Government Works
5.3.3. GRADE 3 5.3.6. GRADE 6 5.3.9. GRADE 9 5.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the
knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Identify the elected representative bodies responsible for making local, Pennsylvania and United States laws. A. Compare the structure, organization and operation of local, state and national governments. A. Explain the structure, organization and operation of the local, state and national governments including domestic and national policy-making. A. Analyze and evaluate the structure, organization and operation of the local, state and national governments including domestic and national policy-making.
B. Identify the role of the three branches of government.
• Executive
• Legislative
• Judicial
B. Describe the responsibilities and powers of the three branches of government. B. Compare the responsibilities and powers of the three branches within the national government. B. Analyze the responsibilities and powers of the national government.
C. Identify reasons for rules and laws in the school and community. C. Explain how government actions affect citizens’ daily lives. C. Explain how a bill becomes a law on a federal, state, and local level. C. Evaluate the process of how a bill becomes the law on a federal, state, and local levels.


5.3. How Government Works
5.3.3. GRADE 3 5.3.6. GRADE 6 5.3.9. GRADE 9 5.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
D. Identify services performed by the local, state and national governments. D. Describe how local, state and national governments implement their services. D. Explain how independent government agencies create, amend and enforce regulatory policies.
• Local (e.g., Zoning  Board)
• State (e.g.,  Pennsylvania Public  Utility Commission)
• National (e.g., Federal  Communications  Commission)
D. Evaluate how independent government agencies create, amend and enforce regulations.
E. Identify positions of authority at school and in local, state and national governments. E. Identify major leaders of local, state and national governments, their primary duties and their political party affiliation. E. Explain how citizens participate in choosing their leaders through political parties, campaigns and elections. E. Evaluate the roles of political parties in election campaigns.


5.3. How Government Works
5.3.3. GRADE 3 5.3.6. GRADE 6 5.3.9. GRADE 9 5.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
F. Explain what an election is. F. Describe the voting process.
• Pennsylvania
• United States
F. Explain the election process.
• Voter registration
• Primary Elections
• Caucuses
• Political party  conventions
• General Elections
• Electoral College
F. Evaluate the elements of the election process.
G. Explain why being treated fairly is important. G. Describe how the government protects individual rights.
• Presumption of  Innocence
• Right to Counsel
• Trial by Jury
• Bill of Rights
G. Explain how the government protects individual rights.
• Equal protection
• Habeas Corpus • Right Against Self  Incrimination • Double Jeopardy • Right of Appeal
• Due Process
G. Evaluate how the government protects or curtails individual rights and analyze the impact of supporting or opposing those rights.


5.3. How Government Works
5.3.3. GRADE 3 5.3.6. GRADE 6 5.3.9. GRADE 9 5.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
H. Identify individual interests and explain ways to influence others. H. Identify individual interests and how they impact government. H. Analyze how interest groups provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process. H. Evaluate the impact of interest groups on the political process.
I. Explain why taxes are necessary and identify who pays them. I. Describe why and how government raises money to pay for its operations and services. I. Analyze how and why government raises money to pay for its operation and services. I. Evaluate how and why government raises money to pay for its operations and services.
J. Identify the role of the media in society. J. Describe the influence of media in reporting issues. J. Analyze the importance of freedom of the press. J. Evaluate the role of media in political life in the United States and explain the role of the media in setting the public agenda.
K. Identify different ways people govern themselves. K. Describe forms of government.
• Limited
• Unlimited
K. Identify and explain systems of government.
• Autocracy
• Democracy
• Oligarchy
• Republic
K. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of various systems of government.
• Autocracy
• Democracy
• Oligarchy
• Republic
Basic concepts found in lower grades for standard statements and their descriptors must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.


5.4. How International Relationships Function
5.4.3. GRADE 3 5.4.6. GRADE 6 5.4.9. GRADE 9 5.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Identify how customs and traditions influence governments.A. Explain the concept of nation-states.A. Explain how the United States is affected by policies of nation-states, governmental and non-governmental organizations. A. Analyze the impact of international economic, technological and cultural developments on the government of the United States.
B. Recognize that the world is divided into various political units.B. Describe how nation-states coexist in the world community. B. Explain the role of the United States in world affairs. B. Analyze the United States’ interaction with other nations and governmental groups in world events.
C. Identify ways in which countries interact with the United States.C. Describe the governments of the countries bordering the United States and their relationships with the United States. C. Explain the effects United States political ideas have had on other nations. C. Compare how past and present United States’ policy interests have changed over time and analyze the impact on future international relationships.


5.4. How International Relationships Function
5.4.3. GRADE 3 5.4.6. GRADE 6 5.4.9. GRADE 9 5.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
D. Identify treaties and other agreements between or among nations.D. Describe the processes that resulted in a treaty or agreement between the United States and another nation-state. D. Contrast how the three branches of federal government function in foreign policy. D. Explain how foreign policy is developed and implemented.
E. Identify how nations work together to solve problems.E. Explain how nations work together on common environmental problems, natural disasters and trade. E. Explain the development and the role of the United Nations and other international organizations, both governmental and non-governmental. E. Compare the purposes and functions of international organizations.
• Governmental (e.g.,  NATO, World Court,  OAS)
• Nongovernmental  (e.g., International  Red Cross, Amnesty  International, World  Council of Churches)

XV. GLOSSARY

Amendment (Constitutional): Changes in, or additions to, a constitution. Proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress or by a convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures. Ratified by approval of three-fourths of the state.
Articles of Confederation: First framework of government of the United States, 1781. Created a weak national government, replaced in 1789 by the Constitution of the United States.
Authority: Right to control or direct the actions of others, legitimized by law, morality, custom or consent.
Autocracy: A government in which one person possesses unlimited power.
Bill of Rights: First Ten Amendments to the Constitution. Ratified in 1791, these amendments limit government power and protect basic rights and liberties of individuals.
Caucuses:A private meeting of members of a political party to plan action or to select delegates for a nominating convention. The term also refers to distinct groups, either official or unofficial, in Congress, as in the black caucus in the House of Representatives.
Checks and balances: Constitutional mechanisms that authorize each branch of government to share powers with the other branches and thereby check their activities. For example, the president may veto legislation passed by Congress, the Senate must confirm major executive appointments and the courts may declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.
Citizen: Member of a political society who therefore owes allegiance to and is entitled to protection by and from the government.
Citizenship: Status of being a member of a state; one who owes allegiance to the government and is entitled to protection by and from the government.
Civic life:A manner of existence of an individual concerned with the affairs of communities and the common good rather than solely in pursuit of private and personal interests.
Civic responsibilities: Obligation of citizens to take part in the governance of the school, community, tribe, state or nation.
Civil disobedience:Refusal to obey laws. This tactic is usually passive and nonviolent, aimed at bringing injustices to the attention of lawmakers and the public at large. An example of civil disobedience was the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s.
Civil rights: Protections and privileges given to all United States citizens by the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
Civil society: The spheres of voluntary individual, social and economic relationships and organizations that although limited by law are not part of governmental institutions.
Classical republicanism: Refers to government that seeks the public or common good rather than the good of a particular group or class of society.
Common or public good: Benefit or interest of a politically organized society as a whole.
Confederal: Relating to a league of independent states.
Constitutional government:A form of authority in which a legal structure details the powers available to each branch of government and the rights of the individual in relation to the government. Any action by government that is not in accord with the Constitution is considered illegitimate.
Democracy: Form of government in which political control is exercised by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives.
Diplomacy: The art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations.
Direct democracy:Form of government in which the people completely exercise political decisions.
Diversity: State of being different; variety.
Documents of government: Papers necessary for the organization and powers of government.
Double jeopardy:A concept established by law that says a person cannot be tried twice for the same offense. It is part of the Fifth Amendment, which states that ‘‘no person shall . . . be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.’’
Due process of law: Right of every citizen to be protected against arbitrary action by government.
Economic rights:Financial choices and privileges that individuals may select without government prohibition. Economic rights would include: right to own property, change employment, operate a business and join a labor union.
Electoral College:The group of presidential electors that casts the official votes for president after the presidential election. Each state has a number of electors equal to the total of its members in the Senate and House of Representatives.
Enumerated powers: Powers that are specifically granted to Congress by Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution.
Equal protection:An idea that no individual or group may receive special privileges from nor be unjustly discriminated against by the political authority of the legal system.
Equality: The condition of possessing substantially the same rights, privileges and immunities, and being substantially responsible for the same duties as other members of society.
Federal Supremacy Clause: Article VI of the Constitution provides that the Constitution and all federal laws and treaties shall be the ‘‘Supreme Law of the Land.’’ Therefore, all federal laws take precedence over state and local laws.
Federal system (or Federalism): Form of political organization in which governmental power is divided between a central government and territorial subdivisions (e.g., in the United States—the national, state and local governments).
Federalism: The distribution of power in a government between a central authority and states and the distribution of power among states with most powers retained by central government.
Foreign Policy: Actions of the federal government directed to matters beyond United States’ borders, especially relations with other countries.
Government: Institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled.
Habeas Corpus: Court order demanding that the individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention. Habeas corpus is guaranteed by the Constitution and can be suspended only in the case of rebellion or invasion.
Individual responsibility: Fulfilling the moral and legal obligations of membership in society.
Individual rights: Just claims due a person by law, morality or tradition as opposed to those due to groups.
Interest group: Organized body of individuals who share same goals and try to influence public policy to meet those goals.
International organizations: Groups formed by nation-states to achieve common political, social or economic goals.
Judicial Review: Doctrine that permits the federal courts to declare unconstitutional, and thus null and void, acts of the Congress, the executive branch and the states. The precedent for judicial review was established in the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison.
Justice: That which may be obtained through fair distribution of benefits and burdens, fair correction of wrongs and injuries, or use of fair procedures in gathering information and making decisions.
Leadership: State or condition of one who guides or governs.
Liberal Democracy: Government that recognizes that the individual has rights that exist independently of government and which ought to be protected by and against government.
Liberty: Freedom from restraint under conditions essential to the equal enjoyment of the same right by others.
Limited government:A legal structure where officials in authority do not have enormous power. The Constitution of the United States limits government through methods of checks and balances.
Majority rule: Decision by more than half of those participating in the decision-making process.
Minority rights: Opportunities that a member is entitled to have, or to receive from others within the limits of the law, even though he/she may not be part of the controlling group.
Nation-state: Divisions of the world in which each state claims sovereignty over defined territory and jurisdiction over everyone within it. These states interact using diplomacy, formal agreements and sanctions that may be peaceful or may involve the use of force.
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international transatlantic partnership consisting of various European states, the United States and Canada, which was designed through cooperation, consultation and collective defense to maintain peace and promote stability throughout Europe.
Non-governmental organization: A group in a free society that is not a part of any government institution and does not derive its power from government.
OAS: Organization of American States, an international governmental organization formed by the states of North and South America for security and the protection of mutual interests.
Oligarchy: A government in which a small group exercises control. These systems are usually based on wealth, military power or social position.
Patriotism: A feeling of pride in and respect for one’s country.
Personal rights:Private legal privileges and decisions that individuals are free to participate in without intervention from government. Personal rights would include the right to vote, petition, assemble, and seek public office.
Political party: Any group, however loosely organized, that seeks to elect government officials under a given label.
Political rights: Legal claims by citizens to participate in government and be treated fairly. Political rights would include the right to vote, petition, assemble, and seek public office.
Popular sovereignty: The concept that ultimate political authority rests with the people to create, alter or abolish governments.
Presumption of innocence: The legal concept that a criminal defendant is not guilty until the prosecution proves every element of the crime, beyond a reasonable doubt.
Privacy: The right to be left alone; the right of an individual to withhold one’s self and one’s property from public scrutiny if one so chooses.
Public service: Action of benefit to local, state or national communities through appointed or elected office.
Representative Democracy: Form of government in which power is held by the voters and is exercised indirectly through elected representatives who make decisions.
Republic: Form of government in which political control is exercised through elected representatives.
Republican form of government: System of government in which power is held by the voters and is exercised by elected representatives responsible for promoting the common welfare.
Right against self-incrimination: Individual right found in the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution that prevents an individual from being forced to testify against himself or herself.
Right of appeal: The right to seek review by a superior court of an injustice done or error committed by an inferior court, whose judgment or decision the court above is called upon to correct or reverse.
Right to counsel: Individual right found in the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution that requires criminal defendants to have access to legal representation.
Rule of Law: Principle that every member of a society, even a ruler, must follow the law.
Separation of powers: Distribution among the branches of government to ensure that the same person or group will not make the law, enforce the law and interpret the law.
State: A commonwealth; a nation; a civil power.
Treaty: Formal agreement between or among sovereign nations to create or restrict rights and responsibilities. In the United States all treaties must be approved by a two-thirds vote in the Senate.
Trial by jury: Individual right found in the Sixth and Seventh Amendment of the Constitution that guarantees a person an impartial jury.
Truth: Agreement of thought and reality that can eventually be verified.
Unitary government: An authoritative system in which all regulatory power is vested in a central government from which regional and local governments derive their powers (e.g., Great Britain and France as well as the American states within their spheres of authority).
United Nations:International organization comprising most of the nation-states of the world. It was formed in 1945 to promote peace, security and economic development.
Unlimited government:A legal structure where officials in authority have unrestricted power. Examples of unlimited governments would be authoritarian or totalitarian systems without restraints on their power.
World Court:Court in the Hague, the Netherlands, set up by the United Nations treaty to which nations may voluntarily submit disputes.



Academic Standards for Economics



XVI. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction…XVII.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Economic Systems…6.1.
  
A. Similarities and Differences in Economic Systems
  B. Traditional, Command and Market Economics
  C. Measures of Economic Activity
  D. Expansion, Recession and Depression in the Economy

 Markets and the Functions of Governments…6.2.
  
A. Market Transactions
  B. Costs and Benefits of Competition
  C. Function of Money
  D. Economic Institutions
  E. Changes in Supply and Demand
  F. Forces that Can Change Price
  G. Sources of Tax Revenue
  H. Economic Roles for Governments
  I. Public Goods
  J. Costs and Benefits of Taxation
  K. Impact of Media on the Cost and Benefits of Decisions
  L. Exchange Rates

 Scarcity and Choice…6.3.
  
A. Scarcity and Limited Resources
  B. Economic Reasoning of Choices
  C. Allocation of Resources
  D. Marginal Analysis and Decision-Making
  E. Opportunity Cost
  F. Incentives

 Economic Interdependence…6.4.
  
A. Specialization
  B. Trade
  C. Implementation or Reduction of Trade Barriers
  D. Pennsylvania Economic Patterns
  E. Global Production and Consumption of Goods or Services
  F. Comparative Advantage
  G. Geographic Patterns of Economic Activities

 Work and Earnings…6.5.
  
A. Factors Influencing Wages
  B. Labor Productivity
  C. Type of Businesses
  D. Profits and Losses
  E. Distribution of Wealth
  F. Entrepreneurship
  G. Costs and Benefits of Saving
  H. Impact of Interest Rates

 Glossary… XVIII.

XVII. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Economics that describe what students should know and be able to do in five areas:

 • 6.1. Economic Systems

 • 6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments

 • 6.3. Scarcity and Choice

 • 6.4. Economic Interdependence

 • 6.5. Work and Earnings

 The Economic Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth). They reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students are expected to achieve as they progress through school. This document attempts to avoid repetition and makes obvious progression across grade levels. Topics and concepts in Economics directly relate to Environment and Ecology Standard 4.2 and Geography Standard 7.3. As a social science, Economics Standards should be Cross-Walked and related to the Civics and Government, Geography and History Standards to create an interdisciplinary view of the world.

 Economics is concerned with the behavior of individuals and institutions engaged in the production, exchange and consumption of goods and services. As technology helps to reshape the economy, knowledge of how the world works is critical. People entering the workforce cannot function effectively without a basic knowledge of the characteristics of economic systems, how markets establish prices, how scarcity and choice affect the allocation of resources, the global nature of economic interdependence and how work and earnings impact productivity.

 A Pennsylvania governor remarked, ‘‘Among the freedoms we enjoy in America in our pursuit of happiness is the freedom to be independent, creative, visionary and entrepreneurial. We are free to pursue dreams. . .’’ To succeed, however, every student must know how to manage resources, prepare for the workforce, make wise investments and be informed about public policy. These standards are intended to provide direction in learning how economic activity impacts the forces of everyday life.

 The academic standards for Economics consist of five standard categories (designated as 6.1., 6.2., 6.3., 6.4. and 6.5.). Each category has a number of standards statements designated by a capital letter. Some standard statements have bulleted items known as standard descriptors. The standard descriptors are items within the document to illustrate and enhance the standard statement. The categories, statements and descriptors are regulations. The descriptors may be followed by an ‘‘e.g.’’ The “e.g.’s” are examples to clarify what type of information could be taught. These are suggestions and thechoice of specific content is a local decision as is the method of instruction.

 Economics along with Civics and Government, Geography, and History are identified as Social Studies in Chapter 4. This identification is consistent with citizenship education in Chapter 49 and Chapter 354. Based on these regulations, social studies/citizenship programs should include four sets of standards as an entity in developing a scope and sequence for curriculum and planned instruction.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in clarifying terminology contained in the standards.

6.1. Economic Systems
6.1.3. GRADE 3 6.1.6. GRADE 6 6.1.9. GRADE 9 6.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Describe how individuals, families and communities with limited resources make choices. A. Describe and identify the characteristics of traditional, command and market systems. A. Analyze the similarities and differences in economic systems. A. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of traditional, command and market economics.
B. Describe alternative methods of allocating goods and services and advantages and disadvantages of each. B. Explain the three basic questions that all economic systems attempt to answer.
• What goods and services should be produced?
• How will goods and services be produced?
• Who will consume goods and services?
B. Explain how traditional, command and market economies answer the basic economic questions. B. Analyze the impact of traditional, command and market economies on the United States economy.
C. Identify local economic activities.
• Employment
• Output
C. Define measures of economic activity and relate them to the health of the economy.
• Prices
• Employment
• Output
C. Explain how economic indicators reflect changes in the economy.
• Consumer Price Index  (CPI)
• Gross Domestic  Product (GDP)
• Unemployment rate
C. Assess the strength of the regional, national and/or international economy and compare it to another time period based upon economic indicators.
D. Identify examples of local businesses opening, closing, expanding or contracting. D. Explain the importance of expansion and contraction on individual businesses (e.g., gourmet food shops, auto repair shops, ski resorts). D. Describe historical examples of expansion, recession and depression in the United States. D. Describe historical examples of expansion, recession, and depression internationally.


6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments
6.2.3. GRADE 3 6.2.6. GRADE 6 6.2.9. GRADE 9 6.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Define and identify goods, services, consumers and producers. A. Describe market transactions in terms of goods, services, consumers and producers. A. Explain the flow of goods, services and resources in a mixed economy. A. Analyze the flows of products, resources and money in a mixed economy.
B. Identify ways local businesses compete to get customers. B. Describe the costs and benefits of competition to consumers in markets. B. Analyze how the number of consumers and producers affects the level of competition within a market. B. Evaluate the operation of noncompetitive markets.
C. Identify and compare means of payment.
• Barter
• Money
C. Explain the function of money and its use in society. C. Explain the structure and purpose of the Federal Reserve System. C. Analyze policies designed to raise or lower interest rates and how the Federal Reserve Board influences interest rates.
D. Identify groups of competing producers in the local area. D. Define economic institutions (e.g., banks, labor unions). D. Analyze the functions of economic institutions (e.g., corporations, not-for-profit institutions). D. Evaluate changes in economic institutions over time (e.g. stock markets, nongovernment organizations).


6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments
6.2.3. GRADE 3 6.2.6. GRADE 6 6.2.9. GRADE 9 6.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
E. Identify who supplies a product and who demands a product. E. Explain how the interaction of buyers and sellers determines prices and quantities exchanged. E. Explain the laws of supply and demand and how these affect the prices of goods and services. E. Predict how changes in supply and demand affect equilibrium price and quantity sold.
F. Define price and identify the prices of different items. F. Describe how prices influence both buyers and sellers and explain why prices may vary for similar products. F. Analyze how competition among producers and consumers affects price, costs, product quality, service, product design and variety and advertising. F. Identify and analyze forces that can change price.
• Government actions
• Weather conditions
• International events
G. Define what a tax is and identify a tax paid by most families. G. Explain how taxes affect the price of goods and services. G. Contrast the largest sources of tax revenue with where most tax revenue is spent in Pennsylvania. G. Evaluate types of tax systems.
• Progressive
• Proportional
• Regressive


6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments
6.2.3. GRADE 3 6.2.6. GRADE 6 6.2.9. GRADE 9 6.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
H. Identify government involvement in local economic activities. H. Describe the Pennsylvania and United States governments’ roles in monitoring economic activities. H. Analyze the economic roles of governments in market economies.
• Economic growth and  stability
• Legal frameworks
• Other economic goals  (e.g., environmental  protection,  competition)
H. Evaluate the economic roles of governments.
• Macroeconomics (e.g.,  tariffs and quotas,  exchange rates, trade  balance)
• Microeconomics (e.g.,  price controls,  monopolies, cartels)
I. Identify goods and services produced by the government (e.g., postal service, food inspection). I. Identify and describe public goods. I. Explain how government provides public goods. I. Evaluate government decisions to provide public goods.
J. Explain the relationship between taxation and government services. J. Explain the cost and benefits of taxation. J. Contrast the taxation policies of the local, state and national governments in the economy. J. Evaluate the social, political and economic changes in tax policy using cost/benefit analysis.
K. Identify forms of advertising designed to influence personal choice. K. Explain how advertisements influence perceptions of the costs and benefits of economic decisions. K. Interpret how media reports can influence perceptions of the costs and benefits of decisions. K. Analyze the impact of media on decision-making of consumers, producers and policymakers.


6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments
6.2.3. GRADE 3 6.2.6. GRADE 6 6.2.9. GRADE 9 6.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
L. Explain why most countries create their own form of money. L. Explain what an exchange rate is. L. Explain how the price of one currency is related to the price of another currency (e.g., Japanese yen in American dollar, Canadian dollar in Mexican nuevo peso). L. Analyze how policies and international events may change exchange rates.


6.3. Scarcity and Choice
6.3.3. GRADE 3 6.3.6. GRADE 6 6.3.9. GRADE 9 6.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Define scarcity and identify limited resources scarcity. A. Explain how scarcity influences choices and behaviors.
• Personal decision-making
• Family decision-making
• Community decision-making
A. Describe ways to deal with scarcity.
• Community
• Pennsylvania
• United States
A. Analyze actions taken as a result of scarcity issues in the regional, national and international economies.
B. Define and identify wants of different people. B. Explain how limited resources and unlimited wants cause scarcity. B. Analyze how unlimited wants and limited resources affect decision-making. B. Evaluate the economic reasoning behind a choice.
C. Identify and define natural, human and capital resources. C. Describe the natural, human and capital resources used to produce a specific good or service. C. Explain how resources can be used in different ways to produce different goods and services. C. Evaluate the allocation of resources used to produce goods and services.
D. Identify costs and benefits associated with an economic decision. D. Explain the costs and benefits of an economic decision. D. Explain marginal analysis and decision-making. D. Evaluate regional, national or international economic decisions using marginal analysis.
E. Explain what is given up when making a choice. E. Define opportunity cost and describe the opportunity cost of a personal choice. E. Explain the opportunity cost of a public choice from different perspectives. E. Analyze the opportunity cost of decisions by individuals, businesses, communities and nations.


6.3. Scarcity and Choice
6.3.3. GRADE 3 6.3.6. GRADE 6 6.3.9. GRADE 9 6.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
F. Explain how self interest influences choice. F. Explain how negative and positive incentives affect choices. F. Explain how incentives affect the behaviors of workers, savers, consumers and producers. F. Evaluate in terms of marginal analysis how incentives influence decisions of consumers, producers and policy makers.


