§ 4.83. [Reserved].


Source

   The provisions of this §  4.83 reserved February 15, 2008, effective February 16, 2008, 38 Pa.B. 872. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (286560).

APPENDIX A


[Reserved]


Source

   The provisions of this Appendix A adopted January 15, 1999, effective January 16, 1999, 29 Pa.B. 399; reserved by correction July 19, 2013, effective June 30, 2013, replaced by Appendix A-1, 43 Pa.B. 4079, unless otherwise noted. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (252345) to (252422) and (286561) to (286562).

APPENDIX B


Academic Standards for Science and Technology and
Environment and Ecology


Source

   The provisions of this Appendix B adopted January 4, 2002, effective January 5, 2002, 32 Pa.B. 17, unless otherwise noted.

VII. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction… VIII.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

Unifying Themes…3.1.
 A. Systems
 B. Models
 C. Patterns
 D. Scale
 E. Change
Inquiry and Design…3.2.
 A. Nature of Scientific Knowledge
 B. Process Knowledge
 C. Scientific Method
 D. Problem Solving in Technology
Biological Sciences…3.3.
 A. Living Forms
 B. Structure and Function
 C. Inheritance
 D. Evolution
Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics…3.4.
 A. Matter
 B. Energy
 C. Forces and Motion
 D. Astronomy
Earth Sciences…3.5.
 A. Land Forms and Processes
 B. Resources
 C. Meteorology
 D. Hydrology and Oceanography
Technology Education…3.6.
 A. Biotechnology
 B. Information Technology
 C. Physical Technologies
   (Construction, Manufacturing, and Transportation)
Technological Devices…3.7.
 A. Tools
 B. Instruments
 C. Computer Operations
 D. Computer Software
 E. Computer Communication Systems
Science, Technology and Human Endeavors…3.8.
 A. Constraints
 B. Meeting Human Needs
 C. Consequences and Impacts
Glossary…IX.

VIII. INTRODUCTION


 This document describes what students should know and be able to do in the following eight areas:

 • 3.1. Unifying Themes of Science

 • 3.2. Inquiry and Design

 • 3.3. Biological Sciences

 • 3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics

 • 3.5. Earth Sciences

 • 3.6. Technology Education

 • 3.7. Technological Devices

 • 3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors

 These standards describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of fourth, seventh, tenth and twelfth grade. In addition, these standards reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students are expected to achieve as they progress through school.

 This document avoids repetition, making an obvious progression across grade levels less explicit. Teachers shall expect that students know and can apply the concepts and skills expressed at the preceding level. Consequently, previous learning is reinforced but not retaught.

 Standards are arranged by categories, for example, 3.5 Earth Science. Under each category are standard statements that are preceded by a capital letter; for example, in 3.1 Unifying Themes, grade 10.B, ‘‘Describe concepts of models as a way to predict and understand science and technology.’’ Following the standard statements are bulleted standard descriptors, which explain the nature and scope of the standard. Descriptors specify the nature of the standard and the level of complexity needed in meeting that standard in a proficient manner. Descriptors serve to benchmark the standard statement. Curriculum, instruction and assessment should focus on meeting the standard statement. Technology education, computer applications and science are separate curricular areas. Meeting standards should be approached as a collaborative effort among all curricular areas.

 The following descriptors explain the intent of each standard category:

3.1. Unifying
Themes
Unifying themes of science and technology provide big ideas that integrate with significant concepts. There are only a few fundamental concepts and processes that form the framework upon which science and technology knowledges are organized—motion and forces, energy, structure of matter, change over time and machines. These themes create the context through which the content of the disciplines can be taught and are emphasized in each standard.
3.2. Inquiry and Design The nature of science and technology is characterized by applying process knowledge that enables students to become independent learners. These skills include observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, computing, estimating, communicating, using space/time relationships, defining operationally, raising questions, formulating hypotheses, testing and experimenting, designing controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, formulating models, designing models, and producing solutions. Everyone can use them to solve real-life problems. These process skills are developed across the grade levels and differ in the degree of sophistication, quantitative nature and application to the content.
3.3. Biological Sciences Biology concerns living things, their appearance, different types of life, the scope of their similarities and differences, where they live and how they live. Living things are made of the same components as all other matter, involve the same kinds of transformations of energy and move using the same basic kinds of forces as described in chemistry and physics standards. Through the study of the diversity of life, students learn to understand how life has changed over a long period of time. This great variety of life forms continues to change even today as genetic instructions within cells are passed from generation to generation, yet the amazing integrity of most species remain.
3.4. Physical Science Chemistry and Physics Physics and chemistry involve the study of objects and their properties. Students examine changes to materials during mixing, freezing, heating and dissolving and then learn how to observe and measure results. In chemistry students study the relationship between matter, atomic structure and its activity. Laboratory investigations of the properties of substances and their changes through a range of chemical interactions provide a basis for students to understand atomic theory and a variety of reaction types and their applications in business, agriculture and medicine. Physics deepens the understanding of the structure and properties of materials and includes atoms, waves, light, electricity, magnetism and the role of energy, forces and motion.
3.5. Earth Sciences The dynamics of earth science include the studies of forces of nature that build the earth and wear down the earth. The understanding of these concepts uses principles from physical sciences, geography and mathematics.
3.6. Technology Education Technology education is the use of accumulated knowledge to process resources to meet human needs and improve the quality of life. Students develop the ability to select and correctly use materials, tools, techniques and processes to answer questions, understand explanations and solve problems encountered in real life situations. These overriding themes require students to design, create, use, evaluate and modify systems of Biotechnologies, Information Technologies, and Physical Technologies.
3.7. Technological Devices Students use tools to observe, measure, move and make things. New technological tools and techniques make it possible to enact far-reaching changes in our world. Technology enhances the students’ abilities to identify problems and determine solutions. Computers play an integral role in every day life by extending our abilities to collect, analyze and communicate information and ideas.
3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors Scientific knowledge and societal needs often create a demand for new technology. Conversely, new technology advances scientific knowledge. Both influence society through the impact of their products and processes.

 What Is Science? Any study of science includes the search for understanding the natural world and facts, principles, theories and laws that have been verified by the scientific community and are used to explain and predict natural phenomena and events.

 Acquiring scientific knowledge involves constructing hypotheses using observation and knowledge in the content area in order to formulate useful questions that provoke scientific inquiry. As a result of repeated, rigorous testing over time and applying multiple perspectives to a problem, consistent information emerges. A theory describes this verifiable event or phenomena. Theories are powerful elements in science and are used to predict other events. As theories lose their ability to predict, they are modified, expanded or generalized or incorporated into a broader theory.

 Knowledge of what science is incorporates carefully developed and integrated components:

 • Nature of science—the ways in which scientists search for answers to questions and explanations of observations about the natural world; includes process knowledge of observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, hypothesizing, experimenting and interpreting data

 • Unifying themes of science—concepts, generalizations and principles that result from and lead to inquiry

 • Knowledge—facts, principles, theories and laws verifiable through scientific inquiry by the world community of scientists; includes physics, chemistry, earth science and biological sciences

 • Inquiry—an intellectual process of logic that includes verification of answers to questions about and explanations for natural objects, events and phenomena

 • Process skills—Recognition by students how knowledge is acquired and applied in science by observing, classifying, inferring, predicting, measuring, computing, estimating, communicating, using space/time relationships, defining operationally, formulating hypotheses, testing and experimenting, designing controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, formulating models, designing models and producing solutions.

 • Problem solving—application of concepts to problems of human adaptation to the environment that often leads to recognition of new problems; has social implications and leads to personal decision-making and action; a process which forms the link for interactions between scientific and technological results or findings; involves operational definitions, recognizing variables, formulating models and asking questions

 • Scientific thinking—the disposition to suspend judgment, not make decisions and not take action until results, explanations or answers have been tested and verified with information.

 What Is Technology Education? It is the means by which we teach technology. Technology is a body of knowledge separate from but related to the sciences, with specific content, curriculum and specific certification requirements. Technology is the application of tools, materials, processes and systems by humans to solve problems and provide benefits to humankind. We use technology in an attempt to improve our environment. These improvements may relate to survival needs (e.g., food, shelter, defense) or they may relate to human aspirations (e.g., knowledge, art, control). They can include unexpected benefits, unexpected costs and unexpected risks.

 Technology education involves a broad spectrum of knowledge and activities. Effective technology education combines knowledge of content, process and skills to provide students with a holistic approach to learning. Technology education offers unique opportunities to apply numerous academic concepts through practical, hands-on applications. Instructional technology, on the other hand, deals specifically with use of computers and different software to solve problems and communicate effectively. Knowledge of content, process and skills should be used together to effectively engage students and promote a complete understanding of the sciences, related technologies and their interrelationship. The relationship between science and technology is one where science builds principles or theories and technology provides the practical application of those principles or theories.

 Knowledge of content, process and skills in technology involves learning processes that include these components:

 • Methods of designing and developing solutions

 • Standards for selecting and using appropriate materials, tools and processes

 • Experimental and design specifications for testing and evaluating solutions

 • Criteria for judging the performance and impact of the solutions

 • Evaluating the impact of modifying a system to improve performance.

 Technology education can be divided into three main systems that include biotechnological, informational, and physical technologies:

Biotechnological
 Systems
Bioconversion
Bioprocessing
Environment
Ergonomics
Engineering/Design  Systems
Research and  Development
Informational Systems
Computer-Aided
 Drafting/Design
 (CADD)
Drafting & Design
Desktop Publishing
Electronic
 Communications
Engineering/
 Design Systems
Graphic
 Communications
Communications Systems
Multimedia Technology
Networking Systems
Research and
 Development
Video and Television Production
World Wide Web
 Design & Publishing
Physical Systems
Automation/Robotics
Computer-Aided and
Integrated
Manufacturing (CAM/CIM)
Construction
Electronic Circuits/
 Control Systems
Energy Systems
Architecture and Community Planning
Engineering/Design Systems
Enterprise Organization
 & Operation
Manufacturing
Material Processes
Research and Development
Transportation