6.4. Economic Interdependence
6.4.3. GRADE 3 6.4.6. GRADE 6 6.4.9. GRADE 9 6.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Define specialization and the concept of division of labor. A. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of specialization and division of labor. A. Explain why specialization may lead to increased production and consumption. A. Analyze how specialization may increase the standard of living.
B. Explain why people trade. B. Explain how specialization leads to more trade between people and nations. B. Explain how trade may improve a society’s standard of living. B. Analyze the relationships between trade, competition and productivity.
C. Explain why goods, services and resources come from all over the nation and the world. C. Identify and define imports, exports, inter-regional trade and international trade. C. Explain why governments sometimes restrict or subsidize trade. C. Evaluate how a nation might benefit by lowering or removing trade barriers.
D. Identify local resources.
• Natural (renewable,  nonrenewable and flow  resources)
• Human
• Capital
D. Explain how the locations of resources, transportation and communication networks and technology have affected Pennsylvania economic patterns.
• Agriculture (e.g., farms)
• Forestry (e.g., logging)
• Mining and mineral  extraction (e.g., coal fields)
• Manufacturing (e.g., steel mills)
• Wholesale and retail (e.g., super stores, internet)
D. Explain how the locations of resources, transportation and communication networks and technology have affected United States economic patterns.
• Labor markets (e.g., migrant workers)
• Interstate highway system and sea and inland ports (e.g.,  movement of goods)
• Communication technologies (e.g., facsimile transmission,  satellite-based  communications)
D. Explain how the locations of resources, transportation and communication networks and technology have affected international economic patterns.


6.4. Economic Interdependence
6.4.3. GRADE 3 6.4.6. GRADE 6 6.4.9. GRADE 9 6.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
E. Define specialization and identify examples of interdependence. E. Explain how specialization and trade lead to interdependence. E. Analyze how Pennsylvania consumers and producers participate in the global production and consumption of goods or services. E. Analyze how United States consumers and producers participate in the global production and consumption of goods or services.
F. Explain why some products are produced locally while others are not. F. Explain how opportunity costs influence where goods and services are produced locally and regionally. F. Explain how opportunity cost can be used to determine the product for which a nation has a comparative advantage. F. Evaluate how trade is influenced by comparative advantage and opportunity costs.
G. Identify local geographic patterns of economic activities.
• Agriculture
• Travel and tourism
• Mining and mineral extraction
• Manufacturing
• Wholesale and retail
• Health services
G. Describe geographic patterns of economic activities in Pennsylvania.
• Agriculture
• Travel and tourism
• Mining and mineral  extraction
• Manufacturing
• Wholesale and retail
• Health services
G. Describe geographic patterns of economic activities in the United States.
• Primary—extractive  industries (i.e., farming, fishing,  forestry, mining)
• Secondary—materials  processing industries (i.e., manufacturing)
• Tertiary—service industries (e.g., retailing, wholesaling,  finance, real estate, travel and tourism, transportation)
G. Evaluate characteristics and distribution of international economic activities.
• Primary—extractive  industries (i.e., farming, fishing,  forestry, mining)
• Secondary—materials  processing industries (i.e., manufacturing)
• Tertiary—service industries (e.g., retailing, wholesaling,  finance, real estate, travel and tourism, transportation)


6.5. Work and Earnings
6.5.3. GRADE 3 6.5.6. GRADE 6 6.5.9. GRADE 9 6.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Explain why people work to get goods and services. A. Recognize that the availability of goods and services is the result of work by members of the society. A. Define wages and explain how wages are determined by the supply of and demand of workers. A. Analyze the factors influencing wages.
• Demand for goods and services produced
• Labor unions
• Productivity
• Education/skills
B. Identify different occupations.
B. Explain the concept of labor productivity.
B. Describe how productivity is measured and identify ways in which a person can improve his or her productivity.
B. Evaluate how changes in education, incentives, technology and capital investment alter productivity.
C. Describe businesses that provide goods and businesses that provide services. C. Compare the number of employees at different businesses. C. Identify and explain the characteristics of the three types of businesses.
• Sole Proprietorship
• Partnership
• Corporation
C. Analyze the costs and benefits of organizing a business as a sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation.
D. Define profit and loss. D. Explain how profits and losses serve as incentives. D. Analyze how risks influence business decision-making D. Analyze the role of profits and losses in the allocation of resources in a market economy.


6.5. Work and Earnings
6.5.3. GRADE 3 6.5.6. GRADE 6 6.5.9. GRADE 9 6.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
E. Identify examples of assets.
• Tangible (e.g., houses,  cars, jewelry)
• Financial assets (e.g.,  stocks, bonds, savings  accounts)
E. Describe how people accumulate tangible and financial assets through income, saving, and financial investment. E. Define wealth and describe its distribution within and among the political divisions of the United States. E. Compare distribution of wealth across nations.
F. Define entrepreneurship and identify entrepreneurs in the local community. F. Identify entrepreneurs in Pennsylvania.
• Historical
• Contemporary
F. Identify leading entrepreneurs in Pennsylvania and the United States and describe the risks they took and the rewards they received. F. Assess the impact of entrepreneurs on the economy.


6.5. Work and Earnings
6.5.3. GRADE 3 6.5.6. GRADE 6 6.5.9. GRADE 9 6.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
G. Define saving and explain why people save. G. Identify the costs and benefits of saving.
• Piggy banks
• Savings accounts
• U.S. Savings Bonds
G. Explain the differences among stocks, bonds and mutual funds. G. Analyze the risks and returns of various investments.
• Stocks
• Bonds
• Mutual funds
• Savings bonds
• Retirement savings (e.g., Individual Retirement Account  (IRA), Keogh, 401K)
• Savings accounts (e.g.,  passbook, certificate of  deposit)
H. Explain how banks bring savers and borrowers together. H. Describe why there is a difference between interest rates for saving and borrowing. H. Explain the impact of higher or lower interest rates for savers, borrowers, consumers and producers.H. Evaluate benefits and costs of changes in interest rates to individuals and society.

XVIII. GLOSSARY

Barter: The direct exchange of goods or services between people.
Bond:A financial promise for an investment issued by a corporation or government with regular interest payments and repayment at a later date.
Capital resources:The physical equipment used in the production of goods and services.
Cartels:A group of sellers acting together in the market.
Circular flow: The movement of resources, goods, and services through an economy. As a diagram, it can show how households and business firms interact with each other in the product and resource markets.
Command economy: A system in which decisions are made largely by an authority such as a feudal lord or government planning agency.
Comparative advantage:Economic theory that a country/individual should sell goods and services which it can produce at relatively lower costs and buy goods and services which it can produce at relatively higher costs.
Competition:The rivalry among people and/or business firms for resources and/or consumers.
Consumer:One who buys or rents goods or services and uses them.
Consumer Price Index:The price index most commonly used to measure the impact of changes in prices on households; this index is based on a standard market basket of goods and services purchased by a typical urban family.
Corporation:A business firm that is owned by stockholders and is a legal entity with rights to buy, sell and make contracts. Its chief advantage is that each owner’s liability is limited to the amount of money he or she has invested in the company.
Cost:What is given up when a choice is made; monetary and/or non monetary.
Cost/benefit analysis:The process of weighing all predicted costs against the predicted benefits of an economic choice.
Deflation:A general decline in the price level.
Demand:The different quantities of a resource, good or service that potential buyers are willing and able to purchase at various possible prices during a specific time period.
Depression:A severe recession in terms of magnitude or length, or both.
Division of labor:A method of organizing production whereby each worker specializes in part of the productive process.
Economic growth:An increase in a society’s output.
Economic systems:The ways societies organize to determine what goods and services should be produced, how goods and services should be produced and who will consume goods and services. Examples include traditional, command and market.
Economics:The study of the behavior of individuals and institutions engaged in the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
Entrepreneur:Individual who begins, manages and bears the risks of a business (e.g., Milton Hershey, F.W. Woolworth).
Equilibrium price:The outlay at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied; market clearing price.
Exchange rate:The price of one country’s currency measured in terms of another country’s currency (e.g., American dollar in German mark, Japanese yen in Canadian dollar).
Federal Reserve System:The ‘‘Central Bank’’ of the United States (consisting of the Board of Governors and 12 district banks) which controls monetary policy; sometimes referred to as ‘‘The Fed’’ or Federal Reserve.
Fiscal policy:Government decisions on taxation and spending to achieve economic goals.
Flow resources:Temporal energy forces that are neither renewable nor nonrenewable, but must be used as, when and where they occur or they are lost (e.g., wind, sunlight).
Gross Domestic Product:The market value of the total output of final goods and services produced by an economy in a given time period, usually 1 year.
Goods:Objects that can satisfy people’s wants.
Household:The group of people living together under one roof; a group of individuals whose economic decision making is interrelated.
Human resources:People’s intellectual and physical abilities.
Incentives:Factors that motivate or influence human behavior.
Income:Payments earned by people in exchange for providing resources used to produce goods and services.
Inflation:A general rise in the price level.
Interdependence:Ideas, goods and services in one area affect decisions and events in other areas reducing self-sufficiency.
Interest:Payment made for the use of borrowed money.
Interest rate:The price of borrowed money.
Labor force:That part of the population which is employed or actively seeking employment.
Labor union:An organization of workers who seek to improve their common interests.
Labor productivity:The total output divided by the quantity of labor employed to produce it.
Law of demand:The lower the price of a good or service, the greater the quantity that people will buy, all else held constant (e.g., incomes, tastes).
Law of supply:The higher the price of a good or service, the greater the quantity that business will sell, all else held constant (e.g., resource costs, technology).
Loss:The difference that arises when a firm’s total revenues are less than its total costs.
Macroeconomics: Study of aggregate economic activity including how the economy works as a whole. Seeks to identify levels of National income, output, employment and prices.
Marginal analysis:A decision making tool that weighs additional costs and benefits.
Market:A place or process through which goods and services are exchanged.
Market economy:An economic system in which decisions are made largely by the interactions of buyers and sellers.
Microeconomics:Study of the behaviors of consumers, firms and determination of the market prices.
Mixed economy:An economic system in which decisions are made by markets, government and tradition.
Monetary policy:Government decisions on money supply and interest rates to achieve economic goals.
Money:A medium of exchange.
Money supply:The amount of liquid assets which exists in the economy at a given time (e.g., currency, checkable deposits, travelers’ checks).
Mutual fund:An investment option that uses cash from a pool of savers to buy a wide range of securities.
Natural resources:Anything found in nature that can be used to produce a product (e.g., land, water, coal).
Nonrenewable resources:Finite elements that cannot be replaced once they are used (e.g., petroleum, minerals).
Opportunity cost:The highest valued alternative given up when a decision is made.
Output:The total amount of a commodity produced.
Partnership:A business in which ownership is shared by two or more people who receive all the profits and rewards and bear all the losses and risks.
Price:The amount people pay in exchange for unit of a particular good or service.
Price control:Government restraint of prices to keep the cost of living down. It most usually happens in time of war, but there are also instances in peacetime.
Price index:A measure of the average level of costs at one time compared to the average level of costs at another time.
Producer:One who makes goods or services.
Productivity:Amount of output per unit of input over a period of time. It is used to measure the efficiency with which inputs can be used.
Profit:Total revenue minus total costs.
Progressive tax:A levy for which the percentage of income used to pay the levy increases as the taxpayer’s income increases.
Proportional tax:A levy for which the percentage of income used to pay the levy remains the same as the taxpayer’s income increases.
Public goods:Goods and services provided by the government rather than by the private sector. Goods and services that more than one person can use without necessarily preventing others from using them.
Public policy:A government’s course of action that guides present and future decisions.
Quantity demanded:The amount of a good or service people are willing and able to purchase at a given price during a specific time period.
Quantity supplied:The amount of a good or service people are willing and able to sell at a given price during a specific time period.
Quota:A form of import protectionism where the total quantity of imports of a particular commodity is limited.
Recession:A contraction in National production that lasts 6 months or longer. A recession might be marked by job layoffs and high unemployment, stagnant wages, reductions in retail sales and slowing of housing and car markets.
Regressive tax:A levy for which the percentage of income used to pay the levy decreases as the taxpayer’s income increases.
Renewable resources:Substances that can be regenerated if used carefully (e.g., fish, timber).
Resources:Inputs used to produce goods and services; categories include natural, human and capital.
Scarcity:An economic condition that exists when demand is greater than supply.
Services:Actions that are valued by others.
Sole proprietorship:A business owned by an individual who receives all the profits and rewards and bears all the losses and risks.
Specialization:A form of division of labor in which each individual or firm concentrates its productive efforts on a single or limited number of activities.
Standard of living:A measurement of an individual’s quality of life. A larger consumption of goods, services, and leisure is often assumed to indicate a higher standard of living.
Stock:A certificate representing a share of ownership in a company.
Supply:The different quantities of a resource, good or service that potential sellers are willing and able to sell at various possible prices during a specific time period.
Tariff:A surcharge placed on imported goods and services. The purpose of a tariff is to protect domestic products from foreign competition.
Tertiary:The third level of economic activity. It includes service and service-related industries.
Trade:Voluntary exchange between two parties in which both parties benefit.
Trade balance:The payments of a nation that deal with merchandise imports or exports.
Traditional economy:An economic system in which decisions are made largely by repeating the actions from an earlier time or generation.
Unemployment rate:The percentage of the labor force that is actively seeking employment.
Wants:Desires that can be satisfied by consuming goods, services or leisure activities.



Academic Standards for Geography



XIX. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction… XX.
THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS
Basic Geographic Literacy…7.1.
 A. Geographic Tools
 B. Location of Places and Regions
The Physical Characteristics of Places and
 Regions…
7.2.
 A. Physical Systems and Properties
 B. Physical Processes
The Human Characteristics of Places and
 Regions…
7.3.
 A. Population
 B. Culture
 C. Settlement
 D. Economic Activity
 E. Political Activity
The Interactions Between People and
 Places…
7.4.
 A. Impact of Physical Systems on People
 B. Impact of People on Physical Systems
Glossary… XXI.



XX. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Geography that describe what students should know and be able to do in four areas:

 • 7.1. Basic Geographic Literacy

 • 7.2. The Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions

 • 7.3. The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions

 • 7.4. The Interactions Between People and Places

 The Geography Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth). They reflect the increasingly complex and sophisticated understanding of geography that students are expected to achieve as they progress through school. Throughout the standards, all grade levels must address the local-to-global progression (scales). Basic concepts found in lower grade levels must be developed more fully at higher grade levels.

 Geography is the science of space and place on Earth’s surface. Its subject matter is the physical and human phenomena that make up the world’s environments and places. These standards build on using geographic tools as a means for asking and answering geographic questions; setting information into a range of spatial contexts; recognizing places and regions as human concepts; understanding the physical processes that have shaped Earth’s surface and the patterns resulting from those processes; identifying the relationships between people and environments; recognizing the characteristics and distribution of people and cultures on Earth’s surface; focusing on the spatial patterns of settlements and their resulting political structures; and exploring the networks of economic interdependence and the importance of resources.

 At each grade level, instructional content should be selected to support the development of geographic understanding. In the primary grade levels (1-3), the emphasis should be on identifying the basic characteristics of the world (answering the what question); at the intermediate grade levels (4-6), the emphasis should be on describing spatial patterns of phenomena (answering the where and when questions); at the middle grade levels (7-9), the emphasis should be on explaining spatial patterns of phenomena (answering the how question); and at high school grade levels (10-12), the emphasis should be on analyzing spatial patterns of phenomena (answering the why question). Although the emphasis may focus on specific questions, these questions may be encountered at any grade level.

 Geography is an integrative discipline that enables students to apply geography skills and knowledge to life situations at home, at work and in the community. Therefore, these standards should be cross-walked with those in Civics and Government, Economics and History to create an interdisciplinary view of the world. Topics and concepts in geography directly relate to standard statements in Environment and Ecology, Economics, Mathematics, Science and Technology and Civics and Government.

 Teachers should employ the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography while proceeding through the Academic Standards for Geography. The relationship between the themes and the standards is clear. The standards describe what students should know and be able to do while the themes provide a clear conceptual basis for teachers and students to use in organizing their knowledge.

 These are the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography:

 

Theme Description
 Location The absolute and relative position of a place on Earth’s surface
Place How physical and human characteristics define and distinguish a place
Human-Environ ment
 Interactions
How humans modify and adapt to natural settings
Movement How people, ideas and materials move between and among locations
Regions How an area displays unity in terms of physical and human characteristics

 The academic standards for Geography consist of four standard categories (designated as 7.1., 7.2., 7.3., and 7.4.). Each category has two to five standard statements (designated by a capital letter). Most standard statements have bulleted items known as standard descriptors. The standard descriptors are items within the document to illustrate and enhance the standard statement. The categories, statements and descriptors are regulations. The descriptors may be followed by an ‘‘e.g.’’ The ‘‘e.g.’s’’ are examples to clarify what type of information could be taught. These are suggestions and the choice of specific content is a local decision as is the method of instruction.

 Geography along with Civics and Government, Economics, and History are identified as Social Studies in Chapter 4. This identification is consistent with citizenship education in Chapter 49 and Chapter 354. Based on these regulations, Social Studies/Citizenship programs should include the four sets of standards as an entity in developing a scope and sequence for curriculum and planned instruction.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in clarifying terminology contained in the standards.

7.1. Basic Geographic Literacy
7.1.3. GRADE 3 7.1.6. GRADE 6 7.1.9. GRADE 9 7.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Identify geographic tools and their uses.
• Characteristics and purposes of different geographic representations
• Maps and basic map elements
• Globes
• Graphs
• Diagrams
• Photographs

  • Geographic representations to display spatial information
• Sketch maps
• Thematic maps
• Mental maps to describe the human and physical features of the local area

A. Describe geographic tools and their uses.
• Basis on which maps, graphs and diagrams are created
• Aerial and other photographs
• Reference works
• Field observations
• Surveys

  • Geographic representations to display spatial information
• Absolute location
• Relative location
• Flows (e.g., goods, people, traffic)
• Topography
• Historic events

  • Mental maps to organize an understanding of the human and physical features of Pennsylvania and the home county

  • Basic spatial elements for depicting the patterns of physical and human features

A. Explain geographic tools and their uses.
• Development and use of geographic tools
• Geographic information systems [GIS]
• Population pyramids
• Cartograms
• Satellite-produced images
• Climate graphs
• Access to computer-based geographic data (e.g., Internet, CD-ROMs)

  • Construction of maps
• Projections
• Scale
• Symbol systems
• Level of generalization
• Types and sources of data

  • Geographic representations to track spatial patterns
• Weather
• Migration
• Environmental change (e.g., tropical forest reduction, sea-level changes)

A. Analyze data and issues from a spatial perspective using the appropriate geographic tools.
• Spatial patterns of human features that change over time (e.g., intervening opportunity, distance decay, central place theory, locational preference)
• Physical patterns of physical features that change over time (e.g., climate change, erosion, ecological invasion and succession)
• Human and physical features of the world through mental maps


7.1. Basic Geographic Literacy
7.1.3. GRADE 3 7.1.6. GRADE 6 7.1.9. GRADE 9 7.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
• Point, line, area, location, distance, scale
• Map grids
• Alpha-numeric system
• Cardinal and intermediate directions

  • Mental maps to organize and understand the human and physical features of the United States

B. Identify and locate places and regions.
• Physical features
• Continents and oceans
• Major landforms, rivers and lakes in North America
• Local community

  • Human features
• Countries (i.e., United States, Mexico, Canada)
• States (i.e., Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, West Virginia)
• Cities (i.e., Philadelphia, Erie, Altoona, Pittsburgh, Scranton, Harrisburg, Johnstown, Allentown, Washington D.C., Baltimore, New York, Toronto, Cleveland
• Local community

  • Regions as areas with unifying geographic characteristics
• Physical regions (e.g., landform regions, climate regions, river basins)

B. Describe and locate places and regions.
• Coordinate systems (e.g., latitude and longitude, time zones)
• Physical features
• In the United States (e.g., Great Lakes, Rocky Mountains, Great Plains)
• In Pennsylvania (e.g., Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Appalachians)

  • Human features
• Countries (e.g., United Kingdom, Argentina, Egypt)
• Provinces (e.g., Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia)
• Major human regions (e.g., Mid Atlantic, New England, Southwest)
• States (e.g., California, Massachusetts, Florida)
• Major cities (e.g., London, Los Angeles, Tokyo)
• Counties (e.g., Lancaster, Lackawanna, Jefferson)

B. Explain and locate places and regions.
• How regions are created to interpret Earth’s complexity (i.e., the differences among formal regions, functional regions, perceptual regions)
• How characteristics contribute to regional changes (e.g., economic development, accessibility, demographic change)
• How culture and experience influence perceptions of places and regions
• How structures and alliances impact regions
• Development (e.g., First vs. Third World, North vs. South)
• Trade (e.g., NAFTA, the European Union)
• International treaties (e.g., NATO, OAS)
B. Analyze the location of places and regions.
• Changing regional characteristics (e.g., short- and long-term climate shifts; population growth or decline; political instability)
• Criteria to define a region (e.g., the reshaping of south Florida resulting from changing migration patterns; the US-Mexico border changes as a function of NAFTA; metropolitan growth in the Philadelphia region)
• Cultural change (e.g., influence on people’s perceptions of places and regions)


7.1. Basic Geographic Literacy
7.1.3. GRADE 3 7.1.6. GRADE 6 7.1.9. GRADE 9 7.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
• Human regions (e.g., neighborhoods, cities, states, countries)
• Townships (e.g., Dickinson, Lower Mifflin, Southampton)

  • Ways in which different people view places and regions (e.g., places to visit or to avoid)

  • Community connections to other places
• Dependence and interdependence
• Access and movement

  • How regions are connected (e.g., watersheds and river systems, patterns of world trade, cultural ties, migration)

Basic Geography Literacy must include local-to-global progression (scales) for all students at all grade levels for the standard statements and their descriptors. Basic concepts introduced in lower grade levels must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels. Portions of Basic Geography Literacy relate directly to the Mathematics Standards.


7.2 The Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions
7.2.3. GRADE 3 7.2.6. GRADE 6 7.2.9. GRADE 9 7.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Identify the physical characteristics of places and regions.
• Physical properties
• Landforms (e.g., plains, hills, plateaus and mountains)
• Bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes, seas and oceans)
• Weather and climate
• Vegetation and animals

  • Earth’s basic physical systems
• Lithosphere
• Hydrosphere
• Atmosphere
• Biosphere

A. Describe the physical characteristics of places and regions.
• Components of Earth’s physical systems (e.g., clouds, storms, relief and elevation [topography], tides, biomes, tectonic plates)
• Comparison of the physical characteristics of different places and regions (e.g., soil, vegetation, climate, topography)
• Climate types (e.g., marine west coast, humid continental, tropical wet and dry)
A. Explain the physical characteristics of places and regions including spatial patterns of Earth’s physical systems.
• Climate regions
• Landform regions
A. Analyze the physical characteristics of places and regions including the interrelationships among the components of Earth’s physical systems.
• Biomes and ecosystem regions
• Watersheds and river basins
• World patterns of biodiversity
B. Identify the basic physical processes that affect the physical characteristics of places and regions.
• Earth-sun relationships (i.e., seasons and length of daylight, weather and climate)
• Extreme physical events (e.g., earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes)
B. Describe the physical processes that shape patterns on Earth’s surface.
• Earth-sun relationships (i.e., differences between equinoxes and solstices, reasons they occur and their relationship to latitude)
• Climate influences (e.g., elevation, latitude, nearby ocean currents)
• Climate change, (e.g., global warming/cooling, decertification, glaciations)
• Plate tectonics
• Hydrologic cycle
B. Explain the dynamics of the fundamental processes that underlie the operation of Earth’s physical systems.
• Wind systems
• Water cycle
• Erosion/deposition cycle
• Plate tectonics
• Ocean currents
• Natural hazards
B. Analyze the significance of physical processes in shaping the character of places and regions.
• Circulation of the oceans
• Ecosystem processes
• Atmospheric systems
• Extreme natural events

The Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions must include local-to-global progression (scales) for all students at all grade levels for the standard statements and their descriptors. Basic concepts must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels. Portions of Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions relate directly to Science and Technology and Environment and Ecology standards.


7.3 The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions
7.3.3. GRADE 3 7.3.6. GRADE 6 7.3.9. GRADE 9 7.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. .
A. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their population characteristics.
• The number and distribution of people in the local community
• Human movement in the local community (e.g., mobility in daily life, migration)
A. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their population characteristics.
• Spatial distribution, size, density and demographic characteristics of population at the county and state level.
• Causes of human movement
• Mobility (e.g., shopping, commuting, recreation)
• Migration models (e.g., push/pull factors, barriers to migration)
A. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their population characteristics.
• Spatial distribution, size, density and demographic characteristics of population at the state and National level
• Demographic structure of a population (e.g., life expectancy, fertility rate, mortality rate, infant mortality rate, population growth rate, the demographic transition model)
• Effects of different types and patterns of human movement
• Mobility (e.g., travel for business)
• Migration (e.g., rural to urban, short term vs. long term, critical distance)
A. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their population characteristics:
• Spatial distribution, size, density and demographic characteristics of population at the international level
• Demographic trends and their impacts on patterns of population distribution (e.g., carrying capacity, changes in fertility, changes in immigration policy, the mobility transition model)
• Impact of movement on human systems (e.g., refugees, guest workers, illegal aliens)
B. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
• Components of culture (e.g., language, belief systems and customs, social organizations, foods, ethnicity)
• Ethnicity of people in the local community (e.g., customs, celebrations, languages, religions)
B. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
• Ethnicity of people at the county and state levels (e.g., customs, celebrations, languages, religions)
• Spatial arrangement of cultures creates distinctive landscapes (e.g., cultural regions based on languages, customs, religion, building styles as in the Pennsylvania German region)
B. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
• Ethnicity of people at national levels (e.g., customs, celebrations, languages, religions)
• Culture distribution (e.g., ethnic enclaves and neighborhoods)
• Cultural diffusion (e.g., acculturation and assimilation, cultural revivals of language)
B. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
• Cultural conflicts (e.g., over language (Canada), over political power (Spain), over economic opportunities (Mexico))
• Forces for cultural convergence (e.g., the diffusion of foods, fashions, religions, language)
C. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
• Types of settlements (e.g., villages, towns, suburbs, cities, metropolitan areas)
• Factors that affect where people settle (e.g., water, resources, transportation)
C. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
• Current and past settlement patterns in the local area
• Factors that affect the growth and decline of settlements (e.g., immigration, transportation development, depletion of natural resources, site and situation)
C. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
• Current and past settlement patterns in Pennsylvania and the United States
• Forces that have re-shaped modern settlement patterns (e.g., central city decline, suburbanization, the development of transport systems)
• Internal structure of cities (e.g., manufacturing zones, inner and outer suburbs, the location of infrastructure)
C. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
• Description of current and past settlement patterns at the international scale (e.g., global cities)
• Use of models of the internal structure of cities (e.g., concentric zone, sector, multiple nuclei)
• Forces that have reshaped settlement patterns (e.g., commuter railroads, urban freeways, the development of megalopolis and edge cities)
D. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their economic activities.
• Location factors in the spatial distribution of economic activities (e.g., market, transportation, workers, materials)
• Producers of consumer products and services (e.g., bread, pizza, television, shopping malls)
• Products of farms and factories at the local and regional level (e.g., mushrooms, milk, snack foods, furniture)

  • Spatial distribution of resources
• Non-renewable resources
• Renewable resources
• Flow resources (e.g., water power, wind power)

D. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their economic activities.
• Spatial distribution of economic activities in the local area (e.g., patterns of agriculture, forestry, mining, retailing, manufacturing, services)
• Factors that influence the location and spatial distribution of economic activities (e.g., market size for different types of business, accessibility, modes of transportation used to move people, goods and materials)
• Spatial distribution of resources and their relationship to population distribution
• Historical settlement patterns and natural resource use (e.g.,
D. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their economic activities.
• Spatial distribution of economic activities in Pennsylvania and the United States (e.g., patterns of agriculture, forestry, mining, retailing, manufacturing, services)
• Factors that shape spatial patterns of economic activity both Nationally and internationally (e.g., comparative advantage in location of economic activities; changes in resource trade; disruption of trade flows)
• Technological changes that affect the definitions of, access to, and use of natural resources (e.g., the role of exploration, extraction, use and depletion of resources)
D. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their economic characteristics.
• Changes in spatial distribution of economic activities at the global scale (e.g., patterns of agriculture, forestry, mining, retailing, manufacturing, services)
• Forces that are reshaping business (e.g., the information economy, business globalization, the development of off-shore activities)
• Effects of changes and movements in factors of production (e.g., resources, labor, capital)


7.3 The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions
7.3.3. GRADE 3 7.3.6. GRADE 6 7.3.9. GRADE 9 7.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to.
waterpower sites along the FallLine)
• Natural resource-based industries (e.g., agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry)
E. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their political activities.
• Type of political units (e.g., townships, boroughs, towns, cities, counties, states, countries (nation-state))
• Political units in the local area
E. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their political activities.
• Spatial pattern of political units in Pennsylvania
• Functions of political units (e.g., counties, municipalities, townships, school districts, PA General Assembly districts (House and Senate), U.S. Congressional districts, states)
E. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their political activities.
• Spatial pattern of political units in the United States
• Geographic factors that affect decisions made in the United States (e.g., territorial expansion, boundary delineation, allocation of natural resources)
• Political and public policies that affect geography (e.g., open space, urban development)
E. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their political characteristics:
• Spatial pattern of political units in the global system
• Role of new political alliances on the international level (e.g., multinational organizations, worker’s unions, United Nations’ organizations)
• Impact of political conflicts (e.g., secession, fragmentation, insurgencies, invasions)

The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions must include local-to-global progression (scales) for all students at all grade levels for the standard statements and their descriptors. Basic concepts found in lower grade levels must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels. Portions of Human Characteristics of Places and Regions relate directly to the Civics and Government and Economics Standards.


7.4 The Interactions Between People and Places
7.4.3. GRADE 3 7.4.6. GRADE 6 7.4.9. GRADE 9 7.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Identify the impacts of physical systems on people.
• How people depend on, adjust to and modify physical systems on a local scale (e.g., soil quality and agriculture, snowfall and daily activities, drought and water use)
• Ways in which natural hazards affect human activities (e.g., storms, lightning, flooding)
A. Describe the impacts of physical systems on people.
• How people depend on, adjust to and modify physical systems on regional scale (e.g., coastal industries, development of coastal communities, flood control)
• Ways in which people adjust to life in hazard-prone areas (e.g., California and earthquakes, Florida and hurricanes, Oklahoma and tornadoes)
A. Explain the impacts of physical systems on people.
• How people depend on, adjust to and modify physical systems on National scale (e.g., soil conservation programs, projects of The Corps of Engineers)
• Ways in which people in hazard-prone areas adjust their ways of life (e.g., building design in earthquake areas, dry-farming techniques in drought-prone areas)
A. Analyze the impacts of physical systems on people.
• How people depend on, adjust to and modify physical systems on international scales (e.g., resource development of oil, coal, timber)
• Ways in which people modify ways of life to accommodate different environmental contexts (e.g., building in permafrost areas; the role of air-conditioning in the United States South and Southwest; the development of enclosed spaces for movement in cold climates)
B. Identify the impacts of people on physical systems.
• Effects of energy use (e.g., water quality, air quality, change in natural vegetation)
• Ways humans change local ecosystems (e.g., land use, dams and canals on waterways, reduction and extinction of species)
B. Describe the impacts of people on physical systems.
• Changing spatial patterns on Earth’s surface that result from human activities (e.g., lake desiccation as in the Aral Sea, construction of dikes, dams and storm surge barriers in the Netherlands, designation of State parks and forests throughout Pennsylvania)
• Ways humans adjust their impact on the habitat (e.g., Endangered Species Act, replacement of wetlands, logging and replanting trees)
B. Explain the impacts of people on physical systems.
• Forces by which people modify the physical environment (e.g., increasing population; new agricultural techniques; industrial processes and pollution)
• Spatial effects of activities in one region on another region (e.g., scrubbers on power plants to clean air, transportation systems such as Trans-Siberian Railroad, potential effects of fallout from nuclear power plant accidents)
B. Analyze the impacts of people on physical systems.
• How people develop international agreements to manage environmental issues (e.g., Rio de Janeiro Agreement, the Law of the Sea, the Antarctica Treaty)
• How local and regional processes can have global effects (e.g., wind and hydroelectric power transmitted across regions, water use and irrigation for crop production)
• Sustainability of resources (e.g., reforestation, conservation)
• World patterns of resource distribution and utilization (e.g., oil trade, regional electrical grids)
The Interactions Between People and Places must include local to global scales for all students at all grade levels for the standard statements and their descriptors. Basic concepts found in lower grade levels must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.

XXI. GLOSSARY

Absolute location:The position of a point on Earth’s surface that can usually be described by latitude and longitude. Another example of absolute location would be the use of a nine digit zip code and street address.
Acculturation:The process of adopting the traits of a cultural group.
Assimilation:The acceptance, by one culture group or community, of cultural traits associated with another.
Atmosphere:The body of gases, aerosols and other materials that surrounds Earth and is held close by gravity. It extends about twelve miles from Earth’s surface.
Barriers to migration:Factors that keep people from moving (e.g., lack of information about potential destination, lack of funds to cover the costs of moving, regulations that control migration).
Basic map elements:Materials included on geographic representations. These include title, directions, date of map, mapmaker’s name, a legend and scale. Often a geographic grid, the source of information and sometimes an index of places on the map are also included.
Biomes:A community of living organisms of a single major ecological region.
Biosphere:The domain of Earth that includes all plant and animal life forms.
Boundary:The limit or extent within which a system exists or functions, including a social group, a state or physical features.
Capital:One of the factors of production of goods and services. Capital can be goods (e.g., factories and equipment, highways, information, communications systems) and/or funds (investment and working capital) used to increase production and wealth. Other factors are land, water and labor.
Cardinal directions:The four main points of the compass; north, east, south and west.
Carrying capacity:Maximum population that an area can support over time depending upon environmental conditions, human interventions and interdependence.
Central Place Theory:The conceptual framework that explains the size, spacing and distribution of settlements and their economic relationships with their market areas.
Climate:Long-term patterns and trends in weather elements and atmospheric conditions.
Climate graph (climagraph):A diagram that combines average monthly temperature and precipitation data for a particular place.
Comparative advantage:The specialization by a given area in the production of one or a few commodities for which it has a particular edge (e.g., labor quality, resources availability, production costs).
Concentric Zone Model:A framework that proposes that urban functions and the associated land uses are arranged in rings that grow outward from a central area. One of three models developed to explain how cities and metropolitan areas are arranged internally. The other models are the Sector and the Multiple Nuclei.
Country:Unit of political space often referred to as a state or nation-state.
Culture:Learned behavior of people, which includes their belief systems and languages, their social relationships, their institutions and organizations and their material goods—food, clothing, buildings, tools and machines.
Cultural diffusion:The spread of cultural elements from one culture to another.
Cultural landscape:The human imprint on the physical environment; the humanized image as created or modified by people.
Demographic change:Variation in population size, composition, rates of growth, density, fertility and mortality rates and patterns of migration.
Density:The population or number of objects per unit area (e.g., per square kilometer or mile).
Decertification:The spread of desert conditions in arid and semiarid regions resulting from a combination of climatic changes and increasing human pressures (e.g., overgrazing, removal of vegetation, cultivation of marginal land).
Desiccation:See lake desiccation.
Developed country:An area of the world that is technologically advanced, highly urbanized and wealthy and has generally evolved through both economic and demographic transitions.
Diffusion:The spread of people, ideas, technology and products among places.
Distance decay:The tendency for the acceptance of new ideas and technologies to decrease with distance from their source.
Earthquake:Vibrations and shock waves caused by the sudden movement of tectonic plates along fracture zones, called faults, in Earth’s crust.
Ecosystem (ecological system):A network formed by the interaction of all living organisms (plants, animals, humans) with each other and with the physical and chemical factors of the environment in which they live.
Elevation:Height of a point or place above sea level (e.g., Mount Everest has an elevation of 29,028 feet above sea level).
Enclaves:A country, territorial or culturally distinct unit enclosed within a larger country or community.
Environment:Everything in and on Earth’s surface and its atmosphere within which organisms, communities or objects exist.
Equilibrium:The point in the operation of a system when driving forces and resisting forces are in balance.
Equinoxes:The two days during the calendar year (usually September 23 and March 21) when all latitudes have twelve hours of both daylight and darkness and the sun is directly overhead at the Equator.
Erosional processes:The removal and transportation of weathered (loose) rock material by water, wind, waves and glaciers. Deposition is the end result of erosion and occurs when transported material is dropped.
Fall line:A linear connection joining the waterfalls on numerous rivers and streams that marks the point where each river and stream descends from the upland and the limit of the navigability of each river (e.g., the narrow boundary zone between the coastal plain and the Piedmont in the Eastern United States where there are falls and rapids on streams and rivers as they drop from the more resistant rocks of the Piedmont onto the softer rocks of the coastal plain).
Fertility rate:A measure of the number of children a woman will have during her child-bearing years (15 to 49 years of age) in comparison to the adult female population in a particular place.
Formal region:An area defined by the uniformity or homogeneity of certain characteristics (e.g., precipitation, landforms, subculture).
Functional region:An area united by a strong core (node) or center of human population and activity (e.g., banking linkages between large cities and smaller cities and towns).
Geographic Information System: A geographic database that contains information about the distribution of physical and human characteristics of places. In order to test hypotheses, maps of one characteristic or a combination can be produced from the database to analyze the data relationships.
Geographic scale:The size of Earth’s surface being studied. Study areas vary from local to regional to global. Scale also refers to the relationship between the size of space on a map and the size of that space on Earth’s surface. Maps are referred to as large scale if they are of smaller (local) areas and small scale if they represent much or all of the Earth’s surface. Map scale is expressed as a bar graph or representative fraction.
Global warming:The theory that Earth’s atmosphere is gradually warming due to the buildup of certain gases, including carbon dioxide and methane, which are released by human activities. The increased levels of these gases cause added heat energy from Earth to be absorbed by the atmosphere instead of being lost in space.
Globe:A scale model of Earth that correctly represents area, relative size and shape of physical features, distance between points and true compass direction.
Grid:A pattern of lines on a chart or map, such as those representing latitude and longitude, which helps determine absolute location and assists in the analysis of distribution patterns.
Human features:Tangible and intangible ideas associated with the culture, society and economy of places or areas. These include the spatial arrangement of land uses including transportation, the design of buildings and the nature and timing of activities that people conduct in these spaces.
Hydroelectric power:Electrical energy generated by the force of falling water which rotates turbines housed in power plants in dams on rivers.
Hydrosphere:The water realm of Earth which includes water contained in the oceans, lakes, rivers, ground, glaciers and water vapor in the atmosphere.
Infant mortality rate:The annual number of deaths among infants under 1 year of age for every 1,000 live births. It usually provides an indication of health care levels. The United States, for example, has a 1994 rate of 8.3 infant deaths per 1,000 live births while Angola has a rate of 137 infant deaths per 1,000 births.
Interdependence:Ideas, goods and services in one area affect decisions and events in other areas reducing self-sufficiency.
Intermediate directions:The points of the compass that fall between north and east, north and west, south and east, south and west (e.g., NE, NW, SE, SW).
Intervening opportunity:An alternate area that is a source of a product or service or a destination in the case of migration.
Lake desiccation:The reduction in water level (drying out) of an inland water body.
Landform:The shape, form or nature of a specific physical feature of Earth’s surface (e.g., plain, hill, plateau, mountain).
Land use:The range of uses of Earth’s surface made by humans. Uses are classified as urban, rural, agricultural, forested, etc. with more specific sub-classifications useful for specific purposes (e.g., low-density residential, light industrial, nursery crops).
Life expectancy:The average number of remaining years a person can expect to live under current mortality levels in a society. Life expectancy at birth is the most common use of this measure.
Lithosphere:The uppermost portion of the solid Earth including soil, land and geologic formations.
Location:The position of a point on Earth’s surface expressed by means of a grid (absolute) or in relation (relative) to the position of other places.
Map:A graphic representation of a portion of Earth that is usually drawn to scale on a flat surface.
Materials:Raw or processed substances that are used in manufacturing (secondary economic activities). Most substances used in factories are already manufactured to some degree and come from other factories rather than from sources of raw materials.
Megalopolis:The intermingling of two or more large metropolitan areas into a continuous or almost continuous built-up urban complex; sometimes referred to as a conurbation.
Mental map:A geographic representation which conveys the cognitive image a person has of an area, including knowledge of features and spatial relationships as well as the individual’s perceptions and attitudes regarding the place; also known as a cognitive map.
Metropolitan area:The Federal Office of Management and Budget’s designation for the functional area surrounding and including a central city; has a minimum population of 50,000; is contained in the same county as the central city; and includes adjacent counties having at least 15% of their residents working in the central city’s county.
Migration:The act or process of people moving from one place to another with the intent of staying at the destination permanently or for a relatively long period of time.
Multinational organizations:An association of nations aligned around a common economic or political cause (e.g., the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Organization of American States).
Multiple Nuclei Model:A representation of urban structure based on the idea that the functional areas (land use) of cities develop around various points rather than just one in the Central Business District.
Municipality:A political unit incorporated for local self-government (e.g., Pennsylvania’s boroughs, townships).
NAFTA:North American Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA is an accord to establish clear and mutually advantageous rules governing commerce among Canada, Mexico and the United States.
NATO:North Atlantic Treaty Organization. An international transatlantic partnership consisting of various European states, the United States and Canada, which was designed through cooperation, consultation and collective defense to maintain peace and promote stability throughout Europe.
Nation:A cultural concept for a group of people bound together by a strong sense of shared values and cultural characteristics including language, religion and common history.
Natural hazard:An event in the physical environment, such as a hurricane or earthquake, that is destructive to human life and property.
Natural resource:An element of the physical environment that people value and use to meet a need for fuel, food, industrial product or something else of value.
Nonrenewable resource:A finite element that cannot be replaced once it is used (e.g., petroleum, minerals).
Ocean currents:The regular and consistent horizontal flow of water in the oceans, usually in response to persistent patterns of circulation in the atmosphere.
OAS:Organization of American States. An international governmental organization formed by the nation-states of North America and South America for security and the protection of mutual interests.
OPEC:The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel of thirteen nations designed to promote collective pricing of petroleum, unified marketing policies and regulation of petroleum extraction.
Perceptual region:Ideas that people have about the character of areas based on impressions from a variety of sources of information including other individuals and media. Mental maps can be used to access these ideas to find out what people think about particular areas.
Physical feature:An aspect of a place or area that derives from the physical environment.
Physical process:A course or method of operation that produces, maintains or alters Earth’s physical system (e.g., glacial eroding, depositing landforms).
Place:An area with distinctive human and physical characteristics; these characteristics give it meaning and character and distinguish it from other areas.
Plate tectonics:The theory that Earth’s surface is composed of rigid slabs or plates (see tectonic plates). The divergence, convergence and slipping side-by-side of the different plates is responsible for present-day configurations of continents, ocean basins and major mountain ranges and valley systems.
Pollution:The direct or indirect process resulting from human action by which any part of the environment is made potentially or actually unhealthy, unsafe or hazardous to the welfare of the organisms which live in it.
Population density:The number of individuals occupying an area derived from dividing the number of people by the area they occupy (e.g., 2,000 people divided by ten square miles = 200 people per square mile).
Population pyramid:A bar graph showing the distribution by gender and age of a country’s population.
Primary economic activity:The production of naturally existing or culturally improved resources (i.e., agriculture, ranching, forestry, fishing, extraction of minerals and ores).
Pull factors:In migration theory, the social, political, economic and environmental attractions of new areas that draw people away from their previous location.
Push factors:In migration theory, the social, political, economic and environmental forces that drive people from their previous location.
Region:An area with one or more common characteristics or features that give it a measure of consistency and make it different from surrounding areas.
Relative location:The site of a place or region in relation to other places or regions (e.g., northwest, downstream).
Renewable resource:A substance that can be regenerated if used carefully (e.g., fish, timber).
Resource:An aspect of the physical environment that people value and use to meet a need for fuel, food, industrial product or something else of value.
Satellite image:A representation produced by a variety of sensors (e.g., radar, microwave detectors, scanners) that measure and record electromagnetic radiation. The collected data are turned into digital form for transmission to ground receiving stations. The data can be reconverted into imagery in a form resembling a photograph.
Scale:On maps the relationship or ratio between a linear measurement on a map and the corresponding distance on Earth’s surface. For example, the scale 1:1,000,000 means one unit (inch or centimeter) on the map represents 1,000,000 of the same units on Earth’s surface. Also refers to the size of places or regions being studied.
Sector Model:A theory of urban structure that recognizes the impact of transportation on land prices within the city and the resulting tendency for functional areas to be organized into sectors.
Secondary economic activity:Processing of raw and manufactured materials into products with added value.
Settlement pattern:The spatial distribution and arrangement of human habitations (e.g., rural, urban).
Site:The specific location where something may be found including its physical setting (e.g., on a floodplain).
Situation:The general location of something in relation to other places or features of a larger region (e.g., in the center of a group of cities).
Soil:Unconsolidated material found at the surface of Earth, which is divided into layers (or horizons) characterized by the accumulation or loss of organic and inorganic compounds. Loam types and depths vary greatly over Earth’s surface and are very much influenced by climate, organisms, rock type, local relief, time and human activity.
Spatial:Pertains to space on Earth’s surface.
Spatial distribution:The distribution of physical and human elements on Earth’s surface.
Spatial organization:The arrangement on Earth’s surface of physical and human elements.
Suburbanization:The shift in population from living in higher density urban areas to lower density developments on the edge of cities.
System:A collection of entities that are linked and interrelated (e.g., the hydrologic cycle, cities, transportation modes).
Technology:Application of knowledge to meet the goals, goods and services needed and desired by people.
Tectonic plates:Sections of Earth’s rigid crust that move as distinct units on a plastic-like ledge (mantle) on which they rest. As many as twenty different plates have been identified, but only seven are considered to be major (e.g., Eurasian Plate, South American Plate).
Thematic map:A geographic representation of a specific spatial distribution, theme or topic (e.g., population density, cattle production, climates of the world).
Time zone:A division of Earth, usually 15 degrees longitude, within which the time at the central meridian of the division represents the whole division.
Topography:The shape of Earth’s surface.
Water cycle:The continuous circulation of water from the oceans, through the air, to the land and back to the sea. Water evaporates from oceans, lakes, rivers and the land surfaces and transpires from vegetation. It condenses into clouds in the atmosphere that may result in precipitation returning water to the land. Water then seeps into the soil or flows out to sea completing the circulation. Also known as Hydrologic Cycle.