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A.Know that natural and human-made objects are made up of parts.
• Identify and describe what parts make up a system.
• Identify system parts that are natural and human-made (e.g., ball point pen, simple electrical circuits, plant anatomy).
• Describe the purpose of analyzing systems.
• Know that technologies include physical technology systems (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational systems and biochemical-related systems.
A.Explain the parts of a simple system and their relationship to each other.
• Describe a system as a group of related parts that work together to achieve a desired result (e.g., digestive system).
• Explain the importance of order in a system.
• Distinguish between system inputs, system processes and system outputs.
• Distinguish between open loop and closed loop systems.
• Apply systems analysis to solve problems.
A.Discriminate among the concepts of systems, subsystems, feedback and control in solving technological problems.
• Identify the function of subsystems within a larger system (e.g., role of thermostat in an engine, pressure switch).
• Describe the interrelationships among inputs, processes, outputs, feedback and control in specific systems.
• Explain the concept of system redesign and apply it to improve technological systems.
• Apply the universal systems model to illustrate specific solutions and troubleshoot specific problems.
• Analyze and describe the effectiveness of systems to solve specific problems.
A.Apply concepts of systems, subsystems, feedback and control to solve complex technological problems.
• Apply knowledge of control systems concept by designing and modeling control systems that solve specific problems.
• Apply systems analysis to predict results.
• Analyze and describe the function, interaction and relationship among subsystems and the system itself.
• Compare and contrast several systems that could be applied to solve a single problem.
• Evaluate the causes of a system’s inefficiency.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
B.Know models as useful simplifications of objects or processes.
• Identify different types of models.
• Identify and apply models as tools for prediction and insight.
• Apply appropriate simple modeling tools and techniques.
• Identify theories that serve as models (e.g., molecules).
B.Describe the use of models as an application of scientific or technological concepts.
• Identify and describe different types of models and their functions.
• Apply models to predict specific results and observations (e.g., population growth, effects of infectious organisms).
• Explain systems by outlining a system’s relevant parts and its purpose and/or designing a model that illustrates its function.
B.Describe concepts of models as a way to predict and understand science and technology.
• Distinguish between different types of models and modeling techniques and apply their appropriate use in specific applications (e.g., kinetic gas theory, DNA).
• Examine the advantages of using models to demonstrate processes and outcomes (e.g., blue print analysis, structural stability).
• Apply mathematical models to science and technology.
B.Apply concepts of models as a method to predict and understand science and technology.
• Evaluate technological processes by collecting data and applying mathematical models (e.g., process control).
• Apply knowledge of complex physical models to interpret data and apply mathematical models.
• Appraise the importance of computer models in interpreting science and technological systems.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
C.Illustrate patterns that regularly occur and reoccur in nature.
• Identify observable patterns (e.g., growth patterns in plants, crystal shapes in minerals, climate, structural patterns in bird feathers).
• Use knowledge of natural patterns to predict next occurrences (e.g., seasons, leaf patterns, lunar phases).
C.Identify patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.
• Identify different forms of patterns and use them to group and classify specific objects.
• Identify repeating structure patterns.
• Identify and describe patterns that occur in physical systems (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational systems and biochemical-related systems.
C.Apply patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.
• Examine and describe recurring patterns that form the basis of biological classification, chemical periodicity, geological order and astronomical order.
• Examine and describe stationary physical patterns.
• Examine and describe physical patterns in motion.
C.Assess and apply patterns in science and technology.
• Assess and apply recurring patterns in natural and technological systems.
• Compare and contrast structure and function relationships as they relate to patterns.
• Assess patterns in nature using mathematical formulas.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
D.Know that scale is an important attribute of natural and human made objects, events and phenomena.
• Identify the use of scale as it relates to the measurement of distance, volume and mass.
• Describe scale as a ratio (e.g., map scales).
• Explain the importance of scale in producing models and apply it to a model.
D.Explain scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
• Apply various applications of size and dimensions of scale to scientific, mathematical, and technological applications.
• Describe scale as a form of ratio and apply to a life situation.
D.Apply scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
• Apply dimensional analysis and scale as a ratio.
• Convert one scale to another.
D.Analyze scale as a way of relating concepts and ideas to one another by some measure.
• Compare and contrast various forms of dimensional analysis.
• Assess the use of several units of measurement to the same problem.
• Analyze and apply appropriate measurement scales when collecting data.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
E.Recognize change in natural and physical systems.
• Recognize change as fundamental to science and technology concepts.
• Examine and explain change by using time and measurement.
• Describe relative motion.
• Describe the change to objects caused by heat, cold, light or chemicals.
E.Identify change as a variable in describing natural and physical systems.
• Describe fundamental science and technology concepts that could solve practical problems.
• Explain how ratio is used to describe change.
• Describe the effect of making a change in one part of a system on the system as a whole.
E.Describe patterns of change in nature, physical and man made systems.
• Describe how fundamental science and technology concepts are used to solve practical problems (e.g., momentum, Newton’s laws of universal gravitation, tectonics, conservation of mass and energy, cell theory, theory of evolution, atomic theory, theory of relativity, Pasteur’s germ theory, relativity, heliocentric theory, gas laws, feedback systems).
• Recognize that stable systems often involve underlying dynamic changes (e.g., a chemical reaction at equilibrium has molecules reforming continuously).
E.Evaluate change in nature, physical systems and man made systems.
• Evaluate fundamental science and technology concepts and their development over time (e.g., DNA, cellular respiration, unified field theory, energy measurement, automation, miniaturization, Copernican and Ptolemaic universe theories).
• Analyze how models, systems and technologies have changed over time (e.g., germ theory, theory of evolution, solar system, cause of fire).
• Explain how correlation of variables does not necessarily imply causation.


3.1. Unifying Themes
3.1.4. GRADE 43.1.7. GRADE 73.1.10. GRADE 103.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
• Describe the effects of error in measurements.
• Describe changes to matter
caused by heat, cold, light
or chemicals using a rate
function.
• Evaluate the patterns of change within a technology (e.g., changes in engineering in the automotive industry).


3.2. Inquiry and Design
3.2.4. GRADE 43.2.7. GRADE 73.2.10. GRADE 103.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Identify and use the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.
• Distinguish between a scientific fact and a belief.
• Provide clear explanations that account for observations and results.
• Relate how new information can change existing perceptions.
A.Explain and apply scientific and technological knowledge.
• Distinguish between a scientific theory and a belief.
• Answer ‘‘What if’’ questions based on observation, inference or prior knowledge or experience.
• Explain how skepticism about an accepted scientific explanation led to a new understanding.
• Explain how new information may change existing theories and practice.
A.Apply knowledge and understanding about the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.
• Compare and contrast scientific theories and beliefs.
• Know that science uses both direct and indirect observation means to study the world and the universe.
• Integrate new information into existing theories and explain implied results.
A.Evaluate the nature of scientific and technological knowledge.
• Know and use the ongoing scientific processes to continually improve and better understand how things work.
• Critically evaluate the status of existing theories (e.g., germ theory of disease, wave theory of light, classification of subatomic particles, theory of evolution, epidemiology of AIDS).
B.Describe objects in the world using the five senses.
• Recognize observational descriptors from each of the five senses (e.g., see-blue, feel-rough).
• Use observations to develop a descriptive vocabulary.
B.Apply process knowledge to make and interpret observations.
• Measure materials using a variety of scales.
• Describe relationships by making inferences and predictions.
• Communicate, use space/time relationships, define operationally, raise questions, formulate hypotheses, test and experiment.
• Design controlled experiments, recognize variables, and manipulate variables.
• Interpret data, formulate models, design models, and produce solutions.
B.Apply process knowledge and organize scientific and technological phenomena in varied ways.
• Describe materials using precise quantitative and qualitative skills based on observations.
• Develop appropriate scientific experiments: raising questions, formulating hypotheses, testing, controlled experiments, recognizing variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, and producing solutions.
• Use process skills to make inferences and predictions using collected information and to communicate, using space/time relationships, defining operationally.
B.Evaluate experimental information for appropriateness and adherence to relevant science processes.
• Evaluate experimental data correctly within experimental limits.
• Judge that conclusions are consistent and logical with experimental conditions.
• Interpret results of experimental research to predict new information or improve a solution.
C.Recognize and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.
• Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
• Design an investigation.
• Conduct an experiment.
• State a conclusion that is consistent with the information.
C.Identify and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.
• Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
• Evaluate the appropriateness of questions.
• Design an investigation with limited variables to investigate a question.
• Conduct a two-part experiment.
• Judge the significance of experimental information in answering the question.
• Communicate appropriate conclusions from the experiment.
C.Apply the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.
• Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
• Evaluate the appropriateness of questions.
• Design an investigation with adequate control and limited variables to investigate a question.
• Conduct a multiple step experiment.
• Organize experimental information using a variety of analytic methods.
• Judge the significance of experimental information in answering the question.
• Suggest additional steps that might be done experimentally.
C.Apply the elements of scientific inquiry to solve multi-step problems.
• Generate questions about objects, organisms and/or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
• Evaluate the appropriateness of questions.
• Design an investigation with adequate control and limited variables to investigate a question.
• Organize experimental information using analytic and descriptive techniques.
• Evaluate the significance of experimental information in answering the question.
• Project additional questions from a research study that could be studied.
D.Recognize and use the technological design process to solve problems.
• Recognize and explain basic problems.
• Identify possible solutions and their course of action.
• Try a solution.
• Describe the solution, identify its impacts and modify if necessary.
• Show the steps taken and the results.
D.Know and use the technological design process to solve problems.
• Define different types of problems.
• Define all aspects of the problem, necessary information and questions that must be answered.
• Propose the best solution.
• Design and propose alternative methods to achieve solutions.
• Apply a solution.
• Explain the results, present improvements, identify and infer the impacts of the solution.
D.Identify and apply the technological design process to solve problems.
• Examine the problem, rank all necessary information and all questions that must be answered.
• Propose and analyze a solution.
• Implement the solution.
• Evaluate the solution, test, redesign and improve as necessary.
• Communicate the process and evaluate and present the impacts of the solution.
D.Analyze and use the technological design process to solve problems.
• Assess all aspects of the problem, prioritize the necessary information and formulate questions that must be answered.
• Propose, develop and appraise the best solution and develop alternative solutions.
• Implement and assess the solution.
• Evaluate and assess the solution, redesign and improve as necessary.
• Communicate and assess the process and evaluate and present the impacts of the solution.


3.3. Biological Sciences
3.3.4. GRADE 43.3.7. GRADE 73.3.10. GRADE 103.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Know the similarities and differences of living things.
• Identify life processes of living things (e.g., growth, digestion, react to environment).
• Know that some organisms have similar external characteristics (e.g., anatomical characteristics; appendages, type of covering, body segments) and that similarities and differences are related to environmental habitat.
• Describe basic needs of plants and animals.
A.Describe the similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things.
• Describe how the structures of living things help them function in unique ways.
• Explain how to use a dichotomous key to identify plants and animals.
• Account for adaptations among organisms that live in a particular environment.
A.Explain the structural and functional similarities and differences found among living things.
• Identify and characterize major life forms according to their placement in existing classification groups.
• Explain the relationship between structure and function at the molecular and cellular levels.
• Describe organizing schemes of classification keys.
• Identify and characterize major life forms by kingdom, phyla, class and order.
A.Explain the relationship between structure and function at all levels of organization.
• Identify and explain interactions among organisms (e.g., mutually beneficial, harmful relationships).
• Explain and analyze the relationship between structure and function at the molecular, cellular and organ-system level.
• Describe and explain structural and functional relationships in each of the five (or six) kingdoms.
• Explain significant biological diversity found in each of the biomes.
B.Know that living things are made up of parts that have specific functions.
• Identify examples of unicellular and multicellular organisms.
• Determine how different parts of a living thing work together to make the organism function.
B.Describe the cell as the basic structural and functional unit of living things.
• Identify the levels of organization from cell to organism.
• Compare life processes at the organism level with life processes at the cell level.
• Explain that cells and organisms have particular structures that underlie their functions.
• Describe and distinguish among cell cycles, reproductive cycles and life cycles.
• Explain disease effects on structures or functions of an organism.
B.Describe and explain the chemical and structural basis of living organisms.
• Describe the relationship between the structure of organic molecules and the function they serve in living organisms.
• Identify the specialized structures and regions of the cell and the functions of each.
• Explain how cells store and use information to guide their functions.
• Explain cell functions and processes in terms of chemical reactions and energy changes.
B.Analyze the chemical and structural basis of living organisms.
• Identify and describe factors affecting metabolic function (e.g., temperature, acidity, hormones).
• Evaluate metabolic activities using experimental knowledge of enzymes.
• Evaluate relationships between structure and functions of different anatomical parts given their structure.
• Describe potential impact of genome research on the biochemistry and physiology of life.
C.Know that characteristics are inherited and, thus, offspring closely resemble their parents.
• Identify characteristics for animal and plant survival in different climates.
• Identify physical characteristics that appear in both parents and offspring and differ between families, strains or species.
C.Know that every organism has a set of genetic instructions that determines its inherited traits.
• Identify and explain inheritable characteristics.
• Identify that the gene is the basic unit of inheritance.
• Identify basic patterns of inheritance (e.g., dominance, recessive, codominance).
• Describe how traits are inherited.
• Distinguish how different living things reproduce (e.g., vegetative budding, sexual).
• Recognize that mutations can alter a gene.
• Describe how selective breeding, natural selection and genetic technologies can change genetic makeup of organisms.
C.Describe how genetic information is inherited and expressed.
• Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.
• Describe mutations’ effects on a trait’s expression.
• Distinguish different reproductive patterns in living things (e.g., budding, spores, fission).
• Compare random and selective breeding practices and their results (e.g., antibiotic resistant bacteria).
• Explain the relationship among DNA, genes and chromosomes.
• Explain different types of inheritance (e.g., multiple allele, sex-influenced traits).
• Describe the role of DNA in protein synthesis as it relates to gene expression.
C.Explain gene inheritance and expression at the molecular level.
• Analyze gene expression at the molecular level.
• Describe the roles of nucleic acids in cellular reproduction and protein synthesis.
• Describe genetic engineering techniques, applications and impacts.
• Explain birth defects from the standpoint of embryological development and/or changes in genetic makeup.
D.Identify changes in living things over time.
• Compare extinct life forms with living organisms.
D.Explain basic concepts of natural selection.
• Identify adaptations that allow organisms to survive in their environment.
• Describe how an environmental change can affect the survival of organisms and entire species.
• Know that differences in individuals of the same species may give some advantage in surviving and reproducing.
• Recognize that populations of organisms can increase rapidly.
• Describe the role that fossils play in studying the past.
• Explain how biologic extinction is a natural process.
D.Explain the mechanisms of the theory of evolution.
• Analyze data from fossil records, similarities in anatomy and physiology, embryological studies and DNA studies that are relevent to the theory of evolution.
• Explain the role of mutations and gene recombination in changing a population of organisms.
• Compare modern day descendents of extinct species and propose possible scientific accounts for their present appearance.
• Describe the factors (e.g., isolation, differential reproduction) affecting gene frequency in a population over time and their consequences.
D.Analyze the theory of evolution.
• Examine human history by describing the progression from early hominids to modern humans.
• Apply the concept of natural selection as a central concept in illustrating evolution theory.