Academic Standards for History



XXII. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction… XXIII.
THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS
Historical Analysis and Skills Development…8.1.
 A. Chronological Thinking
 B. Historical Comprehension
 C. Historical Interpretation
 D. Historical Research
Pennsylvania History…8.2.
 A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups
 B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places
 C. Influences of Continuity and Change
 D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups
United States History…8.3.
 A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups
 B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places
 C. Influences of Continuity and Change
 D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups
World History…8.4.
 A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups
 B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places
 C. Influences of Continuity and Change
 D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups
Glossary… XXIV.



XXIII. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for History that describe what students should know and be able to do in four areas:

 • 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development

 • 8.2. Pennsylvania History

 • 8.3. United States History

 • 8.4. World History

 The History Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth). They reflect an understanding of chronological events and the application of historical thinking skills in viewing the human record. These academic standards provide an organizing content for schools.

 The Academic Standards for History are grounded in the Public School Code of 1949 which directs ‘‘... study in the history and government of that portion of America which has become the United States of America, and of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania . . .’’. Chapter 4—Academic Standards and Assessment in §  4.21 (relating to elementary education; primary and intermediate levels) reinforces the School Code by indicating that the history of the United States and the history of the Commonwealth must be taught once by the end of elementary school. In addition, §  4.22 (relating to middle level education) indicates that planned instruction in the history and cultures of the United States, the Commonwealth and world shall be provided. Chapter 4 also states that planned instruction shall be provided in the history and cultures of the United States, the Commonwealth and world in §  4.23 (relating to high school education).

 To support the intent of the Public School Code and Chapter 4, this document creates four standard categories. The four standard categories were designed to meld historical thinking (8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development) with historical understanding (8.2. Pennsylvania History, 8.3. United States History, and 8.4. World History) to describe what students should know and be able to do.

 Standard category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skill Development provides the basis for learning the content within the other three standard categories. The intent of the history standards is to instill in each student an ability to comprehend chronology, develop historical comprehension, evaluate historical interpretation and to understand historical research. One should not view these standards as a list of facts to recall, rather as stated in the opening phrase to the Pennsylvania, United States and World standard categories, ‘‘Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze the interaction of cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations.’’

 These standards provide a history framework to permit every school and teacher to create planned instruction. The content within this document is general and does not represent a course or even a portion thereof. Every school is encouraged to move beyond these standards. These standards are merely a starting point for the study of history. Planned instruction to meet these standards is required; however, the methodology, resources and time are not recommended nor implied.

 History is a discipline that interprets and analyzes the past. It is a narrative—a story. In order to tell the story it is not sufficient to simply recall facts; it is also necessary to understand the context of the time and place and to apply historical thinking skills. It is with this concept established, that the content delineated in Pennsylvania, United States and World histories should be approached. Having established the need to move beyond recall, it is the intent of these standards to give students throughout Pennsylvania a common cultural literacy.

 Pennsylvania, United States, and World History standard categories use the same four standard statements to guide teachers in developing planned instruction. The four standard statements are: (A) Political and Cultural Contributions of Individuals and Groups; (B) Primary Documents, Material Artifacts and Historical Places; (C) How Continuity and Change Has Influenced History; (D) Conflict and Cooperation Among Social Groups and Organizations. The chart, Four Standard Statements within the Academic Standards for History: An Overview outlines standard statements and descriptors.

 Although the standard statements are similar across grade levels and standard categories, the degree of comprehension, changes in content and shifts in chronology differ. Although different grade levels outline different chronological periods within the standards, it is intended that the specified chronological eras be linked to past learnings and that all eras be linked to the present. Linking to past learnings and the present is important, but so is addressing the standard statements in more depth. Therefore the following chronological time periods for the standard categories are established for the standard categories.

   Pennsylvania and
  United States History
     World History
Grades 1-3 Beginnings to Present Grades 1-3 Beginnings to Present
Grades 4-6 Beginnings to 1824 Grades 4-6 Beginnings to Present
Grades 7-9 1787 to 1914 Grades 7-9 Beginnings to 1500
Grades 10-12 1890 to Present Grades 10-12 1450 to Present

 Districts are encouraged to delineate each chronological period into less expansive historical eras within their planned instruction. The content listed in grade levels 1-3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 should be age appropriate for the students in those grade levels and the reader should interpret each standard descriptor in that manner.

 The Academic Standards for History consist of four standard categories (designated as 8.1., 8.2., 8.3., and 8.4.). Each category has four standard statements (designated A, B, C, and D). Most standard statements have bulleted items known as standard descriptors. The standard descriptors are items within the document to illustrate and enhance the standard statement. The categories, statements and descriptors are the regulations. The descriptors many times are followed by an ‘‘e.g..’’ The ‘‘e.g.’s’’ are examples to clarify what type of information could be taught. These are suggestions and the choice of specific content is a local decision as is the method of instruction.

 History along with civics and government, economics and geography are identified as social studies in Chapter 4. This identification is consistent with citizenship education in Chapters 49 and 354 (relating to certification of professional personnel; and preparation of professional educators). Based on these regulations, social studies/citizenship programs should include the four sets of standards as an entity in developing a scope and sequence for curriculum and planned instruction.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

Four Standard Statements within the Academic Standards for History: An Overview
Political and Cultural Contributions of Individuals and Groups
 • Inhabitants (cultures, subcultures, groups)
 • Political Leaders (monarchs, governors, elected officials)
 • Military Leaders (generals, noted military figures)
 • Cultural and Commercial Leaders (entrepreneurs, corporate executives, artists, entertainers, writers)
 • Innovators and Reformers (inventors, philosophers, religious leaders, social change agents, improvers of technology)
How Continuity and Change Have Influenced
History
 • Belief Systems and Religions (ideas, beliefs, values)
 • Commerce and Industry (jobs, trade, environmental change, labor systems, entertainment)
 • Innovations (ideas, technology, methods and processes)
 • Politics (political party systems, administration of government, rules, regulations and laws, political and judicial interpretation)
 • Transportation (methods of moving people and goods over time, transportation routes, circulation systems)
 • Settlement Patterns and Expansion (population density and diversity, settlement types, land use, colonization)
 • Social Organization (social structure, identification of social groups, families, groups and communities, education, school population, suffrage, civil rights)
 • Women’s Movement (changing roles of women, social and political movements, breaking barriers, role models)
Primary Documents, Material Artifacts and
Historical Places
 • Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (government documents, letters and diaries, fiction and non-fiction works, newspapers and other media, folklore)
 • Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (historic sites and places, museums and museum collections, official and popular cultural symbols, material culture)
Conflict and Cooperation Among Social Groups and Organizations
 • Domestic Instability (political unrest, natural and man-made disasters, genocide)
 • Ethnic and Racial Relations (racism and xenophobia, ethnic and religious prejudices, collective and individual actions)
 • Immigration and Migration (causes of population shifts, xenophobia, intercultural activity)
 • Labor Relations (strikes and collective bargaining, working conditions over time, labor/management identity)
 • Military Conflicts (causes, conduct and impact of military conflicts, wars and rebellions)
Each standard statement outlines its respective standard descriptors. Each standard descriptor suggests content that may be addressed. These are not all encompassing and local planned instruction is not limited to these examples.


8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development
8.1.3. GRADE 38.1.6. GRADE 6 8.1.9. GRADE 98.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Understand chronological thinking and distinguish between past, present and future time.
• Calendar time
• Time lines
• Continuity and change
• Events (time and place)
A. Understand chronological thinking and distinguish between past, present and future time.
• Calendar time
• Time lines
• People and events in time
• Patterns of continuity and change
• Sequential order
• Context for events
A. Analyze chronological thinking.
• Difference between past, present and future
• Sequential order of historical narrative
• Data presented in time lines
• Continuity and change
• Context for events
A. Evaluate chronological thinking.
• Sequential order of historical narrative
• Continuity and change
• Context for events knowledge and skills needed to . . .
B. Develop an understanding of historical sources.
• Data in historical maps
• Visual data from maps and tables
• Mathematical data from graphs and tables
• Author or historical source
B. Explain and analyze historical sources.
• Literal meaning of a historical passage
• Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs and tables
• Author or historical source
• Multiple historical perspectives
• Visual evidence
• Mathematical data from graphs and tables
B. Analyze and interpret historical sources.
• Literal meaning of historical passages
• Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs, and tables
• Different historical perspectives
• Data from maps, graphs and tables
• Visual data presented in historical evidence
B. Synthesize and evaluate historical sources.
• Literal meaning of historical passages
• Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs and tables
• Different historical perspectives
• Data presented in maps, graphs and tables
• Visual data presented in historical evidence


8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development
8.1.3. GRADE 38.1.6. GRADE 6 8.1.9. GRADE 98.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
C. Understand fundamentals of historical interpretation.
• Difference between fact and opinion
• The existence of multiple points of view
• Illustrations in historical stories
• Causes and results
C. Explain the fundamentals of historical interpretation.
• Difference between fact and opinion
• Multiple points of view
• Illustrations in historical stories
• Causes and results
• Author or source of historical narratives
C. Analyze the fundamentals of historical interpretation.
• Fact versus opinion
• Reasons/causes for multiple points of view
• Illustrations in historical documents and stories
• Causes and results
• Author or source used to develop historical narratives
• Central issue
C. Evaluate historical interpretation of events.
• Impact of opinions on the perception of facts
• Issues and problems in the past
• Multiple points of view
• Illustrations in historical stories and sources
• Connections between causes and results
• Author or source of historical narratives’ points of view
• Central issue
D. Understand historical research.
• Event (time and place)
• Facts, folklore and fiction
• Formation of historical question
• Primary sources
• Secondary sources
• Conclusions (e.g., storytelling, role playing, diorama)
D. Describe and explain historical research.
• Historical events (time and place)
• Facts, folklore and fiction
• Historical questions
• Primary sources
• Secondary sources
• Conclusions (e.g., simulations, group projects, skits and plays)
D. Analyze and interpret historical research.
• Historical event (time and place)
• Facts, folklore and fiction
• Historical questions
• Primary sources
• Secondary sources
• Conclusions (e.g., History Day projects, mock trials, speeches)
• Credibility of evidence
D. Synthesize historical research.
• Historical event (time and place)
• Facts, folklore and fiction
• Historical questions
• Primary sources
• Secondary sources
• Conclusions (e.g., Senior Projects, research papers, debates)
• Credibility of evidence
Pennsylvania History, 8.3. United States History and 8.4. World History.

Historical Analysis and Skill Development are learned through and applied to the standards statements and their descriptors for 8.2 Pennsylvania History, 8.3 United States History and 8.4 World History


8.2. Pennsylvania History
8.2.3. GRADE 38.2.6. GRADE 68.2.9. GRADE 9 8.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
A. Understand the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history.
• William Penn
• Benjamin Franklin
• Pennsylvanians impacting American Culture (e.g., John Chapman, Richard Allen, Betsy Ross, Mary Ludwig Hayes, Rachel Carson, Elizabeth Jane Cochran, Marian Anderson)
• Local historical figures in municipalities and counties.
A. Identify and explain the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Inhabitants (e.g., Native Americans, Europeans, Africans)
• Military Leaders (e.g., Anthony Wayne, Oliver H. Perry, John Muhlenberg)
• Political Leaders (e.g., William Penn, Hannah Penn, Benjamin Franklin)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Robert Morris, John Bartram, Albert Gallatin)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Society of Friends, Richard Allen, Sybilla Masters)
A. Analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
• Political Leaders (e.g., James Buchanan, Thaddeus Stevens, Andrew Curtin)
• Military Leaders (e.g., George Meade, George McClellan, John Hartranft)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., John J. Audubon, Rebecca Webb Lukens, Stephen Foster)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., George Westinghouse, Edwin Drake, Lucretia Mott)
A. Evaluate the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from 1890 to Present.
• Political Leaders (e.g., Gifford Pinchot, Genevieve Blatt, K. Leroy Irvis)
• Military Leaders (e.g., Tasker H. Bliss, Henry ‘‘Hap’’ Arnold, George C. Marshall)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Milton Hershey, Marian Anderson, Fred Rogers)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Frank Conrad, Rachel Carson, Joseph Rothrock)
B. Identify and describe primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Penn’s Charter, Pennsylvania ‘‘Declaration of Rights’)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Local historical sites, museum collections, Independence Hall)
• Liberty Bell
• Official Commonwealth symbols (e.g., tree, bird, dog, insect)
B. Identify and explain primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Charter of Privileges, The Gradual Abolition of Slavery Act of 1780, Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Conestoga Wagon, Pennsylvania rifle, Brig Niagara)
B. Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Pennsylvania Constitutions of 1838 and 1874, The ‘‘Gettysburg Address,’’ The Pittsburgh Survey)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Gettysburg, Eckley Miners’ Village, Drake’s Well)
B. Identify and evaluate primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from 1890 to Present.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Constitution of 1968, Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, Pennsylvania historical markers)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., 28th Division Shrine, Fallingwater, Levittown, Allegheny Ridge heritage corridor)
C. Identify and describe how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Native Americans, early settlers, contemporary religions)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., jobs, trade, environmental change)
• Innovations (e.g., technology, ideas, processes)
• Politics (e.g., rules, regulations, laws)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., farms, towns, rural communities, cities)
• Social Organization (e.g., relationships of individuals, families, groups, communities; ability to be educated)
• Transportation (e.g., methods of moving people and goods over time)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., changes in roles and rights over time)
C. Identify and explain how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from the Beginnings to 1824.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Native Americans, Quakers)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., iron production, sailing, fur trade)
• Innovations (e.g., steam boat, Conestoga Wagon)
• Politics (e.g., The Mason-Dixon Line, Pennsylvania’s acquisition and detachment of the ‘‘lower three counties,’’ movements of State capital)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., native settlements, Westward expansion, development of towns)
• Social Organization (e.g., trade and development of cash economy, African Methodist Episcopal Church founded, schools in the colony)
C. Identify and analyze how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Ephrata Cloister, Harmonists, Amish, immigrant influences)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., mining coal, producing iron, harvesting timber)
• Innovations (e.g., John Roebling’s steel cable, steel-tipped plow, improved techniques for making iron, steel and glass)
• Politics (e.g., Fugitive Slave Act reaction, canal system legislation, The Free School Act of 1834)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., farms and growth of urban centers)
C. Identify and evaluate how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from the 1890s to Present.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., work of defense industries, rise and decline of the steel industry, increase of service industries)
• Innovations (e.g., polio vaccine, air pollution examined, nuclear power plants)
• Politics (e.g., Great Depression special legislative session, creation of the state income tax)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., growth and decline of cities, coal towns, Pittsburgh Renaissance)


8.2. Pennsylvania History
8.2.3. GRADE 38.2.6. GRADE 68.2.9. GRADE 9 8.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
• Transportation (e.g., trade routes, turnpikes, post roads)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., voting qualifications, role models)
• Social Organization (e.g., the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876, prohibition of racial discrimination in schools)
• Transportation (e.g., canals, National Road, Thompson’s Horseshoe Curve)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., work of the Equal Rights League of Pennsylvania)
• Social Organization (e.g., creation of the State Soil Conservation Commission, First Amendment challenges to education, social services)
• Transportation (e.g., Pennsylvania Turnpike, Interstate highways, international airports)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., League of Women Voters, Commission for Women)


8.2. Pennsylvania History
8.2.3. GRADE 38.2.6. GRADE 68.2.9. GRADE 9 8.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
D. Identify and describe conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., political, economic and geographic impact on daily activities)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., treatment of various ethnic and racial groups in history)
• Labor Relations (e.g., working conditions, over time)
• Immigration (e.g., diverse groups inhabiting the state)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., struggle for control)
D. Identify and explain conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., religious diversity, toleration and conflicts, incursion of the Iroquois)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., Penn’s Treaties with Indians, the Underground Railroad, the abolition of slavery)
• Labor Relations (e.g., indentured servants, working conditions)
• Immigration (e.g., Germans, Irish)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., Dutch, Swedish and English struggle for control of land, Wyoming Massacre, The Whiskey Rebellion)
D. Identify and analyze conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., impact of war, 1889 Johnstown Flood)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., Christiana riots, disenfranchisement and restoration of suffrage for African-Americans, Carlisle Indian School)
• Labor Relations (e.g., National Trade Union, The ‘‘Molly Maguires,’’ Homestead steel strike)
• Immigration (e.g., Anti-Irish Riot of 1844, new waves of immigrants)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., Battle of Lake Erie, the Mexican War, the Civil War)
D. Identify and evaluate conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from 1890 to Present.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., The Great Depression, Three-Mile Island nuclear accident, floods of 1936, 1972 and 1977)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., segregation, desegregation, racial profiling)
• Labor Relations (e.g., strikes, work stoppages, collective bargaining)
• Immigration (e.g., increased immigration from Europe, migration of African-Americans from the South, influx of Hispanic and Asian peoples)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., World War I, World War II, Persian Gulf War)
Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors. Suggested chronology for grade levels 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 focus on a particular century; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior and later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.


8.3. United States History
8.3.3. GRADE 38.3.6. GRADE 68.3.9. GRADE 9 8.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
A. Identify contributions of individuals and groups to United States history.
• George Washington
• Thomas Jefferson
• Abraham Lincoln
• Theodore Roosevelt
• Franklin D. Roosevelt
• Individuals who are role models (e.g., Abigail Adams, Sacajawea, Frederick Douglass, Clara Barton, Jackie Robinson, Rosa Parks, Archbishop Patrick Flores, Jamie Escalante, Sally Ride, Tiger Woods, Cal Ripken, Jr., Sammy Sosa)
A. Identify and explain the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Native Americans, Africans and Europeans
• Political Leaders (e.g., John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall)
• Military Leaders (e.g. George Washington, Meriwether Lewis, Henry Knox)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Paul Revere, Phyllis Wheatley, John Rolfe)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Ann Hutchinson, Roger Williams, Junipero Serra)
A. Identify and analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from 1787 to 1914.
• Political Leaders (e.g., Daniel Webster, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson)
• Military Leaders (e.g., Andrew Jackson, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Jane Addams, Jacob Riis, Booker T. Washington)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Alexander G. Bell, Frances E. Willard, Frederick Douglass)
A. Identify and evaluate the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from 1890 to Present.
• Political Leaders (e.g., Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt)
• Military Leaders (e.g., John Pershing, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight D. Eisenhower)
• Cultural and Commerical Leaders (e.g., Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, Langston Hughes, Alan Greenspan)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Wilbur and Orville Wright, John L. Lewis, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King)
B. Identify and describe primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history.
• Documents (e.g., Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights)
• Writings and Communications (e.g., Pledge of Allegiance, famous quotations and sayings)
• Historic Places (e.g., The White House, Mount Rushmore, Statue of Liberty)
• The Flag of the United States
B. Identify and explain primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Documents (e.g., Mayflower Compact, Northwest Ordinance, Washington’s Farewell Address)
• 18th Century Writings and Communications (e.g., Paine’s Common Sense; Franklin’s ‘‘Join, or Die,’’ Henry’s ‘‘Give me liberty or give me death’’)
• Historic Places (e.g., Cahokia Mounds, Spanish Missions, Jamestown)
B. Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from 1787 to 1914.
• Documents (e.g., Fugitive Slave Law, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Emancipation Proclamation)
• 19th Century Writings and Communications (e.g., Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Brown’s ‘‘Washed by Blood,’’ Key’s Star Spangled Banner)
• Historic Places (e.g., The Alamo, Underground Railroad sites, Erie Canal)
B. Identify and evaluate primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from 1890 to Present.
• Documents (e.g., Treaty of Versailles, North Atlantic Treaty, Neutrality Acts)
• 20th Century Writings and Communication (e.g., Coolidge’s ‘‘The Business of America is Business,’’ King’s ‘‘I Have A Dream,’’ Armstrong’s ‘‘One Small Step for Man’’)
• Historic Places (e.g., Ellis Island, Pearl Harbor, Los Alamos)


8.3. United States History
8.3.3. GRADE 38.3.6. GRADE 68.3.9. GRADE 9 8.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
C. Identify important changes in United States history (e.g., Belief Systems and Religions, Commerce and Industry, Innovations, Politics, Settlement Patterns and Expansion, Social Organization, Transportation, Women’s Movement). C. Explain how continuity and change has influenced United States history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., impact on daily life, colonial government established religions, communal sects)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., fur trade, development of cash crops)
• Innovations (e.g., cotton gin, Whitney; wooden clock, Banneker; stove, Franklin)
• Politics (e.g., Hamilton’s defense of John Peter Zenger, The Great Compromise, Marbury v. Madison)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., frontier settlements, slave plantation society, growth of cities)
• Social Organization (e.g., community structure on the frontier, cultural and language barriers)
C. Analyze how continuity and change has influenced United States history from 1787 to 1914.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., 19th century trends and movements)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., growth of manufacturing industries, economic nationalism)
• Innovations (e.g., Brooklyn Bridge, refrigerated shipping, telephone)
• Politics (e.g., election of 1860, impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Jim Crow Laws)
• Settlement Patterns and Expansion (e.g., Manifest Destiny, successive waves of immigrants, purchase of Alaska and Hawaii)
• Social Organization (e.g., social class differences, women’s rights and antislavery movement, education reforms)
C. Evaluate how continuity and change has influenced United States history from 1890 to Present.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., 20th century movements, religions of recent immigrants)
• (Commerce and Industry (e.g., corporations, conglomerates, multinational corporations)
• Innovations (e.g., The Tin Lizzie, radio, World Wide Web)
• Politics (e.g., New Deal legislation, Brown v. Topeka, isolationist/non-isola-
tionist debate)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., suburbs, large urban centers, decline of city population)
• Social Organization (e.g., compulsory school laws, court decisions expanding individual rights, technological impact)


8.3. United States History
8.3.3. GRADE 38.3.6. GRADE 68.3.9. GRADE 9 8.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
• Transportation and Trade (e.g., methods of overland travel, water transportation, National Road)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., roles and changing status of women, Margaret Brent’s vote, soldier Deborah Sampson)
• Transportation and Trade (e.g., Pony Express, telegraph, Transcontinental Railroad)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., roles in the Civil War, medical college for women, Seneca Falls Conference)
• Transportation and Trade (e.g., expansion and decline of railroads, increased mobility, Internet)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., right to vote, women in the war effort, Women’s Peace Party)
D. Identify conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., impact on daily activities)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., treatment of minority groups in history)
• Labor Relations (e.g., working conditions over time)
• Immigration (e.g., diverse groups inhabiting the state)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., struggle for control)
D. Identify and explain conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., Salem Witch Trials, Shays Rebellion, religious persecution)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., cooperation between and among Native Americans and European settlers, slave uprisings, ‘‘Colored’’ troops in the Revolution)
• Labor Relations (e.g., early union efforts, 10-hour day, women’s role)
• Immigration and Migration (e.g., western settlements, Louisiana Purchase, European immigration)
D. Identify and analyze conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history from 1787 to 1914.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., wartime confiscation of private property, abolitionist movement, Reconstruction)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., Cherokee Trail of Tears, slavery and the Underground Railroad, draft riots)
• Labor Relations (e.g., female and child labor, trade unionism, strike breakers)
• Immigration and Migration (e.g., Manifest Destiny, eastern and southern European immigration, Chinese Exclusion Act)
D. Identify and evaluate conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history from 1890 to the Present.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., Great Depression, assassination of political and social leaders, terrorist threats)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., internment camps for Japanese Americans, Montgomery Alabama Bus Boycott, land tensions with Native Americans)
• Labor Relations (e.g., rise and decline of industrial unions, free trade agreements, imports impact on domestic employment)
• Immigration and Migration (e.g., anti-immigrant attitudes, quota laws, westward and southward migration)


8.3. United States History
8.3.3. GRADE 38.3.6. GRADE 68.3.9. GRADE 9 8.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
• Military Conflicts (e.g., French and Indian War, American Revolutionary War, War of 1812)• Military Conflicts (e.g., Native American opposition to expansion and settlement, Civil War, Spanish-American War)• Military Conflicts (e.g., World War I, World War II, War on Terrorism)

Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors. Suggested chronology for grade levels 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 focus on a particular century; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior or later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.


8.4. World History
8.4.3. GRADE 38.4.6. GRADE 68.4.9. GRADE 9 8.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
A. Identify individuals and groups who have made significant political and cultural contributions to world history.
• Africa (e.g., Nefertiti, Mansa Musa, Nelson Mandela)
• Americas (e.g., Montezuma, Simon Bolivar, Fidel Castro)
• Asia (e.g., Hammurabi, Mohandas Gandhi, Benazir Bhutto)
• Europe (e.g., Julius Ceasar, Joan of Arc, Pope John Paul)
A. Identify and explain how individuals and groups made significant political and cultural contributions to world history.
• Africa (e.g., Nelson Mandela, Desmond Tutu, F. W. de Klerk, Pieter Botha, African National Congress)
• Americas (e.g., Pizarro, Atahualpa, Aztecs, Incas, Montezuma, Cortez)
• Asia (e.g., Tokugawa Ieyasu, Toyotomi clan, shogun Iemitsu, Commodore Perry, daimyo)
• Europe (e.g., Pope Leo X, John Calvin, John Wesley, Martin Luther, Ignatius of Loyola)
A. Analyze the significance of individuals and groups who made major political and cultural contributions to world history before 1500.
• Political and Military Leaders (e.g., King Ashoka, Montezuma I, Ghenghis Khan, William the Conqueror)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Mansa Musa, Yak Pac, Cheng Ho, Marco Polo)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Erastostenes, Tupac Inka Yupenqui, Johannes Gutenberg)
A. Evaluate the significance of individuals and groups who made major political and cultural contributions to world history since 1450.
• Political and Military Leaders (e.g., Askia Daud, Simon Bolivar, Napoleon Bonaparte, Mao Zedong)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Chinua Achebe, Gabriel Garcia Marquiez, Akira Kurosa, Christopher Columbus)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Nelson Mandela, Louis-Joseph Papineau, Mohandas Gandhi, Alexander Fleming)
B. Identify historic sites and material artifacts important to world history.
• Africa (e.g., Pyramids, treasures of Tutankhamen, Nefertiti’s sculpture)
• Americas (e.g., Olmec ritualistic centers, Mayan pyramids, arrowheads)
• Asia (e.g., Code of Hammurabi, Ziggurat at Ur, canals)
• Europe (e.g., ancient megaliths, Arc de Triomphe, Acropolis)
B. Identify and explain important documents, material artifacts and historic sites in world history.
• Africa (e.g., Prohibition of Marriages Act, prison on Robben Island)
• Americas (e.g., Tenochtitlan, Aztec masks)
• Asia (e.g., samurai sword, Commodore Perry’s Black Ships)
• Europe (e.g., Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses, Wittenberg Castle Church)
B. Analyze historical documents, material artifacts and historic sites important to world history before 1500.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Rosetta Stone, Aztec glyph writing, Dead Sea Scrolls, Magna Carta)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Ethiopian rock churches, Mayan pyramids, Nok terra cotta figures, megaliths at Stonehenge)
• Historic districts (e.g., Memphis and its Necropolis, Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls, Centre of Rome and the Holy See)
B. Evaluate historical documents, material artifacts and historic sites important to world history since 1450.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Declaration of the International Conference on Sanctions Against South Africa; Monroe Doctrine, Communist Manifesto, Luther’s Ninety-five Theses)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Robben Island, New York Trade Center, Hiroshima Ground Zero Memorial, Nazi concentration camps)
• Historic districts (e.g., Timbuktu, Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco, Taj Mahal and Gardens, Kremlin and Red Square)
C. Compare similarities and differences between earliest civilizations and life today. (e.g., Africa, Egypt; Asia, Babylonia; Americas, Olmec; Europe, Neolithic settlements). C. Identify and explain how continuity and change has affected belief systems, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organizations, transportation and women’s roles in world history.
• Africa (e.g., Apartheid)
• Americas (e.g., European conquest)
• Asia (e.g., Japanese society prior to the Meiji Restoration)
• Europe (e.g., Impact of the Great Schism and Reformation)
C. Analyze how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organization, transportation and roles of women before 1500.
• Africa
• Americas
• Asia
• Europe
C. Evaluate how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organization, transportation and roles of women since 1450.
• Africa
• Americas
• Asia
• Europe
D. Identify how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations affected world history.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., political, economic and geographic impact on normal activities)
• Labor Relations (e.g., working conditions over time)
• Racial and Ethnic Relations (e.g., treatment of various ethnic and racial groups in history)
• Immigration and migration (e.g., diverse groups inhabiting a territory)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., struggle for control)
D. Explain how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations affected world history
• Africa (e.g., imperialism)
• Americas (e.g., European diseases)
• Asia (e.g., trade routes)
• Europe (e.g., Counter reformation)
D. Analyze how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations impacted world history through 1500 in Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe
• Domestic Instability
• Ethnic and Racial Relations
• Labor Relations
• Immigration and Migration
• Military Conflicts
D. Evaluate how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations impacted world history from 1450 to Present in Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe.
• Domestic Instability
• Ethnic and Racial Relations
• Labor Relations
• Immigration and Migration
• Military Conflicts
Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors. Suggested chronology in organizing the content for grade levels 7-9 and 10-12 use the 15th century as the dividing point; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior and later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.


Pennsylvania Core Standards for Reading in
History and Social Studies
Grades 6-12


INTRODUCTION

 These standards describe what students in the social studies classroom should know and be able to do with the English language in reading, grade 6 through 12. The standards provide the targets for instruction and student learning essential for success in all academic areas, not just language arts classrooms. Although the standards are not a curriculum or a prescribed series of activities, school entities will use them to develop a local school curriculum that will meet local students’ needs.

 The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K-5 reading in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K-5 Reading standards.

 The English Language Arts Standards for History and Social Studies also provide parents and community members with information about what students should know and be able to do as they progress through the educational program and at graduation. With a clearly defined target provided by the standards, parents, students, educators and community members become partners in learning. Each standard implies an end of year goal—with the understanding that exceeding the standard is an even more desirable end goal.

8.5 Reading Informational Text
Students read, understand, and respond to informational text—with emphasis on comprehension, making connections among ideas and between texts with focus on textual evidence.
 GRADE 6-8  GRADE 9-10  GRADE 11-12
Key Ideas and Details  CC.8.5.6-8.A.
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
CC.8.5.9-10.A.
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
 CC.8.5.11-12.A.
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.
 CC.8.5.6-8.B.
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
CC.8.5.9-10.B.
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.
 CC.8.5.11-12.B.
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.
 CC.8.5.6-8.C.
Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
CC.8.5.9-10.C.
Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.
 CC.8.5.11-12.C.
Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.
Craft and Structure  CC.8.5.6-8.D.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
CC.8.5.9-10.D.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.
 CC.8.5.11-12.D.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
 CC.8.5.6-8.E.
Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
CC.8.5.9-10.E.
Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis.
 CC.8.5.11-12.E.
Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole.
 CC.8.5.6-8.F.
Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
CC.8.5.9-10.F.
Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.
 CC.8.5.11-12.F.
Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas  CC.8.5.6-8.G.
Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
CC.8.5.9-10.G.
Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text.
 CC.8.5.11-12.G.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
 CC.8.5.6-8.H.
Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
CC.8.5.9-10.H.
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims.
 CC.8.5.11-12.H.
Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.
 CC.8.5.6-8.I.
Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
CC.8.5.9-10.I.
Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.
 CC.8.5.11-12.I.
Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
Range and Level of
Complex Texts
CC.8.5.6-8.J.
By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
CC.8.5.9-10.J.
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
CC.8.5.11-12.J.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Pennsylvania Core Standards for Writing in History and Social Studies
Grades 6-12


INTRODUCTION

 These standards describe what students in the social studies classroom should know and be able to do with the English language in writing, grade 6 through 12. The standards provide the targets for instruction and student learning essential for success in all academic areas, not just language arts classrooms. Although the standards are not a curriculum or a prescribed series of activities, school entities will use them to develop a local school curriculum that will meet local students’ needs.

 The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K-5 reading in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K-5 Writing standards.

 The English Language Arts Standards for History and Social Studies also provide parents and community members with information about what students should know and be able to do as they progress through the educational program and at graduation. With a clearly defined target provided by the standards, parents, students, educators and community members become partners in learning. Each standard implies an end of year goal—with the understanding that exceeding the standard is an even more desirable end goal.

8.6 Writing
Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.
 GRADES 6-8  GRADES 9-10  GRADES 11-12
Text Types and Purposes  CC.8.6.6-8.A.
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
• Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
• Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
• Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
• Establish and maintain a formal style.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
CC.8.6.9-10.A.
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
• Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
• Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
• Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
 CC.8.6.11-12.A.
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
• Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
• Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
• Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
 CC.8.6.6-8.B.*
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.
• Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
• Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
• Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
 CC.8.6.9-10.B.*
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.
• Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
• Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
• Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
• Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
• Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
 CC.8.6.11-12.B.*
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.
• Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
• Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
• Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
• Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
• Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
Production and Distribution of Writing  CC.8.6.6-8.C.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.8.6.9-10.C.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.8.6.11-12.C.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
 CC.8.6.6-8.D.
With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
 CC.8.6.9-10.D.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
 CC.8.6.11-12.D.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
 CC.8.6.6-8.E.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
 CC.8.6.9-10.E.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
 CC.8.6.11-12.E.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge  CC.8.6.6-8.F.
Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
 CC.8.6.9-10.F.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question
(including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
 CC.8.6.11-12.F.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
 CC.8.6.6-8.G.
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
 CC.8.6.9-10.G.
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
 CC.8.6.11-12.G.
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
 CC.8.6.6-8.H.
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
 CC.8.6.9-10.H.
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
 CC.8.6.11-12.H.
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Range of Writing  CC.8.6.6-8.I.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
 CC.8.6.9-10.I.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
 CC.8.6.11-12.I.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks,
purposes, and audiences.

 * Students’ narrative skills continue to grow in these grades. The Standards require that students be able to incorporate narrative elements effectively into arguments and informative/explanatory texts. In history/social studies, students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of individuals or events of historical import. In science and technical subjects, students must be able to write precise enough descriptions of the step-by-step procedures they use in their investigations or technical work that others can replicate them and (possibly) reach the same results.

XXIV. GLOSSARY

Artifact:Any object made by human work or skill.
Beginnings: A demarcation of time designating studies to commence with the written historical record.
Central issue:The primary concern from which other problems or matters are derived. For example, today’s world migration flows are a central issue from which other concerns such as terrorist threats may arise.
Chronology:The science of measuring time and of dating events. Examples include BCE (before the common era) and CE (common era). Another reference to chronology is CA, around the time, circa.
Conflict:The opposition of persons or groups that gives rise to dramatic action. Such actions could include the use of force as in combat.
Culture:The skills and arts of a given people in a given period of time or a civilization.
Document:Anything written or printed used to record or prove something.
Historical evidence:Something that makes something else noticeable, obvious or evident.
Historical passage:An article or section of a longer work that has importance to the past.
Innovation:The introduction of something new; an idea, method or devise.
Interpretation:Explanation or to reply to a situation in order to make sense of it (e.g., a time period, an individual’s actions).
Memorial:An object or ceremony serving as a remembrance for a person, group, day, site or event.
Museum:A historical display in a building, room, etc. for exhibiting artistic, historical or scientific objects.
Present:A demarcation of time designating studies to the current year.
Opinion:A belief based not on certainty but on what seems to be true or probable.
Strike:A work stoppage by employees organized against the management of a business entity.
Time lines:A measure of a period during which something exists or happens; usually displayed in chronological order on a graph or linear lines.
War:A conflict in which two or more nations or two or more entities inside a nation are at odds.
Xenophobia:An intense fear or dislike of groups unknown or not within one’s experience including the group’s customs and culture.



APPENDIX D
Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities and Health, Safety and Physical Education and Family and Consumer Sciences



Source

   The provisions of this Appendix D adopted January 10, 2003, effective January 11, 2003, 33 Pa.B. 255, unless otherwise noted.

XXV. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction … XXVI.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts … 9.1.

  A. Elements and Principles in each Art Form

  B. Demonstration of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts

  C. Vocabulary within each Art Form

  D. Styles in Production, Performance and Exhibition

  E. Themes in Art Forms

  F. Historical and Cultural Production, Performance and Exhibition

  G. Function and Analysis of Rehearsals and Practice Sessions

  H. Safety Issues in the Arts

  I. Community Performances and Exhibitions

  J. Technologies in the Arts

  K. Technologies in the Humanities

 Historical and Cultural Contexts … 9.2.

  A. Context of Works in the Arts

  B. Chronology of Works in the Arts

  C. Styles and Genre in the Arts

  D. Historical and Cultural Perspectives

  E. Historical and Cultural Impact on Works in the Arts

  F. Vocabulary for Historical and Cultural Context

  G. Geographic Regions in the Arts

  H. Pennsylvania Artists

  I. Philosophical Context of Works in the Arts

  J. Historical Differences of Works in the Arts

  K. Traditions Within Works in the Arts

  L. Common Themes in Works in the Arts

 Critical Response … 9.3.

  A. Critical Processes

  B. Criteria

  C. Classifications

  D. Vocabulary for Criticism

  E. Types of Analysis

  F. Comparisons

  G. Critics in the Arts

 Aesthetic Response … 9.4.

  A. Philosophical Studies

  B. Aesthetic Interpretation

  C. Environmental Influences

  D. Artistic Choices

 Glossary … XXVII.

XXVI. INTRODUCTION


 The Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities describe what students should know and be able to do at the end of grades 3, 5, 8 and 12 in the visual and performing arts and the understanding about humanities context within the arts. The arts include dance, music, theatre and visual arts. The arts and the humanities are interconnected through the inclusion of history, criticism and aesthetics. In addition, the humanities include literature and language, philosophy, social studies and world languages. The areas encompassed in the humanities such as jurisprudence, comparative religions and ethics are included among other standards documents. The interconnected arts and humanities areas are divided into these standards categories:

 • 9.1. Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts

 • 9.2. Historical and Cultural Contexts

 • 9.3. Critical Response

 • 9.4. Aesthetic Response

 The Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities define the content for planned instruction that will result in measurable gains for all students in knowledge and skills and provide a basis of learning for continued study in the arts. The unifying themes of production, history, criticism and aesthetics are common to each area of study within the Academic Standards in the Arts and Humanities.

 • Dance Education is a kinesthetic art form that satisfies the human need to respond to life experiences through movement of the physical being.

 • Music Education is an aural art form that satisfies the human need to respond to life experiences through singing, listening and/or playing an instrument.

 • Theatre Education is an interdisciplinary art form that satisfies the human need to express thoughts and feelings through written text, dramatic interpretation and multimedia production.

 • Visual Arts Education is a spatial art form that satisfies the human need to respond to life experiences through images, structures and tactile works.

 • Humanities Education is the understanding and integration of human thought and accomplishment.

 Knowledge of the Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities incorporates carefully developed and integrated components:

 • Application of problem solving skills

 • Extensive practice in the comprehension of basic symbol systems and abstract concepts

 • Application of technical skills in practical production and performance

 • Comprehension and application of the creative process

 • Development and practice of creative thinking skills

 • Development of verbal and nonverbal communication skills

 These standards provide the targets essential for success in student learning in arts and humanities. They describe the expectations for students’ achievement and performance throughout their education in Pennsylvania schools. Utilizing these standards, school entities can develop a local school curriculum that will meet their students’ needs.

 The arts represent society’s capacity to integrate human experience with individual creativity. Comprehensive study of the arts provides an opportunity for all students to observe, reflect and participate both in the arts of their culture and the cultures of others. Sequential study in the arts and humanities provides the knowledge and the analytical skills necessary to evaluate and critique a media-saturated culture. An arts education contributes to the development of productive citizens who have gained creative and technological knowledge necessary for employment in the 21st Century.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

9.1. Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts
9.1.3. GRADE 3 9.1.5. GRADE 5 9.1.8. GRADE 8 9.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Know and use the elements and principles of each art form to create works in the arts and humanities.
• Elements
• Dance: • energy/force • space • time
• Music: • duration • intensity • pitch • timbre
• Theatre: • scenario • script/text • set design
• Visual Arts: • color • form/shape • line • space • texture • value
• Principles
• Dance: • choreography • form • genre • improvisation • style • technique
• Music: • composition • form • genre • harmony • rhythm • texture
• Theatre: • balance • collaboration • discipline • emphasis • focus • intention • movement • rhythm • style
voice
• Visual Arts: • balance • contrast • emphasis/focal point • movement/rhythm • proportion/scale • repetition
unity/harmony
B. Recognize, know, use and demonstrate a variety of appropriate arts elements and principles to produce, review and revise original works in the arts.
• Dance: • move • perform • read and notate dance • create and choreograph • improvise
• Music: • sing • play an instrument • read and notate music • compose and arrange • improvise
• Theatre: • stage productions • read and write scripts • improvise • interpret a role • design sets • direct
• Visual Arts: • paint • draw • craft • sculpt • print • design for environment, communication, multi-media
C. Recognize and use fundamental vocabulary within each of the arts forms. C. Know and use fundamental vocabulary within each of the arts forms. C. Identify and use comprehensive vocabulary within each of the arts forms. C. Integrate and apply advanced vocabulary to the arts forms.
D. Use knowledge of varied styles within each art form through a performance or exhibition of unique work. D. Describe and use knowledge of a specific style within each art form through a performance or exhibition of a unique work. D. Demonstrate knowledge of at least two styles within each art form through performance or exhibition of unique works. D. Demonstrate specific styles in combination through the production or performance of a unique work of art (e.g., a dance composition that combines jazz dance and African dance).
E. Demonstrate the ability to define objects, express emotions, illustrate an action or relate an experience through creation of works in the arts. E. Know and demonstrate how arts can communicate experiences, stories or emotions through the production of works in the arts. E. Communicate a unifying theme or point of view through the production of works in the arts. E. Delineate a unifying theme through the production of a work of art that reflects skills in media processes and techniques.
F. Identify works of others through a performance or exhibition (e.g., exhibition of student paintings based on the study of Picasso). F. Describe works of others through performance or exhibition in two art forms. F. Explain works of others within each art form through performance or exhibition. F. Analyze works of arts influenced by experiences or historical and cultural events through production, performance or exhibition.
G. Recognize the function of rehearsals and practice sessions. G. Identify the function and benefits of rehearsal and practice sessions. G. Explain the function and benefits of rehearsal and practice sessions. G. Analyze the effect of rehearsal and practice sessions.
H. Handle materials, equipment and tools safely at work and performance spaces.
• Identify materials used.
• Identify issues of cleanliness related to the arts.
• Recognize some mechanical/electrical equipment.
• Recognize differences in selected physical space/environments.
• Recognize the need to select safe props/stage equipment.
• Identify methods for storing materials in the arts.
H. Use and maintain materials, equipment and tools safely at work and performance spaces.
• Describe some materials used.
• Describe issues of cleanliness related to the arts.
• Describe types of mechanical/electrical equipment usage.
• Know how to work in selected physical space/environments.
• Identify the qualities of safe props/stage equipment.
• Describe methods for storing materials in the arts.
H. Demonstrate and maintain materials, equipment and tools safely at work and performance spaces.
• Analyze the use of materials.
• Explain issues of cleanliness related to the arts.
• Explain the use of mechanical/electrical equipment.
• Demonstrate how to work in selected physical space/environment.
• Demonstrate the selection of safe props/stage equipment.
• Demonstrate methods for storing materials in the arts.
H. Incorporate the effective and safe use of materials, equipment and tools into the production of works in the arts at work and performance spaces.
• Evaluate the use and applications of materials.
• Evaluate issues of cleanliness related to the arts.
• Evaluate the use and applications of mechanical/electrical equipment.
• Evaluate differences among selected physical space/environment.
• Evaluate the use and applications of safe props/stage equipment.
• Evaluate the use and apply safe methods for storing materials in the arts.
I. Identify arts events that take place in schools and in communities. I. Describe arts events that take place in schools and in communities. I. Know where arts events, performances and exhibitions occur and how to gain admission. I. Distinguish among a variety of regional arts events and resources and analyze methods of selection and admission.
J. Know and use traditional and contemporary technologies for producing, performing and exhibiting works in the arts or the works of others.
• Know and use traditional technologies (e.g., charcoal, pigments, clay, needle/thread, quill pens, stencils, tools for wood carving, looms, stage equipment).
• Know and use contemporary technologies (e.g., CDs/software, audio/sound equipment, polymers, clays, board-mixers, photographs, recorders).
J. Apply traditional and contemporary technologies for producing, performing and exhibiting works in the arts or the works of others.
• Experiment with traditional technologies (e.g., ceramic/wooden tools, earthen clays, masks, instruments, folk shoes, etching tools, folk looms).
• Experiment with contemporary technologies (e.g., color fills on computers, texture methods on computers, fonts/point systems, animation techniques, video teleconferencing, multimedia techniques, internet access, library computer card catalogues).
J. Incorporate specific uses of traditional and contemporary technologies within the design for producing, performing and exhibiting works in the arts or the works of others.
• Explain and demonstrate traditional technologies (e.g., paint, tools, sponges, weaving designs, instruments, natural pigments/glazes).
• Explain and demonstrate contemporary technologies (e.g., MIDI keyboards, internet design, computers, interactive technologies, audio/sound equipment, board-mixer, video equipment, computerized lighting design).
J. Analyze and evaluate the use of traditional and contemporary technologies for producing, performing and exhibiting works in the arts or the works of others.
• Analyze traditional technologies (e.g., acid printing, etching methods, musical instruments, costume materials, eight track recording, super 8 movies).
• Analyze contemporary technologies (e.g., virtual reality design, instrument enhancements, photographic tools, broadcast equipment, film cameras, preservation tools, web graphics, computer generated marching band designs).
K. Know and use traditional and contemporary technologies for furthering knowledge and understanding in the humanities. K. Apply traditional and contemporary technology in furthering knowledge and understanding in the humanities. K. Incorporate specific uses of traditional and contemporary technologies in furthering knowledge and understanding in the humanities. K. Analyze and evaluate the use of traditional and contemporary technologies in furthering knowledge and understanding in the humanities.


9.2. Historical and Cultural Contexts
9.2.3. GRADE 3 9.2.5. GRADE 5 9.2.8. GRADE 8 9.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to identify, compare, contrast and analyze works in the arts in their historical and cultural context appropriate for each grade level in concert with districts’ social studies, literature and language standards.
 A. Explain the historical, cultural and social context of an individual work in the arts.
 B. Relate works in the arts chronologically to historical events (e.g., 10,000 B.C. to present).
 C. Relate works in the arts to varying styles and genre and to the periods in which they were created (e.g., Bronze Age, Ming Dynasty, Renaissance, Classical, Modern, Post-Modern, Contemporary, Futuristic, others).
 D. Analyze a work of art from its historical and cultural perspective.
 E. Analyze how historical events and culture impact forms, techniques and purposes of works in the arts (e.g., Gilbert and Sullivan operettas).
 F. Know and apply appropriate vocabulary used between social studies and the arts and humanities.
 G. Relate works in the arts to geographic regions:
• Africa
• Asia
• Australia
• Central America
• Europe
• North America
• South America
 H. Identify, describe and analyze the work of Pennsylvania Artists in dance, music, theatre and visual arts.
 I. Identify, explain and analyze philosophical beliefs as they relate to works in the arts (e.g., classical architecture, rock music, Native American dance, contemporary American musical theatre).
 J. Identify, explain and analyze historical and cultural differences as they relate to works in the arts (e.g., plays by Shakespeare, works by Michelangelo, ethnic dance and music).
 K. Identify, explain and analyze traditions as they relate to works in the arts (e.g., story telling—plays, oral histories— poetry, work songs—blue grass).
 L. Identify, explain and analyze common themes, forms and techniques from works in the arts (e.g., Copland and Graham’s Appalachian Spring and Millet’s The Gleaners).