3.3. Biological Sciences
3.3.4. GRADE 43.3.7. GRADE 73.3.10. GRADE 103.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Describe and differentiate between the roles of natural selection and genetic drift.
• Describe changes that illustrate major events in the earth’s development based on a time line.
• Explain why natural selection can act only on inherited traits.
• Apply the concept of natural selection to illustrate and account for a species’ survival, extinction or change over time.
Ecosystem Standards are in the Environment and Ecology Standard Category (4.6).


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Recognize basic concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
• Describe properties of matter (e.g., hardness, reactions to simple chemical tests).
• Know that combining two or more substances can make new materials with different properties.
• Know different material characteristics (e.g., texture, state of matter, solubility).
A.Describe concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
• Identify elements as basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down chemically.
• Distinguish compounds from mixtures.
• Describe and conduct experiments that identify chemical and physical properties.
• Describe reactants and products of simple chemical reactions.
A.Explain concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
• Know that atoms are composed of even smaller sub-atomic structures whose properties are measurable.
• Explain the repeating pattern of chemical properties by using the repeating patterns of atomic structure within the periodic table.
• Predict the behavior of gases through the use of Boyle’s, Charles’ or the ideal gas law, in everyday situations.
• Describe phases of matter according to the Kinetic Molecular Theory.
• Explain the formation of compounds and their resulting properties using bonding theories (ionic and covalent).
A.Apply concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
• Apply rules of systematic nomenclature and formula writing to chemical substances.
• Classify and describe, in equation form, types of chemical and nuclear reactions.
• Explain how radioactive isotopes that are subject to decay can be used to estimate the age of materials.
• Explain how the forces that bind solids, liquids and gases affect their properties.
• Characterize and identify important classes of compounds (e.g., acids, bases, salts).


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Recognize formulas for simple inorganic compounds.
• Describe various types of chemical reactions by applying the laws of conservation of mass and energy.
• Apply knowledge of mixtures to appropriate separation techniques.
• Understand that carbon can form several types of compounds.
• Apply the conservation of energy concept to fields as diverse as mechanics, nuclear particles and studies of the origin of the universe.
• Apply the predictability of nuclear decay to estimate the age of materials that contain radioactive isotopes.
• Quantify the properties of matter (e.g., density, solubility coefficients) by applying mathematical formulas.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Know basic energy types, sources and conversions.
• Identify energy forms and examples (e.g., sunlight, heat, stored, motion).
• Know the concept of the flow of energy by measuring flow through an object or system.
• Describe static electricity in terms of attraction, repulsion and sparks.
• Apply knowledge of the basic electrical circuits to design and construction simple direct current circuits.
• Classify materials as conductors and nonconductors.
• Know and demonstrate the basic properties of heat by producing it in a variety of ways.
B.Relate energy sources and transfers to heat and temperature.
• Identify and describe sound changes in moving objects.
• Know that the sun is a major source of energy that emits wavelengths of visible light, infrared and ultraviolet radiation.
• Explain the conversion of one form of energy to another by applying knowledge of each form of energy.
• Explain the parts and functions in an electrical circuit.
B.Analyze energy sources and transfers of heat.
• Determine the efficiency of chemical systems by applying mathematical formulas.
• Use knowledge of chemical reactions to generate an electrical current.
• Evaluate energy changes in chemical reactions.
• Use knowledge of conservation of energy and momentum to explain common phenomena (e.g., refrigeration system, rocket propulsion).
• Explain resistance, current and electro-motive force (Ohm’s Law).
B.Apply and analyze energy sources and conversions and their relationship to heat and temperature.
• Determine the heat involved in illustrative chemical reactions.
• Evaluate mathematical formulas that calculate the efficiency of specific chemical and mechanical systems.
• Use knowledge of oxidation and reduction to balance complex reactions.
• Apply appropriate thermodynamic concepts (e.g., conservation, entropy) to solve problems relating to energy and heat.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Know the characteristics of light (e.g., reflection, refraction, absorption) and use them to produce heat, color or a virtual image.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .TrC.
Observe and describe different types of force and motion.
• Identify characteristics of sound (pitch, loudness and echoes).
• Recognize forces that attract or repel other objects and demonstrate them.
• Describe various types of motions.
• Compare the relative movement of objects and describe types of motion that are evident.
• Describe the position of an object by locating it relative to another object or the background (e.g., geographic direction, left, up).
C.Identify and explain the principles of force and motion.
• Describe the motion of an object based on its position, direction and speed.
• Classify fluid power systems according to fluid used or mode of power transmission (e.g., air, oil).
• Explain various motions using models.
• Explain how convex and concave mirrors and lens change light images.
• Explain how sound and light travel in waves of differing speeds, sizes and frequencies.
C.Distinguish among the principles of force and motion.
• Identify the relationship of electricity and magnetism as two aspects of a single electromagnetic force.
• Identify elements of simple machines in compound machines.
• Explain fluid power systems through the design and construction of appropriate models.
• Describe sound effects (e.g., Doppler effect, amplitude, frequency, reflection, refraction, absorption, sonar, seismic).
• Describe light effects (e.g., Doppler effect, dispersion, absorption, emission spectra, polarization, interference).
• Describe and measure the motion of sound, light and other objects.
C.Apply the principles of motion and force.
• Evaluate wave properties of frequency, wavelength and speed as applied to sound and light through different media.
• Propose and produce modifications to specific mechanical power systems that will improve their efficiency.
• Analyze the principles of translational motion, velocity and acceleration as they relate to free fall and projectile motion.
• Analyze the principles of rotational motion to solve problems relating to angular momentum, and torque.
• Interpret a model that illustrates circular motion and acceleration.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Know Newton’s laws of motion (including inertia, action and reaction) and gravity and apply them to solve problems related to forces and mass.
• Determine the efficiency of mechanical systems by applying mathematical formulas.
• Describe inertia, motion, equilibrium, and action/reaction concepts through words, models and mathematical symbols.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
D.Describe the composition and structure of the universe and the earth’s place in it.
• Recognize earth’s place in the solar system.
• Explain and illustrate the causes of seasonal changes.
• Identify planets in our solar system and their general characteristics.
• Describe the solar system motions and use them to explain time (e.g., days, seasons), major lunar phases and eclipses.
D.Describe essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe and the earth’s place in it.
• Compare various planets’ characteristics.
• Describe basic star types and identify the sun as a star type.
• Describe and differentiate comets, asteroids and meteors.
• Identify gravity as the force that keeps planets in orbit around the sun and governs the rest of the movement of the solar system and the universe.
• Illustrate how the position of stars and constellations change in relation to the Earth during an evening and from month to month.
• Identify equipment and instruments that explore the universe.
D.Explain essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe.
• Compare the basic structures of the universe (e.g., galaxy types, nova, black holes, neutron stars).
• Describe the structure and life cycle of star, using the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
• Describe the nuclear processes involved in energy production in a star.
• Explain the ‘‘red-shift’’ and Hubble’s use of it to determine stellar distance and movement.
• Compare absolute versus apparent star magnitude and their relation to stellar distance.
• Explain the impact of the Copernican and Newtonian thinking on man’s view of the universe.
D.Analyze the essential ideas about the composition and structure of the universe.
• Analyze the Big Bang Theory’s use of gravitation and nuclear reaction to explain a possible origin of the universe.
• Compare the use of visual, radio and x-ray telescopes to collect data regarding the structure and evolution of the universe.
• Correlate the use of the special theory of relativity and the life of a star.


3.4. Physical Science, Chemistry and Physics
3.4.4. GRADE 43.4.7. GRADE 73.4.10. GRADE 103.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Identify the accomplishments and contributions provided by selected past and present scientists in the field of astronomy.
• Identify and articulate space program efforts to investigate possibilities of living in space and on other planets.
• Identify and analyze the findings of several space instruments in regard to the extent and composition of the solar system and universe.
Refer to Technology Standard Category 3.6 for applied uses of these concepts and principles.


3.5. Earth Sciences
3.5.4. GRADE 43.5.7. GRADE 73.5.10. GRADE 103.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Know basic landforms and earth history.
• Describe earth processes (e.g., rusting, weathering, erosion) that have affected selected physical features in students’ neighborhoods.
• Identify various earth structures (e.g., mountains, faults, drainage basins) through the use of models.
• Identify the composition of soil as weathered rock and decomposed organic remains.
• Describe fossils and the type of environment they lived in (e.g., tropical, aquatic, desert).
A.Describe earth features and processes.
• Describe major layers of the earth.
• Describe the processes involved in the creation of geologic features (e.g., folding, faulting, volcanism, sedimentation) and that these processes seen today (e.g., erosion, weathering crustal plate movement) are similar to those in the past.
• Describe the processes that formed Pennsylvania geologic structures and resources including mountains, glacial formations, water gaps and ridges.
• Explain how the rock cycle affected rock formations in the state of Pennsylvania.
A.Relate earth features and processes that change the earth.
• Illustrate and explain plate tectonics as the mechanism of continental movement and sea floor changes.
• Compare examples of change to the earth’s surface over time as they related to continental movement and ocean basin formation (e.g., Delaware, Susquehanna, Ohio Rivers system formations, dynamics).
• Interpret topographic maps to identify and describe significant geologic history/structures in Pennsylvania.
• Evaluate and interpret geologic history using geologic maps.
• Explain several methods of dating earth materials and structures.
A.Analyze and evaluate earth features and processes that change the earth.
• Apply knowledge of geophysical processes to explain the formation and degradation of earth structures (e.g., mineral deposition, cave formations, soil composition).
• Interpret geological evidence supporting evolution.
• Apply knowledge of radioactive decay to assess the age of various earth features and objects.


3.5. Earth Sciences
3.5.4. GRADE 43.5.7. GRADE 73.5.10. GRADE 103.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Distinguish between examples of rapid surface changes (e.g., landslides, earthquakes) and slow surface changes (e.g., weathering).
• Identify living plants and animals that are similar to fossil forms.
• Correlate rock units with general geologic time periods in the history of the earth.
• Describe and identify major types of rocks and minerals.