9.3. Critical Response
9.3.3. GRADE 3 9.3.5. GRADE 5 9.3.8. GRADE 8 9.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Recognize critical processes used in the examination of works in the arts and humanities.
• Compare and contrast
• Analyze
• Interpret
• Form and test hypotheses
• Evaluate/form judgments
A. Identify critical processes in the examination of works in the arts and humanities.
• Compare and contrast
• Analyze
• Interpret
• Form and test hypotheses
• Evaluate/form judgments
A. Know and use the critical process of the examination of works in the arts and humanities.
• Compare and contrast
• Analyze
• Interpret
• Form and test hypotheses
• Evaluate/form judgments
A. Explain and apply the critical examination processes of works in the arts and humanities.
• Compare and contrast
• Analyze
• Interpret
• Form and test hypotheses
• Evaluate/form judgments
B. Know that works in the arts can be described by using the arts elements, principles and concepts (e.g., use of color, shape and pattern in Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie-Woogie; use of dynamics, tempo, texture in Ravel’s Bolero). B. Describe works in the arts comparing similar and contrasting characteristics (e.g., staccato in Grieg’s In the Hall of the Mountain King and in tap dance). B. Analyze and interpret specific characteristics of works in the arts within each art form (e.g., pentatonic scales in Korean and Indonesian music). B. Determine and apply criteria to a person’s work and works of others in the arts (e.g., use visual scanning techniques to critique the student’s own use of sculptural space in comparison to Julio Gonzales’ use of space in Woman Combing Her Hair).
C. Know classification skills with materials and processes used to create works in the arts (e.g., sorting and matching textiles, musical chants, television comedies). C. Classify works in the arts by forms in which they are found (e.g., farce, architecture, graphic design). C. Identify and classify styles, forms, types and genre within art forms (e.g., modern dance and the ethnic dance, a ballad and a patriotic song). C. Apply systems of classification for interpreting works in the arts and forming a critical response.
D. Explain meanings in the arts and humanities through individual works and the works of others using a fundamental vocabulary of critical response. D. Compare similar and contrasting important aspects of works in the arts and humanities based on a set of guidelines using a comprehensive vocabulary of critical response. D. Evaluate works in the arts and humanities using a complex vocabulary of critical response. D. Analyze and interpret works in the arts and humanities from different societies using culturally specific vocabulary of critical response.
E. Recognize and identify types of critical analysis in the arts and humanities.
• Contextual criticism
• Formal criticism
• Intuitive criticism
E. Describe and use types of critical analysis in the arts and humanities.
• Contextual criticism
• Formal criticism
• Intuitive criticism
E. Interpret and use various types of critical analysis in the arts and humanities.
• Contextual criticism
• Formal criticism
• Intuitive criticism
E. Examine and evaluate various types of critical analysis of works in the arts and humanities.
• Contextual criticism
• Formal criticism
• Intuitive criticism
F. Know how to recognize and identify similar and different characteristics among works in the arts (e.g., Amish and Hawaiian quilts, Navaho weavings and Kente cloth from West Africa). F. Know how to recognize the process of criticism in identifying and analyzing characteristics among works in the arts. F. Apply the process of criticism to identify characteristics among works in the arts. F. Analyze the processes of criticism used to compare the meanings of a work in the arts in both its own and present time.
G. Know and demonstrate what a critic’s position or opinion is related to works in the arts and humanities (e.g., I like patriotic songs because ...; The movie was enjoyed for its exceptional special effects). G. Describe a critic’s position or opinion about selected works in the arts and humanities (e.g., student’s presentation of a critical position on Walt Disney’s Evolution of Mickey and Minnie Mouse). G. Compare and contrast critical positions or opinions about selected works in the arts and humanities (e.g., critic’s review and comparison of Alvin Ailey’s Revelations to Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake). G. Analyze works in the arts by referencing the judgments advanced by arts critics as well as one’s own analysis and critique.


9.4. Aesthetic Response
9.4.3. GRADE 3 9.4.5. GRADE 5 9.4.8. GRADE 8 9.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Know how to respond to a philosophical statement about works in the arts and humanities (e.g., ‘‘Can artworks that depict or are about ugly or unpleasant things ever be beautiful?’’). A. Identify uses of expressive symbols that show philosophical meanings in works in the arts and humanities (e.g., American TV ads versus Asian TV ads). A. Compare and contrast examples of group and individual philosophical meanings of works in the arts and humanities (e.g., group discussions on musical theatre versus the individual’s concept of musical theatre). A. Evaluate an individual’s philosophical statement on a work in the arts and its relationship to one’s own life based on knowledge and experience.
B. Know how to communicate an informed individual opinion about the meaning of works in the arts (e.g., works of an artist of the month). B. Investigate and communicate multiple philosophical views about works in the arts. B. Compare and contrast informed individual opinions about the meaning of works in the arts to others (e.g., debate philosophical opinions within a listserve or at an artist’s website). B. Describe and analyze the effects that works in the arts have on groups, individuals and the culture (e.g., Orson Welles’ 1938 radio broadcast, War of the Worlds).
C. Recognize that the environment of the observer influences individual aesthetic responses to works in the arts (e.g., the effect of live music as opposed to listening to the same piece on a car radio). C. Identify the attributes of various audiences’ environments as they influence individual aesthetic response (e.g., Beatles’ music played by the Boston Pops versus video taped concerts from the 1970s). C. Describe how the attributes of the audience’s environment influence aesthetic responses (e.g., the ambiance of the theatre in a performance of Andrew Lloyd Weber’s Cats). C. Compare and contrast the attributes of various audiences’ environments as they influence individual aesthetic response (e.g., viewing traditional Irish dance at county fair versus the performance of River Dance in a concert hall).
D. Recognize that choices made by artists regarding subject matter and themes communicate ideas through works in the arts and humanities (e.g., artist’s interpretation through the use of classical ballet of the American West in Agnes De Mille’s Rodeo). D. Explain choices made regarding media, technique, form, subject matter and themes that communicate the artist’s philosophy within a work in the arts and humanities (e.g., selection of stage lighting in Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story to communicate mood). D. Describe to what purpose philosophical ideas generated by artists can be conveyed through works in the arts and humanities (e.g., T. Ganson’s Destructive Periods in Russia During Stalin’s and Deniken’s Leadership conveys her memories and emotions of a specific incident). D. Analyze and interpret a philosophical position identified in works in the arts and humanities.

XXVII. GLOSSARY

Aesthetics: A branch of philosophy that focuses on the nature of beauty, the nature and value of the arts and the inquiry processes and human responses they produce.
Aesthetic criteria: Standards on which to make judgments about the artistic merit of a work of art, derived from cultural and emotional values and cognitive meaning.
Aesthetic response:A philosophical reply to works in the arts.
Artistic choices: Selections made by artists in order to convey meaning.
Arts resource: An outside community asset (e.g., performances, exhibitions, performers, artists).
Assess: To analyze and determine the nature and quality of the process/product through means appropriate to the art form.
Community: A group of people who share a common social, historical, regional or cultural heritage.
Contemporary technology: Tools, machines or implements emerging and used today for the practice or production of works in the arts.
Context: A set of interrelated background conditions (e.g., social, economic, political) that influence and give meaning to the development and reception of thoughts, ideas or concepts and that define specific cultures and eras.
Create: To produce works in the arts using materials, techniques, processes, elements, principles and analysis.
Critical analysis: The process of examining and discussing the effective uses of specific aspects of works in the arts.
 Contextual criticism:Discussion and evaluation with consideration of factors surrounding the origin and heritage to works in the arts and humanities.
 Formal Criticism:Discussion and evaluation of the elements and principles essential to works in the arts and humanities.
 Intuitive Criticism:Discussion and evaluation of one’s subjective insight to works in the arts and humanities.
Critical process: The use of sequential examination through comparison, analysis, interpretation, formation and testing of hypothesis and evaluation to form judgments.
Critical response:The act or process of describing and evaluating the media, processes and meanings of works in the arts and making comparative judgments.
Culture: The way of life of a group of people, including customs, beliefs, arts, institutions and worldview. Culture is acquired through many means and is always changing.
Elements: Core components that support the principles of the arts.
Genre: A type or category (e.g., music—opera, oratorio; theater—tragedy, comedy; dance—modern, ballet; visual arts—pastoral, scenes of everyday life).
Humanities: The branch of learning that connects the fine arts, literature, languages, philosophy and cultural science. The humanities are concerned with the understanding and integration of human thought and accomplishment.
Improvisation: Spontaneous creation requiring focus and concentration.
MIDI keyboard: (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) A piece of equipment that interacts with a computer that uses a MIDI language set-up to notate and play music.
Multimedia:The combined use of media, such as movies, CD-ROMs, television, radio, print and the Internet for entertainment and publicity.
Original works in the arts: Dance, music, theatre and visual arts pieces created by performing or visual artists.
Principles: Essential assumptions, basic or essential qualities determining intrinsic characteristics.
Style: A distinctive or characteristic manner of expression.
Technique: Specific skills and details employed by an artist, craftsperson or performer in the production of works in the arts.
Timbre: A unique quality of sound.
Traditions: Knowledge, opinions and customs a group feels is so important that members continue to practice it and pass it on to other generations.
Traditional technology: Tools, machines or implements used for the historical practice or production of works in the arts.
Vocabulary: Age and content appropriate terms used in the instruction of the arts and humanities that demonstrate levels of proficiency as defined in local curriculum (i.e., fundamental—grade 3, comprehensive—grade 5, discriminating—grade 8 and advanced—grade 12).



Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education



XXVIII. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction … XXIX.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Concepts of Health … 10.1.

  A. Stages of Growth and Development

  B. Interaction of Body Systems

  C. Nutrition

  D. Alcohol, Tobacco and Chemical Substances

  E. Health Problems and Disease Prevention

 Healthful Living … 10.2.

  A. Health Practices, Products and Services

  B. Health Information and Consumer Choices

  C. Health Information and the Media

  D. Decision-making Skills

  E. Health and the Environment

 Safety and Injury Prevention … 10.3.

  A. Safe/Unsafe Practices

  B. Emergency Responses/ Injury Management

  C. Strategies to Avoid/Manage Conflict

  D. Safe Practices in Physical Activity

 Physical Activity … 10.4.

  A. Physical Activities That Promote Health and Fitness

  B. Effects of Regular Participation

  C. Responses of the Body Systems to Physical Activity

  D. Physical Activity Preferences

  E. Physical Activity and Motor Skill Improvement

  F. Physical Activity and Group Interaction

 Concepts, Principles and Strategies of
 Movement … 10.5.

  A. Movement Skills and Concepts

  B. Motor Skill Development

  C. Practice Strategies

  D. Principles of Exercise/Training

  E. Scientific Principles That Affect Movement

  F. Game Strategies

 Glossary … XXX.


XXIX. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education in these categories:

 • 10.1 Concepts of Health

 • 10.2 Healthful Living

 • 10.3 Safety and Injury Prevention

 • 10.4 Physical Activity

 • 10.5 Concepts, Principles and Strategies of Movement

 The Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of third, sixth, ninth and twelfth grade. The standards are sequential across the grade levels and reflect the increasing complexity and rigor that students are expected to achieve. The Standards define the content for planned instruction that will result in measurable gains for all students in knowledge and skill. School entities will use these standards to develop local school curriculum and assessments that will meet the needs of the students.

 The Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education provide students with the knowledge and skills that will enable them to achieve and maintain a physically active and healthful life. The attainment of these standards will favorably impact their lives and the lives of those around them. By becoming and remaining physically, mentally, socially and emotionally healthy, students will increase their chances of achieving to their highest academic potential.

 The Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education provide parents with specific information about the knowledge and skills students should be developing as they progress through their educational programs. With the standards serving as clearly defined targets, parents, students, teachers and community members will be able to become partners in helping children achieve educational success.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

10.1. Concepts of Health
10.1.3. GRADE 3 10.1.6. GRADE 6 10.1.9. GRADE 9 10.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify and describe the stages of growth and development.
• infancy
• childhood
• adolescence
• adulthood
• late adulthood
A. Describe growth and development changes that occur between childhood and adolescence and identify factors that can influence these changes.
• education
• socioeconomic
A. Analyze factors that impact growth and development between adolescence and adulthood.
• relationships (e.g., dating, friendships, peer pressure)
• interpersonal communication
• risk factors (e.g., physical inactivity, substance abuse, intentional/unintentional injuries, dietary patterns)
• abstinence
• STD and HIV prevention
• community
A. Evaluate factors that impact growth and development during adulthood and late adulthood.
• acute and chronic illness
• communicable and non- communicable disease
• health status
• relationships (e.g., marriage, divorce, loss)
• career choice
• aging process
• retirement
B. Identify and know the location and function of the major body organs and systems.
• circulatory
• respiratory
• muscular
• skeletal
• digestive
B. Identify and describe the structure and function of the major body systems.
• nervous
• muscular
• integumentary
• urinary
• endocrine
• reproductive
• immune
B. Analyze the interdependence existing among the body systems.
B. Evaluate factors that impact the body systems and apply protective/preventive strategies.
• fitness level
• environment (e.g., pollutants, available health care)
• health status (e.g., physical, mental, social)
• nutrition
C. Explain the role of the food guide pyramid in helping people eat a healthy diet.
• food groups
• number of servings
• variety of food
• nutrients
C. Analyze nutritional concepts that impact health.
• caloric content of foods
• relationship of food intake and physical activity (energy output)
• nutrient requirements
• label reading
• healthful food selection
C. Analyze factors that impact nutritional choices of adolescents.
• body image
• advertising
• dietary guidelines
• eating disorders
• peer influence
• athletic goals
C. Analyze factors that impact nutritional choices of adults.
• cost
• food preparation (e.g., time, skills)
• consumer skills (e.g., understanding food labels, evaluating fads)
• nutritional knowledge
• changes in nutritional requirements (e.g., age, physical activity level)
D. Know age appropriate drug information.
• definition of drugs
• effects of drugs
• proper use of medicine
• healthy/unhealthy risk-taking (e.g. inhalant use, smoking)
• skills to avoid drugs
D. Explain factors that influence childhood and adolescent drug use.
• peer influence
• body image (e.g., steroids, enhancers)
• social acceptance
• stress
• media influence
• decision-making/refusal skills
• rules, regulations and laws
• consequences
D. Analyze prevention and intervention strategies in relation to adolescent and adult drug use.
• decision-making/refusal skills
• situation avoidance
• goal setting
• professional assistance (e.g., medical, counseling. support groups)
• parent involvement
D. Evaluate issues relating to the use/non-use of drugs.
• psychology of addiction
• social impact (e.g., cost, relationships)
• chemical use and fetal development
• laws relating to alcohol, tobacco and chemical substances
• impact on the individual
• impact on the community
E. Identify types and causes of common health problems of children.
• infectious diseases (e.g., colds, flu, chickenpox)
• noninfectious diseases (e.g., asthma, hay fever, allergies, lyme disease)
• germs
• pathogens
• heredity
E. Identify health problems that can occur throughout life and describe ways to prevent them.
• Diseases (e.g., cancer diabetes, STD/HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease)
• Preventions (i.e. do not smoke, maintain proper weight, eat a balanced diet, practice sexual abstinence, be physically active)
E. Analyze how personal choice, disease and genetics can impact health maintenance and disease prevention.
E. Identify and analyze factors that influence the prevention and control of health problems.
• research
• medical advances
• technology
• government policies/regulations


10.2. Healthful Living
10.2.3. GRADE 3 10.2.6. GRADE 6 10.2.9. GRADE 9 10.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify personal hygiene practices and community helpers that promote health and prevent the spread of disease.
A. Explain the relationship between personal health practices and individual well-being.
• immunizations
• health examinations
A. Identify and describe health care products and services that impact adolescent health practices.
A. Evaluate health care products and services that impact adult health practices.
B. Identify health-related information.
• signs and symbols
• terminology
• products and services
B. Explain the relationship between health-related information and consumer choices.
• dietary guidelines/food selection
• sun exposure guidelines/sunscreen selection
B. Analyze the relationship between health-related information and adolescent consumer choices.
• tobacco products
• weight control products
B. Assess factors that impact adult health consumer choices.
• access to health information
• access to health care
• cost
• safety
C. Identify media sources that influence health and safety.
C. Explain the media’s effect on health and safety issues.
C. Analyze media health and safety messages and describe their impact on personal health and safety.
C. Compare and contrast the positive and negative effects of the media on adult personal health and safety.
 D. Identify the steps in a decision making process.
D. Describe and apply the steps of a decision making process to health and safety issues.
D. Analyze and apply a decision making process to adolescent health and safety issues. D. Examine and apply a decision making process to the development of short and long-term health goals.
E. Identify environmental factors that affect health.
• pollution (e.g., air, water, noise, soil)
• waste disposal
• temperature extremes
• insects/animals
E. Analyze environmental factors that impact health.
• indoor air quality (e.g., second-hand smoke, allergens)
• chemicals, metals, gases (e.g., lead, radon, carbon monoxide)
• radiation
• natural disasters
E. Explain the interrelationship between the environment and personal health.
• ozone layer/skin cancer
• availability of health care/individual health
• air pollution/respiratory disease
• breeding environments/lyme disease/West Nile virus
E. Analyze the interrelationship between environmental factors and community health.
• public health policies and laws/health promotion and disease prevention
• individual choices/maintenance of environment
• recreational opportunities/health status


10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention
10.3.3. GRADE 3 10.3.6 GRADE 6 10.3.9. GRADE 9 10.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Recognize safe/unsafe practices in the home, school and community.
• general (e.g., fire, electrical, animals)
• modes of transportation (e.g., pedestrian, bicycle, vehicular)
• outdoor (e.g., play, weather, water)
• safe around people (e.g., safe/unsafe touch, abuse, stranger, bully)
A. Explain and apply safe practices in the home, school and community.
• emergencies (e.g., fire, natural disasters)
• personal safety (e.g., home alone, latch key, harassment)
• communication (e.g., telephone, Internet)
• violence prevention (e.g., gangs, weapons)
A. Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safe practices and injury prevention in the home, school and community.
• modes of transportation (e.g., pedestrian, bicycle, vehicular, passenger, farm vehicle, all-terrain vehicle)
• violence prevention in school
• self-protection in the home
• self-protection in public places
A. Assess the personal and legal consequences of unsafe practices in the home, school or community.
• loss of personal freedom
• personal injury
• loss of income
• impact on others
• loss of motor vehicle operator’s license
B. Recognize emergency situations and explain appropriate responses.
• importance of remaining calm
• how to call for help
• simple assistance procedures
• how to protect self
B. Know and apply appropriate emergency responses.
• basic first aid
• Heimlich maneuver
• universal precautions
B. Describe and apply strategies for emergency and long-term management of injuries.
• rescue breathing
• water rescue
• self-care
• sport injuries
B. Analyze and apply strategies for the management of injuries.
• CPR
• advanced first aid
C. Recognize conflict situations and identify strategies to avoid or resolve.
• walk away
• I-statements
• refusal skills
• adult intervention
C. Describe strategies to avoid or manage conflict and violence.
• anger management
• peer mediation
• reflective listening
• negotiation
C. Analyze and apply strategies to avoid or manage conflict and violence during adolescence.
• effective negotiation
• assertive behavior
C. Analyze the impact of violence on the victim and surrounding community.
D. Identify and use safe practices in physical activity settings (e.g., proper equipment, knowledge of rules, sun safety, guidelines of safe play, warm-up, cool-down).
D. Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safety during physical activity.
D. Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safety during organized group activities.
D. Evaluate the benefits, risks and safety factors associated with self-selected life-long physical activities.


10.4. Physical Activity
10.4.3. GRADE 3 10.4.6. GRADE 6 10.4.9. GRADE 9 10.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify and engage in physical activities that promote physical fitness and health.
A. Identify and engage in moderate to vigorous physical activities that contribute to physical fitness and health. A. Analyze and engage in physical activities that are developmentally/individually appropriate and support achievement of personal fitness and activity goals. A. Evaluate and engage in an individualized physical activity plan that supports achievement of personal fitness and activity goals and promotes life-long participation.
B. Know the positive and negative effects of regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities.
B. Explain the effects of regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities on the body systems. B. Analyze the effects of regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities in relation to adolescent health improvement.
• stress management
• disease prevention
• weight management
B. Analyze the effects of regular participation in a self-selected program of moderate to vigorous physical activities.
• social
• physiological
• psychological
C. Know and recognize changes in body responses during moderate to vigorous physical activity.
• heart rate
• breathing rate
C. Identify and apply ways to monitor and assess the body’s response to moderate to vigorous physical activity.
• heart rate monitoring
• checking blood pressure
• fitness assessment
C. Analyze factors that affect the responses of body systems during moderate to vigorous physical activities.
• exercise (e.g., climate, altitude, location, temperature)
• healthy fitness zone
• individual fitness status (e.g., cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility)
• drug/substance use/abuse
C. Evaluate how changes in adult health status may affect the responses of the body systems during moderate to vigorous physical activity.
• aging
• injury
• disease
D. Identify likes and dislikes related to participation in physical activities.
D. Describe factors that affect childhood physical activity preferences.
• enjoyment
• personal interest
• social experience
• opportunities to learn new activities
• parental preference
• environment
D. Analyze factors that affect physical activity preferences of adolescents.
• skill competence
• social benefits
• previous experience
• activity confidence
D. Evaluate factors that affect physical activity and exercise preferences of adults.
• personal challenge
• physical benefits
• finances
• motivation
• access to activity
• self-improvement
E. Identify reasons why regular participation in physical activities improves motor skills.
E. Identify factors that have an impact on the relationship between regular participation in physical activity and the degree of motor skill improvement.
• success-oriented activities
• school-community resources
• variety of activities
• time on task
E. Analyze factors that impact on the relationship between regular participation in physical activity and motor skill improvement.
• personal choice
• developmental differences
• amount of physical activity
• authentic practice
E. Analyze the interrelationships among regular participation in physical activity, motor skill improvement and the selection and engagement in lifetime physical activities.
F. Recognize positive and negative interactions of small group activities.
• roles (e.g., leader, follower)
• cooperation/sharing
• on task participation
F. Identify and describe positive and negative interactions of group members in physical activities.
• leading
• following
• teamwork
• etiquette
• adherence to rules
F. Analyze the effects of positive and negative interactions of adolescent group members in physical activities.
• group dynamics
• social pressure
F. Assess and use strategies for enhancing adult group interaction in physical activities.
• shared responsibility
• open communication
• goal setting