3.5. Earth Sciences
3.5.4. GRADE 43.5.7. GRADE 73.5.10. GRADE 103.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Know types and uses of earth materials.
• Identify uses of various earth materials (e.g., buildings, highways, fuels, growing plants).
• Identify and sort earth materials according to a classification key (e.g., soil/rock type).
B.Recognize earth resources and how they affect everyday life.
• Identify and locate significant earth resources (e.g., rock types, oil, gas, coal deposits) in Pennsylvania.
• Explain the processes involved in the formation of oil and coal in Pennsylvania.
• Explain the value and uses of different earth resources (e.g., selected minerals, ores, fuel sources, agricultural uses).
• Compare the locations of human settlements as related to available resources.
B.Explain sources and uses of earth resources.
• Compare the locations of strategic minerals and earth resources in the world with their geologic history using maps and global information systems.
• Demonstrate the effects of sedimentation and erosion before and after a conservation plan is implemented.
• Evaluate the impact of geologic activities/hazards (e.g., earthquakes, sinkholes, landslides).
• Evaluate land use (e.g., agricultural, recreational, residential, commercial) in Pennsylvania based upon soil characteristics.
B.Analyze the availability, location and extraction of earth resources.
• Describe how the location of earth’s major resources has affected a country’s strategic decisions.
• Compare locations of earth features and country boundaries.
• Analyze the impact of resources (e.g., coal deposits, rivers) on the life of Pennsylvania’s settlements and cities.
C.Know basic weather elements.
• Identify cloud types.
• Identify weather patterns from data charts (including temperature, wind direction and speed, precipitation) and graphs of the data.
• Explain how the different seasons effect plants, animals, food availability and daily human life.
C.Describe basic elements of meteorology.
• Explain weather forecasts by interpreting weather data and symbols.
• Explain the oceans’ impact on local weather and the climate of a region.
• Identify how cloud types, wind directions and barometric pressure changes are associated with weather patterns in different regions of the country.
• Explain and illustrate the processes of cloud formation and precipitation.
• Describe and illustrate the major layers of the earth’s atmosphere.
• Identify different air masses and global wind patterns and how they relate to the weather patterns in different regions of the U.S.
C.Interpret meteorological data.
• Analyze information from meteorological instruments and online sources to predict weather patterns.
• Describe weather and climate patterns on global levels.
• Evaluate specific adaptations plants and animals have made that enable them to survive in different climates.
C.Analyze atmospheric energy transfers.
• Describe how weather and climate involve the transfer of energy in and out of the atmosphere.
• Explain how unequal heating of the air, ocean and land produces wind and ocean currents.
• Analyze the energy transformations that occur during the greenhouse effect and predict the long-term effects of increased pollutant levels in the atmosphere.
• Analyze the mechanisms that drive a weather phenomena (e.g., El Nino, hurricane, tornado) using the correlation of three methods of heat energy transfer.
D.Recognize the earth’s different water resources.
• Know that approximately three-fourths of the earth is covered by water.
• Identify and describe types of fresh and saltwater bodies.
• Identify examples of water in the form of solid, liquid and gas on or near the surface of the earth.
• Explain and illustrate evaporation and condensation.
• Recognize other resources available from water (e.g., energy, transportation, minerals, food).
D.Explain the behavior and impact of the earth’s water systems.
• Explain the water cycle using the processes of evaporation and condensation.
• Describe factors that affect evaporation and condensation.
• Distinguish salt from fresh water (e.g., density, electrical conduction).
• Compare the effect of water type (e.g., polluted, fresh, salt water) and the life contained in them.
• Identify ocean and shoreline features (e.g., bays, inlets, spit, tidal marshes).
D.Assess the value of water as a resource.
• Compare specific sources of potable water (e.g., wells, public systems, rivers) used by people in Pennsylvania.
• Identify the components of a municipal/agricultural water supply system and a wastewater treatment system.
• Relate aquatic life to water conditions (e.g., turbidity, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen levels, pressure).
• Compare commercially important aquatic species in or near Pennsylvania.
• Identify economic resources found in marine areas.
• Assess the natural and man-made factors that affect the availability of clean water (e.g., rock and mineral deposits, man-made pollution).
D.Analyze the principles and history of hydrology.
• Analyze the operation and effectiveness of a water purification and desalination system.
• Evaluate the pros and cons of surface water appropriation for commercial and electrical use.
• Analyze the historical development of water use in Pennsylvania (e.g., recovery of Lake Erie).
• Compare the marine life and type of water found in the intertidal, neritic and bathyal zones.


3.5. Earth Sciences
3.5.4. GRADE 43.5.7. GRADE 73.5.10. GRADE 103.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
Refer to Environment and Ecology Standards Categories 4.1, 4.3, 4.8 for standards that deal with
environmental impact of Earth structures and forces.


3.6. Technology Education
3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Know that biotechnologies relate to propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.
• Identify agricultural and industrial production processes that involve plants and animals.
• Identify waste management treatment processes.
• Describe how knowledge of the human body influences or impacts ergonomic design.
• Describe how biotechnology has impacted various aspects of daily life (e.g., health care, agriculture, waste treatment).
A.Explain biotechnologies that relate to related technologies of propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.
• Identify the environmental, societal and economic impacts that waste has in the environment.
• Identify and explain the impact that a specific medical advancement has had on society.
• Explain the factors that were taken into consideration when a specific object was designed.
• Define and describe how fuels and energy can be generated through the process of biomass conversion.
• Identify and group basic plant and animal production processes.
A.Apply biotechnologies that relate to propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.
• Apply knowledge of plant and animal production processes in designing an improvement to existing processes.
• Apply knowledge of biomedical technology applications in designing a solution to a simple medical problem (e.g., wheel chair design, artificial arteries).
• Apply knowledge of how biomedical technology affects waste products in designing a solution that will result in reduced waste.
• Apply ergonomic engineering factors when devising a solution to a specific problem.
• Describe various methods of biochemical conversion.
A.Analyze biotechnologies that relate to propagating, growing, maintaining, adapting, treating and converting.
• Analyze and solve a complex production process problem using biotechnologies (e.g., hydroponics, fish farming, crop propagation).
• Analyze specific examples where engineering has impacted society in protection, personal health application or physical enhancement.
• Appraise and evaluate the cause and effect and subsequent environmental, economic and societal impacts that result from biomass and biochemical conversion.


3.6. Technology Education
3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Explain the impact that agricultural science has had on biotechnology.
• Describe specific examples that reflect the impact that agricultural science has had on biotechnology.
• Evaluate and apply biotechnical processes to complex plant and animal production methods.
• Apply knowledge of biochemical-related technologies to propose alternatives to hazardous waste treatment.
• Apply knowledge of agricultural science to solve or improve a biochemical related problem.


3.6. Technology Education
3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Know that information technologies involve encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.
• Identify electronic communication methods that exist in the community (e.g., digital cameras, telephone, internet, television, fiber optics).
• Identify graphic reproduction methods.
• Describe appropriate image generating techniques (e.g., photography, video).
• Demonstrate the ability to communicate an idea by applying basic sketching and drawing techniques.
B.Explain information technologies of encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.
• Demonstrate the effectiveness of image generating technique to communicate a story (e.g., photography, video).
• Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of a graphic object designed and produced to communicate a thought or concept.
• Apply basic technical drawing techniques to communicate an idea or solution to a problem.
• Apply the appropriate method of communications technology to communicate a thought.
B.Apply knowledge of information technologies of encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.
• Describe the proper use of graphic and electronic communication systems.
• Apply a variety of advanced mechanical and electronic drafting methods to communicate a solution to a specific problem.
• Apply and analyze advanced communication techniques to produce an image that effectively conveys a message (e.g., desktop publishing, audio and/or video production).
• Illustrate an understanding of a computer network system by modeling, constructing or assembling its components.
B.Analyze knowledge of information technologies of processes encoding, transmitting, receiving, storing, retrieving and decoding.
• Apply and analyze advanced information techniques to produce a complex image that effectively conveys a message (e.g., desktop publishing, audio and/or video production).
• Analyze and evaluate a message designed and produced using still, motion and animated communication techniques.
• Describe the operation of fiber optic, microwave and satellite informational systems.
• Apply various graphic and electronic information techniques to solve real world problems (e.g., data organization and analysis, forecasting, interpolation).


3.6. Technology Education
3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
C.Know physical technologies of structural design, analysis and engineering, finance, production, marketing, research and design.
• Identify and group a variety of construction tasks.
• Identify the major construction systems present in a specific local building.
• Identify specific construction systems that depend on each other in order to complete a project.
• Know skills used in construction.
• Identify examples of manufactured goods present in the home and school.
• Identify basic resources needed to produce a manufactured item.
• Identify basic component operations in a specific manufacturing enterprise (e.g., cutting, shaping, attaching).
C.Explain physical technologies of structural design, analysis and engineering, personnel relations, financial affairs, structural production, marketing, research and design.
• Use knowledge of material effectiveness to solve specific construction problems (e.g., steel vs. wood bridges).
• Differentiate among the different types of construction applications (e.g., microwave tower, power plants, aircrafts).
• Explain basic material processes that manufactured objects undergo during production (e.g., separating, forming, combining).
• Evaluate a construction activity by specifying task analyses and necessary resources.
C.Apply physical technologies to structural design, analysis and engineering, personnel relations, financial affairs, structural production, marketing, research and design to real world problems.
• Describe and classify common construction by their characteristics and composition.
• Compare and contrast specific construction systems that depend on each other in order to complete a project.
• Evaluate material failure common to specific applications.
• Demonstrate knowledge of various construction systems by building or interpreting models.
• Select and apply the necessary resources to successfully conduct a manufacturing enterprise.
C.Analyze physical technologies of structural design, analysis and engineering, personnel relations, financial affairs, structural production, marketing, research and design to real world problems.
• Apply knowledge of construction technology by designing, planning and applying all the necessary resources to successfully solve a construction problem.
• Compare resource options in solving a specific manufacturing problem.
• Analyze and apply complex skills needed to process materials in complex manufacturing enterprises.
• Apply advanced information collection and communication techniques to successfully convey solutions to specific construction problems.


3.6. Technology Education
3.6.4. GRADE 43.6.7. GRADE 73.6.10. GRADE 103.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Identify waste and pollution resulting from a manufacturing enterprise.
• Explain and demonstrate the concept of manufacturing (e.g., assemble a set of papers or ball point pens sequentially, mass produce an object).
• Identify transportation technologies of propelling, structuring, suspending, guiding, controlling and supporting.
• Identify and experiment with simple machines used in transportation systems.
• Explain how improved transportation systems have changed society.
• Explain the relationships among the basic resources needed in the production process for a specific manufactured object.
• Explain the difference between design engineering and production engineering processes.
• Analyze manufacturing steps that affect waste and pollutants.
• Explain transportation technologies of propelling, structuring, suspending, guiding, controlling and supporting.
• Identify and explain the workings of several mechanical power systems.
• Model and explain examples of vehicular propulsion, control, guidance, structure and suspension systems.
• Explain the limitations of land, marine, air and space transportation systems.
• Apply concepts of design engineering and production engineering in the organization and application of a manufacturing activity.
• Apply the concepts of manufacturing by redesigning an enterprise to improve productivity or reduce or eliminate waste and/or pollution.
• Evaluate the interrelationship of various transportation systems in the community.
• Analyze the impacts that transportation systems have on a community.
• Assess the importance of capital on specific construction applications.
• Analyze the positive and negative qualities of several different types of materials as they would relate to specific construction applications.
• Analyze transportation technologies of propelling, structuring, suspending, guiding, controlling and supporting.
• Analyze the concepts of vehicular propulsion, guidance, control, suspension and structural systems while designing and producing specific complex transportation systems.


3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Explore the use of basic tools, simple materials and techniques to safely solve problems.
• Describe the scientific principles on which various tools are based.
• Group tools and machines by their function.
• Select and safely apply appropriate tools and materials to solve simple problems.
A.Describe the safe and appropriate use of tools, materials and techniques to answer questions and solve problems.
• Identify uses of tools, machines, materials, information, people, money, energy and time that meet specific design criteria.
• Describe safe procedures for using tools and materials.
• Assess materials for appropriateness of use.
A.Identify and safely use a variety of tools, basic machines, materials and techniques to solve problems and answer questions.
• Select and safely apply appropriate tools, materials and processes necessary to solve complex problems.
• Apply advanced tool and equipment manipulation techniques to solve problems.
A.Apply advanced tools, materials and techniques to answer complex questions.
• Demonstrate the safe use of complex tools and machines within their specifications.
• Select and safely apply appropriate tools, materials and processes necessary to solve complex problems that could result in more than one solution.
• Evaluate and use technological resources to solve complex multi-step problems.


3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Select appropriate instruments to study materials.
• Develop simple skills to measure, record, cut and fasten.
• Explain appropriate instrument selection for specific tasks.
B.Use appropriate instruments and apparatus to study materials.
• Select appropriate instruments to measure the size, weight, shape and temperature of living and non-living objects.
• Apply knowledge of different measurement systems to measure and record objects’ properties.
B.Apply appropriate instruments and apparatus to examine a variety of objects and processes.
• Describe and use appropriate instruments to gather and analyze data.
• Compare and contrast different scientific measurement systems; select the best measurement system for a specific situation.
• Explain the need to estimate measurements within error of various instruments.
• Apply accurate measurement knowledge to solve everyday problems.
• Describe and demonstrate the operation and use of advanced instrumentation in evaluating material and chemical properties (e.g., scanning electron microscope, nuclear magnetic resonance machines).
B.Evaluate appropriate instruments and apparatus to accurately measure materials and processes.
• Apply and evaluate the use of appropriate instruments to accurately measure scientific and technologic phenomena within the error limits of the equipment.
• Evaluate the appropriate use of different measurement scales (macro and micro).
• Evaluate the utility and advantages of a variety of absolute and relative measurement scales for their appropriate application.


3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
Computer literacy, including the use of hardware and software in standard statements C, D, and E, should be integrated across all content areas.
C.Identify basic computer operations and concepts.
• Identify the major parts necessary for a computer to input and output data.
• Explain and demonstrate the basic use of input and output devices (e.g., keyboard, monitor, printer, mouse).
• Explain and demonstrate the use of external and internal storage devices (e.g., disk drive, CD drive).
C.Explain and demonstrate basic computer operations and concepts.
• Know specialized computer applications used in the community.
• Describe the function of advanced input and output devices (e.g., scanners, video images, plotters, projectors) and demonstrate their use.
• Demonstrate age appropriate keyboarding skills and techniques.
C.Apply basic computer operations and concepts.
• Identify solutions to basic hardware and software problems.
• Apply knowledge of advanced input devices.
• Apply knowledge of hardware setup.
• Describe the process for basic software installation and demonstrate it.
• Analyze and solve basic operating systems problems.
• Apply touch keyboarding skills and techniques at expectable speed and accuracy.
• Demonstrate the ability to perform basic software installation.
C.Evaluate computer operations and concepts as to their effectiveness to solve specific problems.
• Describe and demonstrate atypical software installation.
• Analyze and solve hardware and advanced software problems.
• Assess and apply multiple input and output devices to solve specific problems.


3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
D.Use basic computer software.
• Apply operating system skills to perform basic computer tasks.
• Apply basic word processing skills.
• Identify and use simple graphic and presentation graphic materials generated by the computer.
• Apply specific instructional software.
D.Apply computer software to solve specific problems.
• Identify software designed to meet specific needs (e.g., Computer Aided Drafting, design software, tutorial, financial, presentation software).
• Identify and solve basic software problems relevant to specific software applications.
• Identify basic multimedia applications.
• Demonstrate a basic knowledge of desktop publishing applications.
• Apply intermediate skills in utilizing word processing, database and spreadsheet software.
• Apply basic graphic manipulation techniques.
D.Utilize computer software to solve specific problems.
• Identify legal restrictions in the use of software and the output of data.
• Apply advanced graphic manipulation and desktop publishing techniques.
• Apply basic multi-
media applications.
• Apply advanced word processing, database and spreadsheet skills.
• Describe and demonstrate how two or more software applications can be used to produce an output.
• Select and apply software designed to meet specific needs.
D.Evaluate the effectiveness of computer software to solve specific problems.
• Evaluate the effectiveness of software to produce an output and demonstrate the process.
• Design and apply advanced multimedia techniques.
• Analyze, select and apply the appropriate software to solve complex problems.
• Evaluate the effectiveness of the computer as a presentation tool.
• Analyze the legal responsibilities of computer users.


3.7. Technological Devices
3.7.4. GRADE 43.7.7. GRADE 73.7.10. GRADE 103.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
E.Identify basic computer communications systems.
• Apply a web browser.
• Apply basic electronic mail functions.
• Use on-line searches to answer age appropriate questions.
E.Explain basic computer communications systems.
• Describe the organization and functions of the basic parts that make up the World Wide Web.
• Apply advanced electronic mail functions.
• Apply basic on-line research techniques to solve a specific problem.
E.Apply basic computer communications systems.
• Identify and explain various types of on-line services.
• Identify and explain the function of the parts of a basic network.
• Describe and apply the components of a web page and their function.
• Explain and demonstrate file transfer within and out side of a computer network.
• Identify, describe and complete advanced on-line research.
E.Assess the effectiveness of computer communications systems.
• Assess the effectiveness of a computer based communications system.
• Transfer files among different computer platforms.
• Analyze the effectiveness of on-line information resources to meet the needs for collaboration, research, publications, communications and productivity.
• Apply knowledge of protocol standards to solve connectivity problems.


3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
3.8.4. GRADE 43.8.7. GRADE 73.8.10. GRADE 103.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A.Know that people select, create and use science and technology and that they are limited by social and physical restraints.
• Identify and describe positive and negative impacts that influence or result from new tools and techniques.
• Identify how physical technology (e.g., construction, manufacturing, transportation), informational technology and biotechnology are used to meet human needs.
• Describe how scientific discoveries and technological advancements are related.
• Identify interrelationships among technology, people and their world.
• Apply the technological design process to solve a simple problem.
A.Explain how sciences and technologies are limited in their effects and influences on society.
• Identify and describe the unavoidable constraints of technological design.
• Identify changes in society as a result of a technological development.
• Identify and explain improvements in transportation, health, sanitation and communications as a result of advancements in science and technology and how they effect our lives.
A.Analyze the relationship between societal demands and scientific and technological enterprises.
• Identify past and current tradeoffs between increased production, environmental harm and social values (e.g., increased energy needs, power plants, automobiles).
• Compare technologies that are applied and accepted differently in various cultures (e.g., factory farming, nuclear power).
• Describe and evaluate social change as a result of technological developments.
• Assess the social impacts of a specific international environmental problem by designing a solution that applies the appropriate technologies and resources.
A.Synthesize and evaluate the interactions and constraints of science and technology on society.
• Compare and contrast how scientific and technological knowledge is both shared and protected.
• Evaluate technological developments that have changed the way humans do work and discuss their impacts (e.g., genetically engineered crops).
• Evaluate socially proposed limitations of scientific research and technological application.


3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
3.8.4. GRADE 43.8.7. GRADE 73.8.10. GRADE 103.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
B.Know how human ingenuity and technological resources satisfy specific human needs and improve the quality of life.
• Identify and distinguish between human needs and improving the quality of life.
• Identify and distinguish between natural and human-made resources.
• Describe a technological invention and the resources that were used to develop it.
B.Explain how human ingenuity and technological resources satisfy specific human needs and improve the quality of life.
• Identify interrelationships between systems and resources.
• Identify and describe the resources necessary to solve a selected problem in a community and improve the quality of life.
• Identify and explain specific examples of how agricultural science has met human needs and has improved the quality of life.
B.Analyze how human ingenuity and technological resources satisfy specific human needs and improve the quality of life.
• Identify several problems and opportunities that exist in your community, apply various problem-solving methods to design and evaluate possible solutions.
• Analyze a recently invented item, describing the human need that prompted its invention and the current and potential social impacts of the specific invention.
• Apply knowledge of oceanography, meteorology, geology and human anatomy to explain important considerations that need to be made for construction of homes, buildings and businesses in the United States.
B.Apply the use of ingenuity and technological resources to solve specific societal needs and improve the quality of life.
• Apply appropriate tools, materials and processes to solve complex problems.
• Use knowledge of human abilities to design or modify technologies that extend and enhance human abilities.
• Apply appropriate tools, materials and processes to physical, informational or biotechnological systems to identify and recommend solutions to international problems.
• Apply knowledge of agricultural science to develop a solution that will improve on a human need or want.


3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
3.8.4. GRADE 43.8.7. GRADE 73.8.10. GRADE 103.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
• Assess the impacts that agricultural science has had on meeting human needs and improving the qualify of life.


3.8. Science, Technology and Human Endeavors
3.8.4. GRADE 43.8.7. GRADE 73.8.10. GRADE 103.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
C.Know the pros and cons of possible solutions to scientific and technological problems in society.
• Compare the positive and negative expected and unexpected impacts of technological change.
• Identify and discuss examples of technological change in the community that have both positive and negative impacts.
C.Identify the pros and cons of applying technological and scientific solutions to address problems and the effect upon society.
• Describe the positive and negative expected and unexpected effects of specific technological developments.
• Describe ways technology extends and enhances human abilities.
C.Evaluate possibilities, consequences and impacts of scientific and technological solutions.
• Relate scientific and technological advancements in terms of cause and effect.
• Describe and evaluate the impacts that financial considerations have had on specific scientific and technological applications.
• Compare and contrast potential solutions to technological, social, economic and environmental problems.
• Analyze the impacts on society of accepting or rejecting scientific and technological advances.
C.Evaluate the consequences and impacts of scientific and technological solutions.
• Propose solutions to specific scientific and technological applications, identifying possible financial considerations.
• Analyze scientific and technological solutions through the use of risk/benefit analysis.
• Analyze and communicate the positive or negative impacts that a recent technological invention had on society.
• Evaluate and describe potential impacts from emerging technologies and the consequences of not keeping abreast of technological advancements (e.g., assessment alternatives, risks, benefits, costs, economic impacts, constraints).

IX. GLOSSARY

Allele: Any of a set of possible forms of a gene.
Biochemical conversion: The changing of organic matter into other chemical forms.
Biomass conversion: The changing of organic matter that has been produced by photosynthesis into useful liquid, gas or fuel.
Biomedical technology: The application of health care theories to develop methods, products and tools to maintain or improve homeostasis.
Biomes: A community of living organisms of a single major ecological region.
Biotechnology: The ways that humans apply biological concepts to produce products and provide services.
Carbon chemistry: The science of the composition, structure, properties and reactions of carbon based matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems; sometimes referred to as organic chemistry.
Construction technology: The ways that humans build structures on sites.
Desalinization: To remove salts and other chemicals from sea or saline water.
Dichotomous: Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
Electronic communication: System for the transmission of information using electronic technology (e.g., digital cameras, cellular telephones, Internet, television, fiber optics).
Embryology: The branch of biology dealing with the development of living things from fertilized egg to its developed state.
Engineering: The application of scientific, physical, mechanical and mathematical principles to design processes, products and structures that improve the quality of life.
Enzyme: A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction; an organic catalyst.
Ergonomical: Of or relating to the design of equipment or devices to fit the human body’s control, position, movement and environment.
Evolution: A process of change that explains why what we see today is different from what existed in the past; it includes changes in the galaxies, stars, solar system, earth and life on earth. Biological evolution is a change in hereditary characteristics of groups of organisms over the course of generations.
Fact: Information that has been objectively verified.
Geologic hazard: A naturally occurring or man-made condition or phenomenon that presents a risk or is a potential danger to life and property (e.g., landslides, floods, earthquakes, ground subsidence, coastal and beach erosion, faulting, dam leakage and failure, mining disasters, pollution and waste disposal, sinkholes).
Geologic map: A representation of a region on which is recorded earth information (e.g., the distribution, nature and age relationships of rock units and the occurrences of structural features, mineral deposits and fossil localities).
Hydrology: The scientific study of the properties, distribution and effects of water on the earth’s surface, in the soil and underlying rocks and in the atmosphere.
Hypothesis: An assertion subject to verification or proof as a premise from which a conclusion is drawn.
Information technology: The technical means that humans create to store and transmit information.
Inquiry: A systematic process for using knowledge and skills to acquire and apply new knowledge.
Instructional technology: Any mechanical aid (including computer technology) used to assist in or enhance the process of teaching and learning.
Law: Summarizing statement of observed experimental facts that has been tested many times and is generally accepted as true.
Manufacturing technology: The ways that humans produce goods and products.
Mitosis: The sequential differentiation and segregation of replicated chromosomes in a cell’s nucleus that precedes complete cell division.
Model: A description, analogy or a representation of something that helps us understand it better (e.g., a physical model, a conceptual model, a mathematical model).
Nova: A variable star that suddenly increases in brightness to several times its normal magnitude and returns to its original appearance in a few weeks to several months or years.
Patterns: Repeated processes that are exhibited in a wide variety of ways; identifiable recurrences of the element and/or the form.
Physical technology: The ways that humans construct, manufacture and transport products.
Radioactive isotope: An atom that gives off nuclear radiation and has the same number of protons (atomic number) as another atom but a different number of neutrons.
Relationship between
science and technology:
Science builds principles or theories while technology is the practical application of those principles or theories.
Scale: Relates concepts and ideas to one another by some measurement (e.g., quantitative, numeral, abstract, ideological); provides a measure of size and/or incremental change.
Science: Search for understanding the natural world using inquiry and experimentation.
System: A group of related objects that work together to achieve a desired result.
 Open Loop
system:
A group of related objects that do not have feedback and cannot modify themselves.
 Closed Loop system: A group of related objects that have feedback and can modify themselves.
 Subsystem: A group of related objects that make up a larger system (e.g., automobiles have electrical systems, fuel systems).
Technology education: The application of tools, materials, processes and systems to solve problems and extend human capabilities.
Technological design process: Recognizing the problem, proposing a solution, implementing the solution, evaluating the solution and communicating the problem, design and solution.
Theory: Systematically organized knowledge applicable in a relatively wide variety of circumstances; especially, a system of assumptions, accepted principles and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of phenomena.
Theory of evolution: A theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modification in successive generations.
Topographic map: A representation of a region on a sufficient scale to show detail, selected man-made and natural features of a portion of the land surface including its relief and certain physical and cultural features; the portrayal of the position, relation, size, shape and elevation of the area.
Transportation systems: A group of related parts that function together to perform a major task in any form of transportation.
Transportation technology: The physical ways humans move materials, goods and people.
Tool: Any device used to extend human capability including computer-based tools.