10.5. Concepts, Principles and Strategies of Movement
10.5.3. GRADE 3 10.5.6. GRADE 6 10.5.9. GRADE 9 10.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Recognize and use basic movement skills and concepts.
• locomotor movements (e.g., run, leap, hop)
• non-locomotor movements (e.g., bend, stretch, twist)
• manipulative movements (e.g., throw, catch, kick)
• relationships (e.g., over, under, beside)
• combination movements (e.g., locomotor, non-locomotor, manipulative)
• space awareness (e.g., self-space, levels, pathways, directions)
• effort (e.g., speed, force)
A. Explain and apply the basic movement skills and concepts to create and perform movement sequences and advanced skills.
A. Describe and apply the components of skill-related fitness to movement performance.
• agility
• balance
• coordination
• power
• reaction time
• speed
A. Apply knowledge of movement skills, skill-related fitness and movement concepts to identify and evaluate physical activities that promote personal lifelong participation.
B. Recognize and describe the concepts of motor skill development using appropriate vocabulary.
• form
• developmental differences
• critical elements
• feedback
B. Identify and apply the concepts of motor skill development to a variety of basic skills.
• transfer between skills
• selecting relevant cues
• types of feedback
• movement efficiency
• product (outcome/result)
B. Describe and apply concepts of motor skill development that impact the quality of increasingly complex movement.
• response selection
• stages of learning a motor skill i.e. verbal cognitive, motor, automatic
• types of skill i.e. discrete, serial, continuous
B. Incorporate and synthesize knowledge of motor skill development concepts to improve the quality of motor skills.
• open and closed skills
• short-term and long-term memory
• aspects of good performance
C. Know the function of practice.
C. Describe the relationship between practice and skill development.
C. Identify and apply practice strategies for skill improvement.
C. Evaluate the impact of practice strategies on skill development and improvement.
D. Identify and use principles of exercise to improve movement and fitness activities.
• frequency/how often to exercise
• intensity/how hard to exercise
• time/how long to exercise
• type/what kind of exercise
D. Describe and apply the principles of exercise to the components of health-related and skill-related fitness.
• cardiorespiratory endurance
• muscular strength
• muscular endurance
• flexibility
• body composition
D. Identify and describe the principles of training using appropriate vocabulary.
• specificity
• overload
• progression
• aerobic/anaerobic
• circuit/interval
• repetition/set
D. Incorporate and synthesize knowledge of exercise principles, training principles and health and skill-related fitness components to create a fitness program for personal use.
E. Know and describe scientific principles that affect movement and skills using appropriate vocabulary.
• gravity
• force production/absorption
• balance
• rotation
E. Identify and use scientific principles that affect basic movement and skills using appropriate vocabulary.
• Newton’s Laws of Motion
• application of force
• static/dynamic balance
• levers
• flight
E. Analyze and apply scientific and biomechanical principles to complex movements.
• centripetal/centrifugal force
• linear motion
• rotary motion
• friction/resistance
• equilibrium
• number of moving segments
E. Evaluate movement forms for appropriate application of scientific and biomechanical principles.
• efficiency of movement
• mechanical advantage
• kinetic energy
• potential energy
• inertia
• safety
F. Recognize and describe game strategies using appropriate vocabulary.
• faking/dodging
• passing/receiving
• moving to be open
• defending space
• following rules of play
F. Identify and apply game strategies to basic games and physical activities.
• give and go
• one on one
• peer communication
F. Describe and apply game strategies to complex games and physical activities.
• offensive strategies
• defensive strategies
• time management
F. Analyze the application of game strategies for different categories of physical activities.
• individual
• team
• lifetime
• outdoor

XXX. GLOSSARY

Abstinence: Choosing not to do something or completely giving something up in order to gain something.
Acute illness: A health condition of sudden onset, sharp rises and short course.
Adolescence: The period of life beginning with puberty and ending with completed growth.
Aerobic: Physical activity or exercise done at a steady pace for an extended period of time so that the heart can supply as much oxygen as the body needs (e.g., walking, running, swimming, cycling).
Agility: A component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body in space with speed and accuracy.
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: a condition that results when infection with HIV causes a breakdown of the body’s ability to fight other infections.
Allergen: A substance that stimulates the production of antibodies and subsequently results in allergic reactions (e.g., mold spores, cat/dog dander, dust).
Anaerobic: Physical activity or exercise done in short, fast bursts so that the heart cannot supply oxygen as fast as the body needs (e.g., sprinting, weightlifting, football).
Assertive: The expression of thoughts and feelings without experiencing anxiety or threatening others.
Automatic Stage of Learning: Movement responses flow and the individual can focus on what to do without thinking about it.
Balance: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the maintenance of equilibrium while stationary or moving.
Biomechanical principles: The science concerned with the action of forces, internal or external, on the living body.
Body composition: A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the percentage of fat tissue and lean tissue in the body.
Body systems: Anatomically or functionally related parts of the body (e.g., skeletal, nervous, immune, circulatory systems).
Caloric content: The amount of energy supplied by food. The more calories in the food, the more fattening.
Cardiorespiratory fitness: A health related component of physical fitness relating to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity.
Centrifugal: The force that seems to pull an object away from the center as it moves in a circle.
Centripetal: The force that is required to keep an object moving around a circular path.
Chronic illness: A health condition of long duration or frequent recurrence.
Circuit training: Exercise program, similar to an obstacle course, in which the person goes from one place to another doing a different exercise at each place.
Closed: Skills that are performed in an environment that does not change or that changes very little, such as archery or the foul shot in basketball.
Communicable: Illness caused by pathogens that enter the body through direct or indirect contact and can be transmitted from one host to another.
Community helpers:Any group or individual who plays a role in health promotion or disease prevention such as doctors, nurses, dentists, teachers, parents, firemen, policemen, trash collectors, animal control officers.
Continuous: Two or more repetitions of the same skill such as dribbling in basketball or soccer.
Cool-down: Brief, mild exercise done after vigorous exercise to help the body safely return to a resting state.
Coordination: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to use the senses together with body parts in performing motor tasks smoothly and accurately.
CPR: A first aid technique, which involves rescue breathing and chest (heart) compressions, that is used to revive a person whose heart has stopped beating.
Critical elements: The important parts of a skill.
Decision-making process: An organized approach to making choices.
Developmental differences: Learners are at different levels in their motor, cognitive, emotional, social and physical development. The learners’ developmental status will affect their ability to learn or improve.
Developmentally appropriate: Motor skill development and change that occur in an orderly, sequential fashion and are age and experience related.
Directions: Forward, backward, left, right, up, down.
Discrete: Single skill performed in isolation from other motor skills such as the soccer penalty kick and golf stroke.
Dynamic balance: Equilibrium used when in motion, starting and stopping.
Eating disorders: Food-related dysfunction in which a person changes eating habits in a way that is harmful to the mind or body (e.g., bulimia, anorexia nervosa).
Efficiency of movement: The state or quality of competence in performance with minimum expenditure of time and effort.
Equilibrium: State in which there is no change in the motion of a body.
Feedback: Information given to the learner about how to improve or correct a movement.
Flexibility: A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the range of motion available at a joint.
Food guide pyramid: A visual tool used to help people plan healthy diets according to the Dietary Guidelines for America.
Force: Any external agent that causes a change in the motion of a body.
Form: Manner or style of performing a movement according to recognized standards of technique.
Good performance: The ability to correctly select what to do and the ability to execute the selection appropriately.
Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being; not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.
Health education: Planned, sequential K—12 program of curricula and instruction that helps students develop knowledge, attitudes and skills related to the physical, mental, emotional and social dimensions of health.
Health-related fitness: Components of physical fitness that have a relationship with good health. Components are cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and body composition.
Heimlich maneuver: A first aid technique that is used to relieve complete airway obstruction.
HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus that infects cells of the immune system and other tissues and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
I-statement: A statement describing a specific behavior or event and the effect that behavior or event has on a person and the feelings that result.
Inertia: A body at rest will remain at rest and a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by a force.
Inhalant: Chemicals that produce vapors that act on the central nervous system and alter a user’s moods, perceptions, feelings, personality and behavior such as airplane glue and aerosols.
Integumentary system: Body system composed of the skin, hair, nails and glands.
Intensity: How hard a person should exercise to improve fitness.
Interval training: An anaerobic exercise program that consists of runs of short distance followed by rest.
Kinetic: Energy that an object possesses because it is moving, such as a pitched baseball or a person running.
Levels: Positions of the body (e.g., high, medium, low).
Linear motion: Movement which occurs in a straight path.
Locomotor movement: Movements producing physical displacement of the body, usually identified by weight transference via the feet. Basic locomotor steps are the walk, run, hop and jump as well as the irregular rhythmic combinations of the skip, slide and gallop.
Long-term memory: Ability to recall information that was learned days or even years ago.
Manipulative movements: Control of objects with body parts and implements. Action causes an object to move from one place to another.
Mechanical advantage: The ratio between the force put into a machine and the force that comes out of the same machine.
Media sources:Various forms of mass communication such as television, radio, magazines, newspapers and Internet.
Moderate physical activity: Sustained, repetitive, large muscle movements (e.g., walking, running, cycling) done at less than 60% of maximum heart rate for age. Maximum heart rate is 220 beats per minute minus participant’s age.
Motor skills: Non-fitness abilities that improve with practice and relate to one’s ability to perform specific sports and other motor tasks (e.g., tennis serve, shooting a basketball).
Motor stage of learning: Individual working to perfect the motor skill and makes conscious adjustments to the environment.
Movement skills: Proficiency in performing nonlocomotor, locomotor and manipulative movements that are the foundation for participation in physical activities.
Muscular endurance: A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of a muscle to continue to perform without fatigue.
Muscular strength: A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of the muscle to exert force.
Newton’s Laws of Motion: Three laws by Sir Isaac Newton that explain the relations between force and the motions produced by them: The Law of Inertia, Force and Acceleration, Reacting Forces.
Noncommunicable: Illness that is not caused by a pathogen that is not transmitted from one host to another.
Nonlocomotor movement: Movements that do not produce physical displacement of the body.
Nutrient: A basic component of food that nourishes the body.
Open: Skill performed in an environment that varies or is unpredictable such as the tennis forehand or the soccer pass.
Overload: A principle of exercise that states that the only way to improve fitness is to exercise more than the normal.
Pathways: Patterns of travel while performing locomotor movements (e.g., straight, curved, zigzag).
Physical activity: Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and which substantially increases energy expenditure.
Physical education: Planned, sequential, movement-based program of curricula and instruction that helps students develop knowledge, attitudes, motor skills, self-management skills and confidence needed to adapt and maintain a physically active life.
Physical fitness: A set of attributes that people have or achieve and that relate to their ability to perform physical activity. Generally accepted to consist of health-related fitness and skill-related fitness.
Potential: Energy stored in a body because of its position such as the crouch position prior to a jump.
Power: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the rate at which one can perform work.
Principles of exercise: Guidelines to follow to obtain the maximum benefits from physical activity and exercise.
Principles of training: Guidelines to follow to obtain the maximum benefits from an exercise plan.
Progression: A principle of exercise that states that a person should start slowly and increase exercise gradually.
Reaction time: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the time elapsed between stimulation and the beginning of the response to it.
Reflective listening: An active listening skill in which the individual lets others know he/she has heard and understands what has been said.
Refusal skills: Systematic ways to handle situations in which a person wants to say no to an action and/or leave an environment that threatens health or safety, breaks laws, results in lack of respect for self and others or disobeys guidelines set by responsible adults.
Repetitions: Number of times an exercise is repeated.
Rescue breathing: Technique used to supply air to an individual who is not breathing.
Rotary motion: Force that produces movement that occurs around an axis or center point such as a somersault.
Safety education: Planned, sequential program of curricula and instruction that helps students develop the knowledge, attitudes and confidence needed to protect them from injury.
Self-space: All the space that the body or its parts can reach without traveling from a starting location.
Serial: Two or more different skills performed with each other such as fielding a ball and throwing it or dribbling a basketball and shooting it.
Set: A group of several repetitions.
Short-term memory: Ability to recall recently learned information, such as within the past few seconds or minutes.
Skill-related fitness: Consists of components of physical fitness that have a relationship with enhanced performance in sports and motor skills. The components are agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time and speed.
Specificity: A principle of exercise that states that specific kinds of exercises must be done to develop specific aspects of the body and specific aspects of fitness.
Speed: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time.
Static balance: Maintaining equilibrium while holding a pose or remaining motionless.
STD: Sexually transmitted disease.
Universal precautions: An approach to infection control. All human blood and body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious.
Warm-up: Brief, mild exercise that is done to get ready for more vigorous exercise.
Verbal cognitive stage of learning: The individual is attempting to move from verbal instruction to trying to figure out how to actually do the skill. The first attempts at the skill are generally mechanical and success is inconsistent. The individual thinks through each step of the movement.
Vigorous physical activity: Sustained, repetitive, large muscle movements (e.g., running, swimming, soccer) done at 60% or more of maximum heart rate for age. Maximum heart rate is 220 beats per minute minus the participant’s age. Activity makes person sweat and breathe hard.



Academic Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences



XXXI. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction … XXXII.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Financial and Resource Management … 11.1.

  A. Resource Management

  B. Spending Plan

  C. Housing

  D. Consumer Rights and Responsibilities

  E. Income

  F. Purchasing

  G. Services

 Balancing Family, Work and Community Responsibility … 11.2.

  A. Practical Reasoning

  B. Action Plans

  C. Team Building

  D. Space Planning

  E. Technology

  F. Family Functions

  G. Family Life Cycle

  H. Communications

 Food Science and Nutrition … 11.3.

  A. Food Supply

  B. Safety and Sanitation

  C. Nutrient Analysis

  D. Nutrition and Health

  E. Calories and Energy

  F. Meal Management

  G. Food Science

 Child Development … 11.4.

  A. Developmental Stages

  B. Health and Safety

  C. Learning Environments

  D. School Involvement

  E. Literacy

 Glossary … XXXIII.


XXXII. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth) with the emphasis on what students will know and be able to do in the following areas:

 • 11.1. Financial and Resource Management

 • 11.2. Balancing Family, Work, and Community Responsibility

 • 11.3. Food Science and Nutrition

 • 11.4. Child Development.

 The focus of the Academic Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences education is the individual, the family and the community. The economic, social and political well-being of our state depends on the well-being of Pennsylvania’s families. The family is responsible for nurturing its members. Family experiences, to a great extent, determine who a person is and what a person becomes. Family and Consumer Sciences, working with Pennsylvania’s families, supports the development of the knowledge and skills that students need as family members both now and in the future. The 21st Century requires students to develop the ability to transform information into knowledge by using standards to certify that this information is meaningful, categorizing it to a purpose and then transforming their knowledge into wisdom by applying it to real life.

 Family and Consumer Sciences is a discipline composed of strong subject matter concentrations with a commitment to integration. Concepts form a framework for learning based on these tenets:

 • Families are the fundamental unit of society.

 • A life-span approach to individual and family development contributes to creating lifelong learners.

 • Meeting individual and family needs inside and outside the home are shared responsibilities.

 • Individual, family and community well-being is strengthened through an awareness of diversity.

 • The use of diverse modes of inquiry strengthens intellectual development.

 • The content learning in Family and Consumer Sciences classes’ enhances the mastery of academic standards.

 • Standards-based learning within Family and Consumer Sciences’ classrooms can best be demonstrated through performance based assessment.

 Learners in Family and Consumer Sciences nurture themselves and others, taking increased responsibility for improving their quality of living.

 The Academic Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences are written to empower individuals and families to manage the challenges of living and working in a diverse, global society. These Academic Standards address the functioning of families and their interrelationships with work, community and society. The focus is on the recurring, practical problems of individuals and families. An integrative approach is used to help individuals and families identify, create and evaluate goals and alternative solutions to significant problems of everyday life. Students are taught to take responsibility for the consequences of their actions. Comprehensive classroom experiences allow students to develop the knowledge and skills needed in making choices to meet their personal, family and work responsibilities.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

11.1. Financial and Resource Management
11.1.3. GRADE 3 11.1.6. GRADE 6 11.1.9. GRADE 9 11.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Identify money denominations, services and material resources available as trade-offs within the home, school and community. A. Justify the decision to use or not use resources based on scarcity. A. Analyze current conservation practices and their effect on future renewable and non-renewable resources.
• Refuse
• Reduce
• Reuse
• Recycle
A. Evaluate the impact of family resource management on the global community.
B. Define the components of a spending plan (e.g., income, expenses, savings).
B. Know the relationship of the components of a simple spending plan and how that relationship allows for managing income, expenses and savings.
B. Explain the responsibilities associated with managing personal finances (e.g., savings, checking, credit, noncash systems, investments, insurance).
B. Analyze the management of financial resources across the lifespan.
C. Explain the need for shelter for the purpose of safety, warmth and comfort.
C. Describe the adaptability to meet basic human needs of the different types of housing available (e.g., single home, apartment, mobile home, shelter, recreational vehicle, public housing).
C. Delineate and assess the factors affecting the availability of housing (e.g., supply and demand, market factors, geographical location, community regulations). C. Analyze the relationship among factors affecting consumer housing decisions (e.g., human needs, financial resources, location, legal agreements, maintenance responsibilities).
D. Explain consumer rights and responsibilities.
• To be safe
• To be informed
• To be heard
• To choose
• To redress
D. Analyze information in care instructions, safety precautions and the use of consumable goods as a demonstration of understanding of consumer rights and responsibilities. D. Explain how consumer rights and responsibilities are protected (e.g., government agencies, consumer protection agencies, consumer action groups). D. Evaluate the role of consumer rights and responsibilities in the resolution of a consumer problem through the practical reasoning process.
E. Explain the relationship between work and income. E. Explain the principles of child labor laws and the opportunity cost of working by evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of holding a job while a teenager. E. Compare the influences of income and fringe benefits to make decisions about work. E. Compare and contrast factors affecting annual gross and taxable income and reporting requirements (e.g., W-2 form, Income tax form).
F. Describe criteria needed to identify quality in consumer goods and services (e.g., food, clothing, furniture, home technology, health care, transportation, services). F. Explain practices to maintain and/or repair consumer goods and services. F. Evaluate different strategies to obtain consumer goods and services. F. Compare and contrast the selection of goods and services by applying effective consumer strategies.
G. Identify the services that communities provide for individuals and families. G. Identify the public and nonpublic services that are available to serve families within the community. G. Analyze how public, nonpublic and for-profit service providers serve the family. G. Compare the availability, costs and benefits of accessing public, nonpublic and for-profit services to assist the family.


11.2. Balancing Family, Work and Community Responsibility
11.2.3. GRADE 3 11.2.6. GRADE 6 11.2.9. GRADE 9 11.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Examine consequences of family, work or career decisions. A. Contrast the solutions reached through the use of a simple decision making process that includes analyzing consequences of alternative solutions against snap decision making methods. A. Solve dilemmas using a practical reasoning approach
• Identify situation
• Identify reliable information
• List choices and examine the consequences of each
• Develop a plan of action
• Draw conclusions
• Reflect on decisions
A. Justify solutions developed by using practical reasoning skills.
B. Identify the importance of routines and schedules while differentiating between short and long term goals. B. Deduce the importance of time management skills (e.g. home, school, recreational activities). B. Know FCCLA action planning procedure and how to apply it to family, work and community decisions. B. Evaluate the effectiveness of action plans that integrate personal, work, family and community responsibilities.
C. Indicate the benefits and costs of working as an individual or as a team member and of being a leader or follower. C. Classify the components of effective teamwork and leadership. C. Assess the effectiveness of the use of teamwork and leadership skills in accomplishing the work of the family. C. Analyze teamwork and leadership skills and their application in various family and work situations.
D. Explain the importance of organizing space for efficiency and a sense of comfort (e.g., desk space, classroom space). D. Identify the concepts and principles used in planning space for activities. D. Analyze the space requirements for a specified activity to meet a given need (e.g., family room, home office, kitchen). D. Based on efficiency, aesthetics and psychology, evaluate space plans (e.g., home, office, work areas) for their ability to meet a variety of needs including those of individuals with special needs.
E. Analyze the effectiveness of technology used for school and home in accomplishing the work of the family (e.g., security, entertainment, communication, education). E. Describe the role of technology within a community in maintaining a safe and healthy living environment (e.g., safety, hospitals, waste treatment, water quality, schools). E. Evaluate the impact of technology and justify the use or nonuse of it (e.g., safety, cost/budget, appearance, efficiency). E. Assess the availability of emerging technology that is designed to do the work of the family and evaluate the impact of its use on individuals, families and communities.
F. Explain daily activities that fulfill family functions in meeting responsibilities (e.g., economic, emotional support, childcare and guidance, housekeeping, maintaining kinship, providing recreation). F. Compare and contrast how different cultures meet family responsibilities within differing configurations (e.g., new parent, just married, single adult living alone, ‘‘empty nest,’’ retired, senior citizen). F. Contrast past and present family functions and predict their probable impact on the future of the family. F. Assess the relationship of family functions to human developmental stages.
G. Identify the life stages by identifying their developmental task (e.g., infant, pre-schooler, school age, teen-age, adult, senior citizen). G. Identify the characteristics of the stages of the family life cycle (e.g., beginning, expanding, developing, launching, middle years, retirement, variations). G. Explain the influences of family life cycle stages on the needs of families and communities (e.g., a large number of young families needing day care, fixed income senior citizens, school age children). G. Hypothesize the impact
of present family life-cycle trends on the global community (e.g., over population, increase in
an aging population, economic base).
H. Identify how to resolve conflict using interpersonal communications skills.
• Speaking and listening
• I messages
• Active listening
• Checking for understanding
• Following directions
• Empathy
• Feedback
H. Describe positive and negative interactions within patterns of interpersonal communications.
• Placating
• Blaming
• Distracting
• Intellectualizing
• Asserting
H. Justify the significance of interpersonal communication skills in the practical reasoning method of decision making. H. Evaluate the effectiveness of using interpersonal communication skills to resolve conflict.


11.3. Food Science and Nutrition
11.3.3. GRADE 3 11.3.6. GRADE 6 11.3.9. GRADE 9 11.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Know the production steps that a food travels from the farm to the consumer. A. Demonstrate knowledge of techniques used to evaluate food in various forms (e.g., canned, frozen, dried, irradiated). A. Explain how scientific and technological developments enhance our food supply (e.g., food preservation techniques, packaging, nutrient fortification). A. Analyze how food engineering and technology trends will influence the food supply.
B. Describe personal hygiene techniques in food handling (e.g., handwashing, sneeze control, signs of food spoilage). B. Describe safe food handling techniques (e.g., storage, temperature control, food preparation, conditions that create a safe working environment for food production). B. Identify the cause, effect and prevention of microbial contamination, parasites and toxic chemicals in food. B. Evaluate the role of Government agencies in safeguarding our food supply (e.g., USDA, FDA, EPA and CDC).
C. Explain the importance of eating a varied diet in maintaining health. C. Analyze factors that effect food choices. C. Analyze the impact of food addictions and eating disorders on health. C. Evaluate sources of food and nutrition information.
D. Classify foods by food group within the food guide pyramid including the serving size and nutrient function within the body. D. Describe a well-balanced daily menu using the dietary guidelines and the food guide pyramid. D. Analyze relationship between diet and disease and risk factors (e.g., calcium and osteoporosis; fat, cholesterol and heart disease; folate and birth defects; sodium and hypertension). D. Critique diet modifications for their ability to improve nutritionally-related health conditions (e.g., diabetes, lactose-intolerance, iron deficiency).
E. Define energy-yielding nutrients and calories. E. Explain the relationship between calories, nutrient and food input versus energy output; describe digestion. E. Analyze the energy requirements, nutrient requirements and body composition for individuals at various stages of the life cycle. E. Analyze the breakdown of foods, absorption of nutrients and their conversion to energy by the body.
F. Identify components of a basic recipe (e.g., volume, weight, fractions, recipe ingredients, recipe directions, safety techniques). F. Analyze basic food preparation techniques and food-handling procedures. F. Hypothesize the effectiveness of the use of meal management principles (e.g., time management, budgetary considerations, sensory appeal, balanced nutrition, safety, sanitation). F. Evaluate the application of nutrition and meal planning principles in the selection, planning, preparation and serving of meals that meet the specific nutritional needs of individuals across their lifespan.
G. Classify foods according to senses (e.g., taste, touch, smell, mouth feel, sight, sound). G. Describe the physical, biological, and chemical changes that take place in food preparation. G. Analyze the application of physical and chemical changes that occur in food during preparation and preservation. G. Analyze the relevance of scientific principles to food processing, preparation and packaging.