Academic Standards for Environment and Ecology



X. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction…XI.
THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS
Watersheds and Wetlands …4.1.
 A. Cycles
 B. Role of Watersheds
 C. Physical Factors
 D. Characteristics and Functions of
  Wetlands
 E. Impacts of Watersheds and Wetlands
Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources …4.2.
 A. Uses
 B. Availability
 C. Management
 D. Influential Factors
Environmental Health …4.3.
 A. Environmental Health Issues
 B. Human Actions
 C. Biological Diversity
Agriculture and Society …4.4.
 A. Society’s Needs
 B. Agricultural Science
 C. Agricultural Systems
 D. Technology
Integrated Pest Management …4.5.
 A. Effects, Benefits and Impacts
 B. Health Risks
 C. Management Practices
Ecosystems and their Interactions …4.6.
  A. Living and Nonliving Components
  B. Cycles
  C. Change over Time
Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species…4.7.
 A. Diversity
 B. Adaptation
 C. Management Strategies
Humans and the Environment…4.8.
 A. Societal Needs
 B. Sustainability
 C. Human Impacts
 D. Supply and Demand
Environmental Laws and Regulations…4.9.
 A. Environmental Laws and their Impact
Glossary…XII.



XI. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Environment and Ecology standards that describe what students should know and be able to do in these areas:

 • 4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands

 • 4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources

 • 4.3. Environmental Health

 • 4.4. Agriculture and Society

 • 4.5. Integrated Pest Management

 • 4.6. Ecosystems and their Interactions

 • 4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species

 • 4.8. Humans and the Environment

 • 4.9. Environmental Laws and Regulations

 The Declaration of Rights, Article l of the Pennsylvania Constitution states in Section 27: ‘‘The people have a right to clean air, pure water, and to the preservation of the natural, scenic, historic and aesthetic values of the environment. Pennsylvania’s public natural resources are the common property of all people, including generations yet to come. As trustee of these resources, the Commonwealth shall conserve and maintain them for the benefit of all the people.’’ To this end it is our responsibility to develop a citizenry that is aware of and concerned about the total environment and has the knowledge and skills to work toward solutions to current problems and the prevention of new ones.

 Environment and Ecology is grounded in the complexity of the world we live in and our impact on its sustainability. The human interactions with the ecosystem and the results of human decisions are the main components of this academic area. Environment and Ecology examines the world with respect to the economic, cultural, political and social structure as well as natural processes and systems. This integration across systems is what sets this academic area apart from all others.

 Environment and Ecology places its main emphasis in the real world. It allows students to understand, through a sound academic content base, how their everyday lives evolve around their use of the natural world and the resources it provides. As we move into a more technologically driven society, it is crucial for every student to be aware of his/her dependence on a healthy environment. The 2lst century will demand a more sophisticated citizen capable of making sound decisions that will impact our natural systems forever.

 These standards establish the essential elements of what students should know and be able to do at the end of grades four, seven, ten and twelve. The sequential nature of this document reflects the need for rigorous academic content that students will be expected to achieve. The standards will help students understand decision-making processes, the art of compromise and problem solving skills. The document reinforces all areas across the grade levels with increasing degrees of difficulty as the students mature intellectually.

 Environment and Ecology is a very engaging academic area that captivates students’ innate interests in their surroundings of the natural and built environment. The skills and knowledge that are addressed in this area of study will serve as tools for student participation in a democratic world of constantly evolving issues and concerns. As they achieve these standards, students will become aware of the role they play in the community in reaching decisions related to the environment.

 The study of Environment and Ecology will allow students to be active participants and problem solvers in real issues that affect them, their homes, schools and communities.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands
4.1.4. GRADE 44.1.7. GRADE 74.1.10. GRADE 104.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Identify various types of water environments.
• Identify the lotic system (e.g., creeks, rivers, streams).
• Identify the lentic system (e.g., ponds, lakes, swamps).
A.Explain the role of the water cycle within a watershed.
• Explain the water cycle.
• Explain the water cycle as it relates to a watershed.
A.Describe changes that occur from a stream’s origin to its final outflow.
• Identify Pennsylvania’s major watersheds and their related river systems.
• Describe changes by tracing a specific river’s origin back to its headwaters including its major tributaries.
A.Categorize stream order in a watershed.
• Explain the concept of stream order.
• Identify the order of watercourses within a major river’s watershed.
• Compare and contrast the physical differences found in the stream continuum from headwater to mouth.


4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands
4.1.4. GRADE 44.1.7. GRADE 74.1.10. GRADE 104.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Explain the differences between moving and still water.
• Explain why water moves or does not move.
• Identify types of precipitation.
B.Understand the role of the watershed.
• Identify and explain what determines the boundaries of a watershed.
• Explain how water enters a watershed.
• Explain factors that affect water quality and flow through a watershed.
B.Explain the relationship among landforms, vegetation and the amount and speed of water.
• Analyze a stream’s physical characteristics.
• Describe how topography influences streams.
• Explain the influence of mountains on precipitation.
• Explain how vegetation affects storm water runoff.
• Delineate the boundaries of a watershed.
• Describe factors that affect the quality of groundwater.
• Explain how the speed of water and vegetation cover relates to erosion.
B.Explain the relationships that exist within watersheds in the United States.
• Understand that various ecosystems may be contained in a watershed.
• Examine and describe the ecosystems contained within a specific watershed.
• Identify and describe the major watersheds in the United States.


4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands
4.1.4. GRADE 44.1.7. GRADE 74.1.10. GRADE 104.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Identify living things found in water environments.
• Identify fish, insects and amphibians that are found in fresh water.
• Identify plants found in fresh water.
C.Explain the effects of water on the life of organisms in a watershed.
• Explain how water is necessary for all life.
• Explain how the physical components of aquatic systems influence the organisms that live there in terms of size, shape and physical adaptations.
• Describe the life cycle of organisms that depend on water.
• Identify organisms that have aquatic stages of life and describe those stages.
C.Describe the physical characteristics of a stream and determine the types of organisms found in aquatic environments.
• Describe and explain the physical factors that affect a stream and the organisms living there.
• Identify terrestrial and aquatic organisms that live in a watershed.
• Categorize aquatic organisms found in a watershed continuum from headwater to mouth (e.g., shredder, predator, decomposer).
• Identify the types of organisms that would live in a stream based on the stream’s physical characteristics.
• Explain the habitat needs of specific aquatic organisms.
C.Analyze the parameters of a watershed.
• Interpret physical, chemical and biological data as a means of assessing the environmental quality of a watershed.
• Apply appropriate techniques in the analysis of a watershed (e.g., water quality, biological diversity, erosion, sedimentation).


4.1. Watersheds and Wetlands
4.1.4. GRADE 44.1.7. GRADE 74.1.10. GRADE 104.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
D.Identify a wetland and the plants and animals found there.
• Identify different kinds of wetlands.
• Identify plants and animals found in wetlands.
• Explain wetlands as habitats for plants and animals.
D.Explain and describe characteristics of a wetland.
• Identify specific characteristics of wetland plants and soils.
• Recognize the common types of plants and animals.
• Describe different types of wetlands.
• Describe the different functions of a wetland.
D.Describe the multiple functions of wetlands.
• Describe wetlands in terms of their effects (e.g., habitat, flood, buffer zones, prevention areas, nurseries, food production areas).
• Explain how a wetland influences water quality, wildlife and water retention.
• Analyze wetlands through their indicators (e.g., soils, plants, hydrology).
D.Analyze the complex and diverse ecosystems of wetlands.
• Explain the functions of habitat, nutrient production, migration stopover and groundwater recharge as it relates to wetlands.
• Explain the dynamics of a wetland ecosystem.
• Describe and analyze different types of wetlands.
E.Recognize the impact of watersheds and wetlands on animals and plants.
• Explain the role of watersheds in everyday life.
• Identify the role of watersheds and wetlands for plants and animals.
E.Describe the impact of watersheds and wetlands on people.
• Explain the impact of watersheds and wetlands in flood control, wildlife habitats and pollution abatement.
• Explain the influence of flooding on wetlands.
E.Identify and describe natural and human events on watersheds and wetlands.
• Describe how natural events affect a watershed (e.g., drought, floods).
• Identify the effects of humans and human events on watersheds.
E.Evaluate the trade-offs, costs and benefits of conserving watersheds and wetlands.
• Evaluate the effects of natural events on watersheds and wetlands.
• Evaluate the effects of human activities on watersheds and wetlands.


4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
4.2.4. GRADE 44.2.7. GRADE 74.2.10. GRADE 104.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Identify needs of people.
• Identify plants, animals, water, air, minerals and fossil fuels as natural resources.
• Explain air, water and nutrient cycles.
• Identify how the environment provides for the needs of people.
A.Know that raw materials come from natural resources.
• Identify resources used to provide humans with energy, food, housing and water.
• Explain how plants and animals may be classified as natural resources.
• Compare means of growing or acquiring food.
• Identify fiber and other raw materials used in clothing and shelter production.
• Identify types of minerals and fossil fuels used by humans.
A.Explain that renewable and nonrenewable resources supply energy and materials.
• Identify alternative sources of energy.
• Identify and compare fuels used in industrial and agricultural societies.
• Compare and contrast the cycles of various natural resources.
• Explain food and fiber as renewable resources.
A.Analyze the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
• Explain the effects on the environment and sustainability through the use of nonrenewable resources.
• Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of reusing our natural resources.


4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
4.2.4. GRADE 44.2.7. GRADE 74.2.10. GRADE 104.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Identify products derived from natural resources.
• Identify products made from trees.
• Identify by-products of plants and animals.
• Identify the sources of manmade products (e.g., plastics, metal, aluminum, fabrics, paper, cardboard).
B.Examine the renewability of the resources.
• Identify renewable resources and describe their uses.
• Identify nonrenewable resources and describe their uses.
• Compare finished products to their original raw material.
• Identify the waste derived from the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
• Determine how consumption may impact the availability of resources.
• Compare the time spans of renewability for fossil fuels and alternative fuels.
B.Evaluate factors affecting availability of natural resources.
• Describe natural occurrences that may affect the natural resources.
• Analyze technologies that affect the use of our natural resources.
• Evaluate the effect of consumer desires on various natural resources.
B.Analyze factors affecting the availability of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
• Evaluate the use of natural resources and offer approaches for using them while diminishing waste.
• Compare the economics of different areas based on the availability and accessibility of the natural resources.


4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
4.2.4. GRADE 44.2.7. GRADE 74.2.10. GRADE 104.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Know that some natural resources have limited life spans.
• Identify renewable and nonrenewable resources used in the local community.
• Identify various means of conserving natural resources.
• Know that natural resources have varying life spans.
C.Explain natural resource distribution.
• Distinguish between readily available and less accessible resources.
• Identify the locations of different concentrations of fossil fuels and mineral resources.
• Analyze the effects of management practices on air, land and water in forestry, agriculture, fisheries, wildlife, mining and food and fiber production that is unique to different climates.
C.Analyze how man-made systems have impacted the management and distribution of natural resources.
• Explain the complete cycle of a natural resource, from extraction to disposal, detailing its uses and effects on the environment.
• Analyze energy uses and energy conservation in different regions.
• Examine conservation practices in different countries.
• Analyze the costs and benefits of different man-made systems and how they use renewable and nonrenewable natural resources.
• Analyze the impact of information systems on management and distribution of natural resources.
C.Analyze factors that influence the availability of natural resources.
• Compare the use of natural resources in different countries.
• Determine how delivery systems influence the availability of resources at the local, regional and national level.


4.2. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
4.2.4. GRADE 44.2.7. GRADE 74.2.10. GRADE 104.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
D.Identify by-products and their use of natural resources.
• Understand the waste stream.
• Identify those items that can be recycled and those that can not.
• Identify use of reusable products.
• Identify the use of compost, landfills and incinerators.
D.Describe the role of recycling and waste management.
• Identify materials that can be recycled in the community.
• Explain the process of closing the loop in recycling.
• Compare the decomposition rates of different organic materials.
• Describe methods that could be used to reuse materials for new products.
• Evaluate the costs and benefits of disposable products.
D.Explain different management alternatives involved in recycling and solid waste management.
• Analyze the manufacturing process (before, during and after) with consideration for resource recovery.
• Compare various methods dealing with solid waste (e.g., incineration, compost, land application).
• Differentiate between pre/post-consumer and raw materials.
• Illustrate how one natural resource can be managed through reduction, recycling, reuse or use.
D.Evaluate solid waste management practices.
• Examine and explain the path of a recyclable material from collection to waste, reuse or recycling identifying the market forces.
• Understand current regulations concerning recycling and solid waste.
• Research new technologies in the use, reuse or recycling of materials.


4.3. Environmental Health
4.3.4. GRADE 44.3.7. GRADE 74.3.10. GRADE 104.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Know that plants, animals and humans are dependent on air and water.
• Know that all living things need air and water to survive.
• Describe potentially dangerous pest controls used in the home.
• Identify things that cause sickness when put into the air, water or soil.
• Identify different areas where health can be affected by air, water or land pollution.
• Identify actions that can prevent or reduce waste pollution.
A.Identify environmental health issues.
• Identify various examples of long-term pollution and explain their effects on environmental health.
• Identify diseases that have been associated with poor environmental quality.
• Describe different types of pest controls and their effects on the environment.
• Identify alternative products that can be used in life to reduce pollution.
A.Describe environmental health issues.
• Identify the effects on human health of air, water and soil pollution and the possible economic costs to society.
• Describe how indoor pollution may affect human health (e.g., dust mites, fumes, cat dandruff).
• Explain the costs and benefits of cleaning up contaminants.
• Explain how common household cleaning products are manufactured and how to dispose of their by-products after use.
A.Analyze the complexity of environmental health issues.
• Identify environmental health issues and explain how they have been addressed on a worldwide level.
• Analyze efforts to prevent, control and/or reduce pollution through cost and benefit analysis and risk management.
• Describe the impact of occupational exposures as they relate to environmental health issues.
• Identify invisible pollutants and explain their effects on human health.
• Explain the relationship between wind direction and velocity as it relates to dispersal and occurrence of pollutants.
• Explain the different disposal methods used for toxic and hazardous waste.


4.3. Environmental Health
4.3.4. GRADE 44.3.7. GRADE 74.3.10. GRADE 104.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Identify how human actions affect environmental health.
• Identify pollutants.
• Identify sources of pollution.
• Identify litter and its effect on the environment.
• Describe how people can reduce pollution.
B.Describe how human actions affect the health of the environment.
• Identify land use practices and their relation to environmental health.
• Explain how natural disasters affect environmental health.
• Identify residential and industrial sources of pollution and their effects on environmental health.
• Explain the difference between point and nonpoint source pollution.
• Explain how nonpoint source pollution can affect the water supply and air quality.
• Explain how acid deposition can affect water, soil and air quality.
• Explain the relationship between resource use, reuse, recycling and environmental health.
B.Explain how multiple variables determine the effects of pollution on environmental health, natural processes and human practices.
• Explain how human practices affect the quality of the water and soil.
• Identify evidence of natural events around the world and their effects on environmental health (e.g., Yellowstone National Park fires).
• Identify local and state environmental regulations and their impact on environmental health.
• Analyze data and explain how point source pollution can be detected and eliminated.
• Identify and explain ways of detecting pollution by using state-of-the-art technologies.
B.Analyze the local, regional and national impacts of environmental health.
• Analyze the cost of natural disasters in both dollars and loss of natural habitat.
• Research and analyze the local, state and national laws that deal with point and nonpoint source pollution; evaluate the costs and benefits of these laws.
• Explain mitigation and its role in environmental health.
• Explain industry’s initiatives to meet state and federal mandates on clean air and water.
• Describe the impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on the Chesapeake Bay.
• Identify and evaluate the costs and benefits of laws regulating air and water quality and waste disposal.


4.3. Environmental Health
4.3.4. GRADE 44.3.7. GRADE 74.3.10. GRADE 104.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Understand that the elements of natural systems are interdependent.
• Identify some of the organisms that live together in an ecosystem.
• Understand that the components of a system all play a part in a healthy natural system.
• Identify the effects of a healthy environment on the ecosystem.
C.Explain biological diversity.
• Explain the complex, interactive relationships among members of an ecosystem.
• Explain how diversity affects ecological integrity of the natural resources.
C.Explain biological diversity as an indicator of a healthy environment.
• Explain species diversity.
• Analyze the effects of species extinction on the health of an ecosystem.
C.Analyze the need for a healthy environment.
• Research the relationship of some chronic diseases to an environmental pollutant.
• Explain how man-made systems may affect the environment.


4.4. Agriculture and Society
4.4.4. GRADE 44.4.7. GRADE 74.4.10. GRADE 104.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Know the importance of agriculture to humans.
• Identify people’s basic needs.
• Explain the influence of agriculture on food, clothing, shelter and culture from one area to another.
• Know how people depend on agriculture.
A.Explain society’s standard of living in relation to agriculture.
• Compare and contrast agricultural changes that have been made to meet society’s needs.
• Compare and contrast how animals and plants affect agricultural systems.
• Compare several technological advancements and their effect(s) on the historical growth of agriculture.
• Compare different environmental conditions related to agricultural production, cost and quality of the product.
A.Describe the importance of agriculture to society.
• Identify the major cash crops of Pennsylvania.
• Identify what percentage of the United States’ population is involved in the food and fiber industry.
• Compare and contrast the influence of agriculture on a nation’s culture, standard of living and foreign trade.
• Identify laws that affect conservation and management of food and fiber production in the local area and analyze their impact.
• Compare a contemporary economic issue in agriculture to its historical origin.
A.Analyze the management practices in the agriculture business.
• Define the components of an agriculture system that would result in a minimal waste of resources.
• Identify the diversity in crop production and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of such diversity.
• Research and analyze environmental practices related to agricultural systems.
• Analyze the effects of agricultural practices on the economy.
• Analyze the impact of nutrient management laws on Pennsylvania agriculture.
• Assess the role of agriculture cooperatives.


4.4. Agriculture and Society
4.4.4. GRADE 44.4.7. GRADE 74.4.10. GRADE 104.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Identify the role of the sciences in Pennsylvania agriculture.
• Identify common animals found on Pennsylvania farms.
• Identify common plants found on Pennsylvania farms.
• Identify the parts of important agricultural related plants (i.e., corn, soybeans, barley).
• Identify a fiber product from Pennsylvania farms.
B.Investigate how agricultural science has recognized the various soil types found in Pennsylvania.
• Explain the importance of particle sizes in different soil types.
• Determine how water has influenced the development of Pennsylvania soil types.
• Investigate how soil types have influenced the plant types used on Pennsylvania farms
• Analyze how soil types and geographic regions have impacted the profitability of Pennsylvania farms.
B.Assess the influence of agricultural science on farming practices.
• Compare the practices of no-till farming to traditional soil preparation (e.g., plow, disc).
• Analyze and explain the various practices of nutrient management on the farm.
• Analyze and explain how farm efficiencies have changed human nutrition.
B.Describe how agricultural science has influenced biotechnology.
• Investigate how bioengineered crops may influence the food supply.
• Analyze the use of specific bacteria for the control of agricultural pests.
• Evaluate the use of feed additives in shifting metabolism to increase muscle mass and reduce fat in farm animals.


4.4. Agriculture and Society
4.4.4. GRADE 44.4.7. GRADE 74.4.10. GRADE 104.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Know that food and fiber originate from plants and animals.
• Define and identify food and fiber.
• Identify what plants and animals need to grow.
• Identify agricultural products that are local and regional.
• Identify an agricultural product based on its origin.
• Describe several products and tell their origins.
• Describe the journey of a local agricultural product from production to the consumer.
C.Explain agricultural systems’ use of natural and human resources.
• Analyze the needs of plants and animals as they relate to climate and soil conditions.
• Identify the plants and animals that can be raised in the area and explain why.
• Identify natural resources necessary for agricultural systems.
• Compare the need for crop production to the need for animal production.
• Define issues associated with food and fiber production.
C.Explain the functions of the components of the food and fiber system.
• Compare and analyze growing conditions in the United States to determine which plants and animals are most suitable to each region.
• Compare the management practices needed for a commodity (i.e., production, processing, research and development, marketing, distribution and regulations).
• Identify a commodity, its origin and its steps of production.
• Compare and analyze the cost of a commodity to its production cost.
• Identify and describe how food safety issues have impacted production in agriculture.
C.Analyze and research the social, political and economic factors that affect agricultural systems.
• Analyze the costs and benefits associated with agriculture practices and how they affect economic and human needs.
• Analyze the costs and benefits of agriculture research practices in society.
• Research the use of by-products that are the results of agriculture production (e.g., manure handling, bird feathers).


4.4. Agriculture and Society
4.4.4. GRADE 44.4.7. GRADE 74.4.10. GRADE 104.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
D.Identify technology and energy use associated with agriculture.
• Identify the various tools and machinery necessary for farming.
• Identify the types of energy used in producing food and fiber.
• Identify tools and machinery used in the production of agricultural products.
D.Explain the improvement of agricultural production through technology.
• Compare the technologies that have advanced agricultural production.
• Explain how energy sources have changed to meet agricultural technology.
D.Analyze the efforts of increased efficiency in agriculture through technology.
• Compare various technological advancements and analyze each for its contribution toward labor and cost efficiency.
• Compare the current market value of both natural and alternative energy sources involved in the production of food and fiber.
D.Analyze research and development activities as they relate to agriculture.
• Analyze the role of research, development and technology as it relates to the food and fiber system.
• Research and analyze energy sources used and/or generated by producing, processing and marketing agricultural products.


4.5. Integrated Pest Management
4.5.4. GRADE 44.5.7. GRADE 74.5.10. GRADE 104.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Know types of pests.
• Identify classifications of pests.
• Identify and categorize pests.
• Know how pests fit into a food chain.
A.Explain benefits and harmful effects of pests.
• Identify different examples of pests and explain the beneficial or harmful effects of each.
• Identify several locations where pests can be found and compare the effects the pests have on each location.
A.Identify similar classifications of pests that may or may not have similar effects on different regions.
• Identify environmental effect(s) of pests on different regions of the world.
• Identify introduced species that are classified as pests in their new environments.
A.Research integrated pest management systems.
• Analyze the threshold limits of pests and the need for intervention in a managed environment.
• Research the types of germicides and analyze their effects on homes, industry, hospitals and institutions.
• Design and explain an integrated pest management plan that uses a range of pest controls.


4.5. Integrated Pest Management
4.5.4. GRADE 44.5.7. GRADE 74.5.10. GRADE 104.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Explain pest control.
• Know reasons why people control pests.
• Identify different methods for controlling specific pests in the home, school and community.
• Identify chemical labels (e.g., caution, poison, warning).
B.Explain how pest management affects the environment.
• Explain issues related to integrated pest management including biological technology, resistant varieties, chemical practices, medical technology and monitoring techniques.
• Describe how integrated pest management and related technology impact human activities.
• Identify issues related to integrated pest management that affect the environment.
B.Analyze health benefits and risks associated with integrated pest management.
• Identify the health risks associated with chemicals used in common pesticides.
• Assess various levels of control within different integrated pest management practices including increased immunity to pesticides, food safety, sterilization, nutrient management and weed control.
B.Research and analyze integrated pest management practices globally.
• Research worldwide integrated pest management systems and evaluate the level of impact.
• Research and analyze the international regulations that exist related to integrated pest management.
• Explain the complexities associated with moving from one level of control to the next with different integrated pest management practices and compare the related costs of each system.


4.5. Integrated Pest Management
4.5.4. GRADE 44.5.7. GRADE 74.5.10. GRADE 104.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Understand society’s need for integrated pest management.
• Identify integrated pest management practices in the home.
• Identify integrated pest management practices outside the home.
C.Explain various integrated pest management practices used in society.
• Compare and contrast integrated pest management monitoring methods utilized in different community settings.
• Compare integrated pest management to past practices.
• Compare and analyze the long-term effects of using integrated pest management products.
C.Determine the effects of integrated pest management practices on society over time.
• Analyze the risks to the environment and society associated with alternative practices used in integrated pest management.
• Analyze the benefits to the environment and society associated with alternative practices used in integrated pest management.
C.Analyze the historical significance of integrated pest management on society.
• Explain the dynamics of integrated pest management practices and their relative effects upon society.
• Identify historic events affecting integrated pest management and cite the practices used (e.g., avian flu, bubonic plague, potato blight).
• Research and analyze the long-term effects of pest management practices on the environment.