11.4. Child Development
11.4.3. GRADE 3 11.4.6. GRADE 6 11.4.9. GRADE 9 11.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Identify characteristics in each stage of child development.
• Infancy/birth to 1 year
• Early childhood/1 to 6 years
• Middle childhood/6 to 9 years
• Late childhood/9—13 years
• Adolescence/13—18 years
A. Compare and contrast child development guided practices according to the stage of child development. A. Analyze physical, intellectual and social/emotional development in relation to theories of child development. A. Analyze current research on existing theories in child development and its impact on parenting (e.g., Piaget, Erikson and prior findings versus new brain development research).
B. Identify health and safety needs for children at each stage of child development. B. Identify ways to keep children healthy and safe at each stage of child development. B. Evaluate health and safety hazards relating to children at each stage of child development. B. Analyze current issues in health and safety affecting children at each stage of child development.
C. Identify the characteristics of a learning environment. C. Identify the role of the caregiver in providing a learning environment (e.g., babysitting, daycare, preschool). C. Evaluate various environments to determine if they provide the characteristics of a proper learning environment. C. Analyze practices that optimize child development (e.g., stimulation, safe environment, nurturing caregivers, reading to children).
D. Identify community resources provided for children. D. Identify child-care provider considerations. D. Analyze the roles, responsibilities and opportunity for family involvement in schools.
D. Analyze plans and methods to blend work and family responsibilities to meet the needs of children.
E. Explain how the home and community help a person learn to read, write and compute. E. Identify characteristics of quality literature for children and other literacy enhancing activities. E. Explain how storytelling, story reading and writing enhance literacy development in children. E. Identify practices that develop the child’s imagination, creativity and reading and writing skills through literature.

XXXIII. GLOSSARY

Aesthetics: Appreciation of and responsive to beauty.
CDC: Center for Disease Control
Child-care provider considerations: Criteria to use in evaluating child care facilities. These include well-trained and highly motivated staff, pleasant sanitary surroundings, variety in toys and supplies, ratio of staff to children.
Child development stage: An age range with similar growth characteristics: infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, late childhood, adolescence.
Consumer responsibilities: The need to interpret information in care instructions, safety precautions and proper use of consumable goods as a user of goods and services.
Consumer rights: The guarantee to be safe, the right to be informed, to be heard, to choose consumer education and to redress as a user of goods and services.
Dietary guidelines: A set of seven recommendations developed by the United States Department of Agriculture and Health and Human Services to help healthy people over age 2 know what to eat to stay healthy.
Developmental tasks: Changes in the thinking and behavior of individuals over time.
Empathy: The action of understanding another’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors.
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
FCCLA Action planning procedure: The decision making process endorsed by the Family, Career and Community Leaders of America, involving five steps:
1. Identify concerns—brainstorm and evaluate, narrow choices to workable ideas.
2. Set your goals—write what you want to accomplish as an achievable objective.
3. Form a plan—who, what, when, where and how.
4. Act—carry out the plan.
5. Follow up—determine if your goal was met and create an improvement plan.
FDA: Food and Drug Administration
Family, Career and: Community Leaders Of America: Vocational student organization sponsored by Family and Consumer Sciences’ classrooms.
Food guide pyramid: A visual tool used to help people plan healthy diets according to the Dietary Guidelines for America.
Guided practices: Interaction with a child based on age appropriate developmental principles.
I message: A statement containing three parts:
1. The situation
2. How it makes the speaker feel
3. What will happen if it continues.
Kinship: Relationships or relatives.
Leadership skills: The ability to:
• Use resources
• Delegate authority
• Communicate effectively
• Assess composition of group
• Determine and rank goals
• Evaluate consequences.
Microbial contamination: Most common food contaminants causing foodborne illnesses.
Nutrient: A basic component of food that nourishes the body.
Opportunity cost: The tangible and nontangible trade-off necessary to procure a good or service or to take an action.
Practical reasoning: A decision making process unique because of its emphasis on relationships and involving six steps:
1. Identify situation to be solved
2. Identify reliable information
3. List choices and examine consequences
4. Develop plan of action
5. Draw conclusions
6. Reflect on decisions.
Redress: To set right or remedy.
Toxic chemical: Contaminants found in natural, environmental and pesticide residue forms that are poisonous to the body.
Scarcity: The lack of provisions for the support of life.
Team work skills: The ability to:
• Collaborate
• Cooperate
• Set community goals
• Reach consensus.
Trade-off: Exchange of goods, services or monies.
USDA: United States Department of Agriculture



APPENDIX E


Academic Standards for Career Education
and Work



Source

   The provisions of this Appendix E adopted July 7, 2006, effective July 8, 2006, 36 Pa.B. 3528, unless otherwise noted.

XXXVII. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction…XXXVIII.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Career Awareness and Preparation…13.1.
 
A. Abilities and Aptitudes
B. Personal Interests
C. Nontraditional Workplace Roles
D. Local Career Preparation Opportunities
E. Career Selection Influences
F. Preparation for Careers
G. Career Plan Components
H. Relationship Between Education and Career

 Career Acquisition (Getting a Job)…13.2.
 
A. Interviewing Skills
B. Resources
C. Career Acquisition Documents
D. Career Planning Portfolios
E. Career Acquisition Process

 Career Retention and Advancement…13.3.
 
A. Work Habits
B. Cooperation and Teamwork
C. Group Interaction
D. Budgeting
E. Time Management
F. Workplace Changes
G. Lifelong Learning

 Entrepreneurship…13.4.
 A. Risks and Rewards
B. Character Traits
C. Business Plan

 Glossary…XXXIX.

XXXVII. INTRODUCTION


 The Academic Standards for Career Education and Work reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students experience as they progress through school. Career Education and Work Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (3, 5, 8 and 11) in four areas:

 • 13.1 Career Awareness and Preparation

 • 13.2 Career Acquisition (Getting a Job)

 • 13.3 Career Retention and Advancement

 • 13.4 Entrepreneurship

 Pennsylvania’s economic future depends on having a well-educated and skilled workforce. No student should leave secondary education without a solid foundation in Career Education and Work. It is the rapidly changing workplace and the demand for continuous learning and innovation on the part of the workers that drive the need to establish academic standards in Career Education and Work.

 Through a comprehensive approach, Career Education and Work Standards complement all disciplines and other academic standards. If Pennsylvania’s students are to succeed in the workplace, there are certain skills that they need to obtain prior to graduation from high school. These skills have been identified in the Career Education and Work Standards, but it is up to individual school districts to decide how they are to be taught. Districts can implement integration strategies within existing disciplines or can implement stand-alone courses to specifically address these standards.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

13.1. Career Awareness and Preparation
13.1.3. GRADE 3
13.1.5. GRADE 5
13.1.8. GRADE 8
13.1.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Recognize that individuals have unique interests.
A. Describe the impact of individual interests and abilities on career choices. A. Relate careers to individual interests, abilities and aptitudes. A. Relate careers to individual interests, abilities and aptitudes.
B. Identify current personal interests. B. Describe the impact of personal interest and abilities on career choices. B. Relate careers to personal interests, abilities and aptitudes. B. Analyze career options based on personal interests, abilities, aptitudes, achievements and goals.
C. Recognize that the roles of individuals at home, in the workplace and in the community are constantly changing. C. Relate the impact of change to both traditional and nontraditional careers. C. Explain how both traditional and nontraditional careers offer or hinder career opportunities. C. Analyze how the changing roles of individuals in the workplace relate to new opportunities within career choices.
D. Identify the range of jobs available in the community. D. Describe the range of career training programs in the community such as, but not limited to:
• Two-and-four year colleges
• Career and technical  education programs at centers  (formerly AVTS) and high  schools
• CareerLinks
• Community/recreation centers
• Faith-based organizations
• Local industry training  centers
• Military
• Registered apprenticeship
• Vocational rehabilitation  centers
• Web-based training
D. Explain the relationship of career training programs to employment opportunities. D. Evaluate school-based opportunities for career awareness/preparation, such as, but not limited to:
• Career days
• Career portfolio
• Community service
• Cooperative education
• Graduation/senior project
• Internship
• Job shadowing
• Part-time employment
• Registered apprenticeship
• School-based enterprise
E. Describe the work done by school personnel and other individuals in the community. E. Describe the factors that influence career choices, such as, but not limited to:
• Geographic location
• Job description
• Salaries/benefits
• Work schedule
• Working conditions
E. Analyze the economic factors that impact employment opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Competition
• Geographic location
• Global influences
• Job growth
• Job openings
• Labor supply
• Potential advancement
• Potential earnings
• Salaries/benefits
• Unemployment
E. Justify the selection of a career.
F. Explore how people prepare for careers. F. Investigate people’s rationale for making career choices. F. Analyze the relationship of school subjects, extracurricular activities and community experiences to career preparation. F. Analyze the relationship between career choices and career preparation opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Associate degree
• Baccalaureate degree
• Certificate/licensure
• Entrepreneurship
• Immediate part/full time  employment
• Industry training
• Military training
• Professional degree
• Registered apprenticeship
• Tech Prep
• Vocational rehabilitation  centers
G. Explain why education and training plans are important to careers. G. Identify the components of a career plan, such as, but not limited to:
• Beginnings of career portfolio
• Career goals
• Individual interests and  abilities
• Training/education  requirements and costs
G. Create an individualized career plan including, such as, but not limited to:
• Assessment and continued  development of career  portfolio
• Career goals
• Cluster/pathway opportunities
• Individual interests and  abilities
• Training/education  requirements and financing
G. Assess the implementation of the individualized career plan through the ongoing development of the career portfolio.
H. Explain how workers in their careers use what is learned in the classroom. H. Connect personal interests and abilities and academic strengths to personal career options. H. Choose personal electives and extra curricular activities based upon personal career interests, abilities and academic strengths. H. Review personal high school plan against current personal career goals and select postsecondary opportunities based upon personal career interests.


13.2. Career Acquisition (Getting a Job)
13.2.3. GRADE 3
13.2.5. GRADE 5
13.2.8. GRADE 8
13.2.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify appropriate speaking and listening techniques used in conversation. A. Apply appropriate speaking and listening techniques used in conversation. A. Identify effective speaking and listening skills used in a job interview. A. Apply effective speaking and listening skills used in a job interview.
B. Discuss resources available in researching job opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Internet
• Magazines
• Newspapers
B. Identify and review resources available in researching job opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Internet
• Magazines
• Newspapers
B. Evaluate resources available in researching job opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• CareerLinks
• Internet (i.e. O*NET)
• Networking
• Newspapers
• Professional associations
• Resource books (that is  Occupational Outlook  Handbook, PA Career Guide)
B. Apply research skills in searching for a job.
• CareerLinks
• Internet (i.e. O*NET)
• Networking
• Newspapers
• Professional associations
• Resource books (that is  Occupational Outlook  Handbook, PA Career Guide)
C. Compose a personal letter. C. Compose and compare a business and a personal letter. C. Prepare a draft of career acquisition documents, such as, but not limited to:
• Job application
• Letter of appreciation  following an interview
• Letter of introduction
• Request for letter of  recommendation
• Resume
C. Develop and assemble, for career portfolio placement, career acquisition documents, such as, but not limited to:
• Job application
• Letter of appreciation  following an interview
• Letter of introduction
• Postsecondary education/ training applications
• Request for letter of  recommendation
• Resume
D. Identify the importance of developing a plan for the future. D. Identify individualized career portfolio components, such as, but not limited to:
• Achievements
• Awards/recognitions
• Career exploration results
• Career plans
• Community service  involvement/projects
• Interests/hobbies
• Personal career goals
• Selected school work
• Self inventories
D. Develop an individualized career portfolio including components, such as, but not limited to:
• Achievements
• Awards/recognitions
• Career exploration results
• Career plans
• Community service  involvement/projects
• Interests/hobbies
• Personal career goals
• Selected school work
• Self inventories
D. Analyze, revise and apply an individualized career portfolio to chosen career path.
E. Discuss the importance of the essential workplace skills, such as, but not limited to:
• Dependability
• Health/safety
• Team building
• Technology
E. Apply to daily activities, the essential workplace skills, such as, but not limited to:
• Commitment
• Communication
• Dependability
• Health/safety
• Personal initiative
• Scheduling/time management
• Team building
• Technical literacy
• Technology
E. Explain, in the career acquisition process, the importance of the essential workplace skills/knowledge, such as, but not limited to:
• Commitment
• Communication
• Dependability
• Health/safety
• Laws and regulations (that is  Americans With Disabilities  Act, child labor laws, Fair  Labor Standards Act, OSHA,  Material Safety Data Sheets)
• Personal initiative
• Self-advocacy
• Scheduling/time management
• Team building
• Technical literacy
• Technology
E. Demonstrate, in the career acquisition process, the application of essential workplace skills/knowledge, such as, but not limited to:
• Commitment
• Communication
• Dependability
• Health/safety
• Laws and regulations (that is  Americans With Disabilities  Act, child labor laws, Fair  Labor Standards Act, OSHA,  Material Safety Data Sheets)
• Personal initiative
• Self-advocacy
• Scheduling/time management
• Team building
• Technical literacy
• Technology


13.3. Career Retention and Advancement
13.3.3. GRADE 3
13.3.5. GRADE 5
13.3.8. GRADE 8
13.3.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify attitudes and work habits that contribute to success at home and school. A. Explain how student attitudes and work habits transfer from the home and school to the workplace. A. Determine attitudes and work habits that support career retention and advancement. A. Evaluate personal attitudes and work habits that support career retention and advancement.
B. Identify how to cooperate at both home and school. B. Explain the importance of working cooperatively with others at both home and school to complete a task. B. Analyze the role of each participant’s contribution in a team setting. B. Evaluate team member roles to describe and illustrate active listening techniques:
• Clarifying
• Encouraging
• Reflecting
• Restating
• Summarizing
C. Explain effective group interaction terms, such as, but not limited to:
• Compliment
• Cooperate
• Encourage
• Participate
C. Identify effective group interaction strategies, such as, but not limited to:
• Building consensus
• Communicating effectively
• Establishing ground rules
• Listening to others
C. Explain and demonstrate conflict resolution skills:
• Constructive criticism
• Group dynamics
• Managing/leadership
• Mediation
• Negotiation
• Problem solving
C. Evaluate conflict resolution skills as they relate to the workplace:
• Constructive criticism
• Group dynamics
• Managing/leadership
• Mediation
• Negotiation
• Problem solving
D. Explain how money is used. D. Explain budgeting. D. Analyze budgets and pay statements, such as, but not limited to:
• Charitable contributions
• Expenses
• Gross pay
• Net pay
• Other income
• Savings
• Taxes
D. Develop a personal budget based on career choice, such as, but not limited to:
• Charitable contributions
• Fixed/variable expenses
• Gross pay
• Net pay
• Other income
• Savings
• Taxes
E. Discuss how time is used at both home and school. E. Develop a personal schedule based on activities and responsibilities at both home and school. E. Identify and apply time management strategies as they relate to both personal and work situations. E. Evaluate time management strategies and their application to both personal and work situations.
F. Identify the changes in family and friend’s roles at home, at school and in the community. F. Describe the impact of role changes at home, school, and at work, and how the role changes impact career advancement and retention. F. Identify characteristics of the changing workplace including Americans With Disabilities Act accommodations, and explain their impact on jobs and employment. F. Evaluate strategies for career retention and advancement in response to the changing global workplace.
G. Define and describe the importance of lifelong learning. G. Describe how personal interests and abilities impact lifelong learning. G. Identify formal and informal lifelong learning opportunities that support career retention and advancement. G. Evaluate the impact of lifelong learning on career retention and advancement.


13.4. Entrepreneurship
13.4.3. GRADE 3
13.4.5. GRADE 5
13.4.8. GRADE 8
13.4.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Define entrepreneurship. A. Identify the risks and rewards of entrepreneurship. A. Compare and contrast entrepreneurship to traditional employment, such as, but not limited to:
• Benefits
• Job security
• Operating costs
• Wages
A. Analyze entrepreneurship as it relates to personal career goals and corporate opportunities.
B. Describe the character traits of successful entrepreneurs, such as, but not limited to:
• Adaptability
• Creative thinking
• Ethical behavior
• Leadership
• Positive attitude
• Risk-taking
B. Discuss the entrepreneurial character traits of historical or contemporary entrepreneurs. B. Evaluate how entrepreneurial character traits influence career opportunities. B. Analyze entrepreneurship as it relates to personal character traits.
C. Describe age-appropriate entrepreneurial opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Bake sale
• Crafts
• Lemonade stand
• Pet care
C. Discuss the steps entrepreneurs take to bring their goods or services to market, such as, but not limited to:
• Marketing
• Production
• Research and development
• Selection of goods and  services
C. Identify and describe the basic components of a business plan, such as, but not limited to:
• Business idea
• Competitive analysis
• Daily operations
• Finances/budget
• Marketing
• Productive resources (human,  capital, natural)
• Sales forecasting
C. Develop a business plan for an entrepreneurial concept of personal interest and identify available resources, such as, but not limited to:
• Community based  organizations (that is  chambers of commerce,  trade/technical associations,  Industrial Resource Centers)
• Financial institutions
• School-based career centers
• Small Business  Administration services (that  is SCORE, Small Business  Development Centers,  Entrepreneurial Development  Centers)
• Venture capital

Academic Standards for Career Education and Work



XXXIX. GLOSSARY

Americans With Disabilities Act
(Pub. L. No. 101-336):
The Americans With Disabilities Act is a Federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination and for ensuring equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment, state and local government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation and requiring the establishment of TDD/telephone relay services.
Aptitudes: Capacity to learn and understand.
Associate degree: A postsecondary degree typically earned within a 2-year time frame.
Baccalaureate degree: A postsecondary degree, also known as a bachelor’s degree, typically earned within a 4-year time frame from a college or university.
Benefits: Something of value that an employee receives in addition to a wage or salary. Examples include health and life insurance, vacation leave, retirement plans, and the like.
Budget: A financial plan that summarizes anticipated income and expenditures over a period of time.
Business plan: A prepared document detailing the past, present and future of an organization.
Career and technical centers: Schools that educate secondary students and adults through academic instruction, job preparation and acquisition of occupational skills leading to credentials or employment, or both, in specific industries. The centers also provide opportunities for transition to postsecondary education and continuing education.
Career cluster: A grouping of related occupations, which share similar skill sets.
Career days: Special events that allow students to meet with employers, career development specialists, community-based organization representatives and postsecondary educators. Events are designed to encourage students to gain information about careers and job opportunities.
Career plan: A document developed by the student that identifies a series of educational studies and experiences to prepare them for postsecondary education or work, or both, in a selected career cluster or area.
Career portfolio: An ongoing, individualized collection of materials (electronic or hard copy) that documents a student’s educational performance, career exploration and employment experiences over time. While there is no standard format that a career portfolio must take, it typically includes a range of work, containing assignments by the teacher/counselor and selections by the student. It serves as a guide for the student to transition to postsecondary education or the workplace, or both.
Career retention and advancement: Career retention is the process of keeping a job. Career advancement is the process of performing the necessary requirements to progress in a career.
CareerLinks: A cooperative system that provides one-stop delivery of career services to job seekers, employers and other interested individuals.
Certificate/licensure: A document, issued by associations, employers, educational institutions, government, and the like, confirming that one has fulfilled the requirements and is able to perform to a specified level of proficiency within a career field.
Child labor laws: Legislation governing the employment of children under the age of 18.
Competitive analysis: A tool that allows a business to identify its competitors and evaluate their respective strengths and weaknesses.
Cooperative education: A structured method of instruction whereby students alternate or coordinate their high school studies with a job in a field related to their academic or career objectives.
Entrepreneurs: Individuals who engage in the process of organizing, managing and assuming the risk of a business or enterprise.
Entrepreneurship: The process of organizing, managing and assuming the risks of a business or enterprise.
Fair Labor Standards Act: A Federal law that defines overtime and wage requirements (26 U.S.C.A. § §  201—219).
Fixed/variable expenses: Fixed expenses are regular in their timing and amount, and include things such as rent, mortgage, car payment and insurance. Variable expenses are irregular in their timing and amount, and include such things as food, clothing, home and car maintenance, entertainment and gifts.
Global influences: Political and cultural changes, which impact the world and its economy.
Gross pay: The amount earned before deductions, such as taxes, insurance and retirement/pension plan.
Industrial resource centers: Nonprofit corporations, which provide assistance to improve the competitive position of small-to-medium sized manufacturers.
Internship: A work experience with an employer for a specified period of time to learn about a particular industry or occupation, which may or may not include financial compensation. The workplace activities may include special projects, a sample of tasks from different jobs or tasks from a single occupation.
Job shadowing: Typically as part of career exploration activities in late middle and early high school, a student follows an employee for 1 or more days to learn about a particular occupation or industry. Job shadowing is intended to help students explore a range of career objectives and to possibly select a career pathway.
Labor supply: The number of persons either working or unemployed and actively seeking work.
Marketing: The process or technique of promoting, selling and distributing a product or service.
Material Safety Data Sheets: Federally-mandated listings of all hazardous materials that will impact the health and safety of the workers and that are required to be posted in the workplace.
Mediation: Third-party intervention between conflicting parties to promote reconciliation, settlement or compromise.
Net pay: The amount remaining after deductions, such as taxes, insurance and retirement/pension plan.
Networking: The act of exchanging information, contacts and services.
Nontraditional careers: Fields of work for which individuals from one gender comprise less than 25% of the individuals employed in each occupation or field of work.
O*NET: Occupational Information Network—is a free public access online web-based system provided by the United States Department of Labor, which includes comprehensive up-to-date occupational information including skills, knowledge, abilities and tasks for more than 950 occupations.
Operating costs: The funds necessary to operate a business, not including the cost of goods sold. This is also referred to as overhead.
OSHA: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration—A National agency with representatives in each state who monitor health and safety issues in the workplace.
Professional associations: Organizations of people having common interests.
Professional degree: A title conferred on students by a college, university or professional school upon completion of a program of study.
Registered apprenticeship: A formal program registered with the United States Department of Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training and with the Pennsylvania Apprenticeship Council. This program must follow strict guidelines as to the types of training and amount of training time an apprentice receives and leads directly into occupations requiring the training for entry.
Resume: A summary of one’s personal qualifications, education/training and employment experience.
Salaries/benefits: Financial compensation paid regularly for services (See ‘‘benefits’’ for definition).
Sales forecasting: Predicting the number of services or units likely to be sold over a specified period of time.
School-based career centers: Specialized areas in schools equipped with resources and materials used to research postsecondary and occupational opportunities.
School-based enterprise: The production of goods or services as part of a school program.
SCORE: Service Corps of Retired Executives—A Small Business Administration Federally-sponsored program to assist small-to-medium sized companies.
Self inventories: Evaluation of an individual’s strengths, weaknesses and interests, as it relates to career planning.
Tech Prep: The name given to programs that offer at least 4 years of sequential course work at the secondary and postsecondary levels to prepare students for technical careers. The curricula are designed to build student competency in academic subjects, as well as to provide broad technical preparation in a career area.
Technical literacy: The ability of individuals to use existing and emerging technologies, equipment, language, materials and manuals to participate intelligently in performing tasks related to everyday life, school or job.
Time management strategies: Scheduling techniques used to effectively and efficiently direct or control activities.
Traditional careers: Fields of work for which individuals from one gender comprise more than 25% of the individuals employed in each occupation or field of work.
Unemployment: Measurement of the number of people who are not working and who are actively seeking work.
Venture capital: Public or private funds invested in a potentially profitable business enterprise despite risk of loss.
Vocational rehabilitation centers: Educational facilities that provide life skills and occupational training services for individuals with special needs.
Wages: Payments of money for labor or services according to contract and on an hourly, daily or piecework basis.
Web-based training: Instruction that is available online.
Work habits: Acquired behaviors that individuals regularly perform in completing tasks related to chores, school or job.
Working conditions: The environment in which an individual is employed.






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