4.6. Ecosystems and their Interactions
4.6.4. GRADE 44.6.7. GRADE 74.6.10. GRADE 104.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Understand that living things are dependent on nonliving things in the environment for survival.
• Identify and categorize living and nonliving things.
• Describe the basic needs of an organism.
• Identify basic needs of a plant and an animal and explain how their needs are met.
• Identify plants and animals with their habitat and food sources.
• Identify environmental variables that affect plant growth.
• Describe how animals interact with plants to meet their needs for shelter.
• Describe how certain insects interact with soil for their needs.
• Understand the components of a food chain.
A.Explain the flows of energy and matter from organism to organism within an ecosystem.
• Identify and explain the characteristics of biotic and abiotic.
• Describe and explain the adaptations of plants and animals to their environment.
• Demonstrate the dependency of living components in the ecosystem on the nonliving components.
• Explain energy flow through a food web.
• Explain the importance of the predator/prey relationship and how it maintains the balances within ecosystems.
• Understand limiting factors and predict their effects on an organism.
A.Explain the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem and their interaction.
• Identify the major biomes and explain their similarities and differences.
• Compare and contrast the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in an ecosystem.
• Analyze the effects of abiotic factors on specific ecosystems.
• Describe how the availability of resources affects organisms in an ecosystem.
• Explain energy flow in a food chain through an energy pyramid.
• Evaluate the efficiency of energy flow in a food chain.
• Explain the concept of carrying capacity in an ecosystem.
• Explain trophic levels.
A.Analyze the interdependence of an ecosystem.
• Analyze the relationships among components of an ecosystem.
• Evaluate the efficiency of energy flow within an ecosystem.
• Explain limiting factors and their impact on carrying capacity.
• Understand how biological diversity impacts the stability of an ecosystem.
• Analyze the positive or negative impacts of outside influences on an ecosystem.
• Analyze how different land use practices can affect the quality of soils.


4.6. Ecosystems and their Interactions
4.6.4. GRADE 44.6.7. GRADE 74.6.10. GRADE 104.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
• Identify a local ecosystem and its living and nonliving components.
• Identify a simple ecosystem and its living and nonliving components.
• Identify common soil textures.
• Identify animals that live underground.
• Identify niches for producers, consumers and decomposers within an ecosystem.
• Compare and contrast the major ecosystems of Pennsylvania.
• Identify the major characteristics of a biome.
• Compare and contrast different biomes and their characteristics.
• Identify the relationship of abiotic and biotic components and explain their interaction in an ecosystem.
• Explain how different soil types determine the characteristics of ecosystems.
• Identify a specific environmental impact and predict what change may take place to affect homeostasis.
• Examine and explain how organisms modify their environments to sustain their needs.
• Assess the effects of latitude and altitude on biomes.
• Interpret possible causes of population fluctuations.
• Explain how erosion and sedimentation have changed the quality of soil related habitats.


4.6. Ecosystems and their Interactions
4.6.4. GRADE 44.6.7. GRADE 74.6.10. GRADE 104.6.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Understand the concept of cycles.
• Explain the water cycle.
• Explain the carbon dioxide/oxygen cycle (photosynthesis).
B.Explain the concepts of cycles.
• Identify and explain cycles within an ecosystem.
• Analyze the role of different cycles within an ecosystem.
B.Explain how cycles affect the balance in an ecosystem.
• Describe an element cycle and its role in an ecosystem.
• Explain the consequences of interrupting natural cycles.
B.Analyze the impact of cycles on the ecosystem.
• Evaluate the materials necessary for natural cycles.
• Explain the processes involved in the natural cycles.
C.Identify how ecosystems change over time.C.Explain how ecosystems change over time.
• Explain how ecosystems change.
• Identify the succession stages of a given ecosystem.
• Explain how specific organisms may change an ecosystem.
• Explain a change in an ecosystem that relates to humans.
C.Analyze how ecosystems change over time.
• Identify and explain the succession stages in an ecosystem.
• Identify causes of succession.
• Analyze consequences of interrupting natural cycles.
C.Analyze how human action and natural changes affect the balance within an ecosystem.
• Analyze the effects of substances that move through natural cycles.
• Analyze the effects of natural occurrences and their effects on ecosystems.
• Analyze effects of human action on an ecosystem.
• Compare the stages of succession and how they influence the cycles existing in an ecosystem.


4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species
4.7.4. GRADE 44.7.7. GRADE 74.7.10. GRADE 104.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Identify differences in living things.
• Explain why plants and animals are different colors, shapes and sizes and how these differences relate to their survival.
• Identify characteristics that living things inherit from their parents.
• Explain why each of the four elements in a habitat is essential for survival.
• Identify local plants or animals and describe their habitat.
A.Describe diversity of plants and animals in ecosystems.
• Select an ecosystem and describe different plants and animals that live there.
• Identify adaptations in plants and animals.
• Recognize that adaptations are developed over long periods of time and are passed on from one generation to the next.
• Understand levels of ecosystem organization (e.g., individuals, populations, species).
A.Explain the significance of diversity in ecosystems.
• Explain the role that specific organisms have in their ecosystem.
• Identify a species and explain what effects its increase or decline might have on the ecosystem.
• Identify a species and explain how its adaptations are related to its niche in the environment.
A.Analyze biological diversity as it relates to the stability of an ecosystem.
• Examine and explain what happens to an ecosystem as biological diversity changes.
• Explain the relationship between species’ loss and bio-diversity.
• Examine and explain how a specialized interaction between two species may affect the survival of both species.


4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species
4.7.4. GRADE 44.7.7. GRADE 74.7.10. GRADE 104.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Know that adaptations are important for survival.
• Explain how specific adaptations can help a living organism to survive.
• Explain what happens to a living thing when its food, water, shelter or space is changed.
B.Explain how species of living organisms adapt to their environment.
• Explain the role of individual variations in natural selection.
• Explain how an adaptation is an inherited structure or behavior that helps an organism survive and reproduce.
• Describe how a particular trait may be selected over time and account for a species’ adaptation.
• Compare and contrast animals and plants that have very specific survival requirements with those that have more general requirements for survival.
• Explain how living things respond to changes in their environment.
• Explain how one species may survive an environmental change while another might not.
B.Explain how structure, function and behavior of plants and animals affect their ability to survive.
• Describe an organism’s adaptations for survival in its habitat.
• Compare adaptations among species.
B.Examine the effects of extinction, both natural and human caused, on the environment.
• Predict how human or natural action can produce change to which organisms cannot adapt.
• Identify species that became extinct through natural causes and explain how that occurred.
• Identify a species that became extinct due to human actions and explain what occurred.


4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species
4.7.4. GRADE 44.7.7. GRADE 74.7.10. GRADE 104.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Define and understand extinction.
• Identify plants and animals that are extinct.
• Explain why some plants and animals are extinct.
• Know that there are local and state laws regarding plants and animals.
C.Explain natural or human actions in relation to the loss of species.
• Identify natural or human impacts that cause habitat loss.
• Explain how habitat loss can affect the interaction among species and the population of a species.
• Analyze and explain the changes in an animal population over time.
• Explain how a habitat management practice affects a population.
• Explain the differences among threatened, endangered and extinct species.
• Identify Pennsylvania plants and animals that are on the threatened or endangered list.
C.Identify and explain why adaptations can lead to specialization.
• Explain factors that could lead to a species’ increase or decrease.
• Explain how management practices may influence the success of specific species.
• Identify and explain criteria used by scientists for categorizing organisms as threatened, endangered or extinct.
C.Analyze the effects of threatened, endangered or extinct species on human and natural systems.
• Identify and explain how a species’ increase, decline or elimination affects the ecosystem and/or human social, cultural and economic structures.
• Explain why natural populations do not remain constant.
• Analyze management strategies regarding threatened or endangered species.
• Identify laws, agreements or treaties at national or international levels regarding threatened or endangered species.
• Analyze the role of zoos and wildlife preserves on species that have been identified as threatened or endangered.


4.7. Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species
4.7.4. GRADE 44.7.7. GRADE 74.7.10. GRADE 104.7.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
• Describe state laws passed regarding threatened and endangered species in Pennsylvania.
• Explain why one species may be more susceptible to becoming endangered than another species.
• Examine the influence of wildlife management in preserving different species in Pennsylvania (e.g., bobcat, elk, bald eagle).


4.8. Humans and the Environment
4.8.4. GRADE 44.8.7. GRADE 74.8.10. GRADE 104.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Identify the biological requirements of humans.
• Explain how a dynamically changing environment provides for sustainability of living systems.
• Identify several ways that people use natural resources.
A.Describe how the development of civilization relates to the environment.
• Explain how people use natural resources in their environment.
• Locate and identify natural resources in different parts of the world.
• Compare and contrast how people use natural resources throughout the world.
A.Analyze how society’s needs relate to the sustainability of natural resources.
• Explain why some societies have been unable to meet their natural resource needs.
• Compare and contrast the use of natural resources and the environmental conditions in several countries.
• Describe how uses of natural resources impact sustainability.
A.Explain how technology has influenced the sustainability of natural resources over time.
• Describe how technology has changed the use of natural resources by business and industry.
• Analyze the effect of natural resource conservation on a product over time (e.g., automobile manufacturing, aluminum can recycling, paper products).


4.8. Humans and the Environment
4.8.4. GRADE 44.8.7. GRADE 74.8.10. GRADE 104.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
B.Know that environmental conditions influence where and how people live.
• Identify how regional natural resources influence what people use.
• Explain the influence of climate on how and where people live.
B.Explain how people use natural resources.
• Describe how natural resources are used for survival.
• Explain how natural resources and technological changes have affected the development of civilizations.
• Explain how climate and extreme weather events (e.g., drought, flood) influence people’s lives.
B.Analyze the relationship between the use of natural resources and sustaining our society.
• Explain the role of natural resources in sustaining society.
• Analyze the effects of a natural resource’s availability on a community or region.
B.Analyze technology’s role on natural resource sustainability.
• Explain how technology has decreased the use of raw natural resources.
• Explain how technology has impacted the efficiency of the use of natural resources.
• Analyze the role of technology in the reduction of pollution.


4.8. Humans and the Environment
4.8.4. GRADE 44.8.7. GRADE 74.8.10. GRADE 104.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
C.Explain how human activities may change the environment.
• Identify everyday human activities and how they affect the environment.
• Identify examples of how human activities within a community affect the natural environment.
C.Explain how human activities may affect local, regional and national environments.
• Describe what effect consumption and related generation of wastes have on the environment.
• Explain how a particular human activity has changed the local area over the years.
C.Analyze how human activities may cause changes in an ecosystem.
• Analyze and evaluate changes in the environment that are the result of human activities.
• Compare and contrast the environmental effects of different industrial strategies (e.g., energy generation, transportation, logging, mining, agriculture).
C.Analyze how pollution has changed in quality, variety and toxicity as the United States developed its industrial base.
• Analyze historical pollution trends and project them for the future.
• Compare and contrast historical and current pollution levels at a given location.


4.8. Humans and the Environment
4.8.4. GRADE 44.8.7. GRADE 74.8.10. GRADE 104.8.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
D.Know the importance of natural resources in daily life.
• Identify items used in daily life that come from natural resources.
• Identify ways to conserve our natural resources.
• Identify major land uses in the community.
D.Explain the importance of maintaining the natural resources at the local, state and national levels.
• Explain how human activities and natural events have affected ecosystems.
• Explain how conservation practices have influenced ecosystems.
• Define the roles of Pennsylvania agencies that deal with natural resources.
D.Explain how the concept of supply and demand affects the environment.
• Identify natural resources for which societal demands have been increasing.
• Identify specific resources for which human consumption has resulted in scarcity of supply (e.g., buffalo, lobsters).
• Describe the relationship between population density and resource use and management.
D.Analyze the international implications of environmental occurrences.
• Identify natural occurrences that have international impact (e.g., El Nino, volcano eruptions, earthquakes).
• Analyze environmental issues and their international implications.


4.9. Environmental Laws and Regulations
4.9.4. GRADE 44.9.7. GRADE 74.9.10. GRADE 104.9.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A.Know that there are laws and regulations for the environment.
• Identify local and state laws and regulations regarding the environment.
• Explain how the recycling law impacts the school and home.
• Identify and describe the role of a local or state agency that deals with environmental laws and regulations.
A.Explain the role of environmental laws and regulations.
• Identify and explain environmental laws and regulations (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act, Act 26 on Agricultural Education).
• Explain the role of local and state agencies in enforcing environmental laws and regulations (e.g., Department of Environmen-
tal Protection, Department of Agriculture, Game Commission).
A.Explain why environmental laws and regulations are developed and enacted.
• Explain the positive and negative impacts associated with passing environmental laws and regulations.
• Understand conflicting rights of property owners and environmental laws and regulations.
• Analyze the roles that local, state and federal governments play in the development and enforcement of environmental laws.
• Identify local and state environmental regulations and their impact on environmental health.
• Explain the positive and negative impacts of the Endangered Species Act.
A.Analyze environmental laws and regulations as they relate to environmental issues.
• Analyze and explain how issues lead to environmental law or regulation (e.g., underground storage tanks, regulation of water discharges, hazardous, solid and liquid industrial waste, endangered species).
• Compare and contrast environmental laws and regulations that may have a positive or negative impact on the environment and the economy.
• Research and describe the effects of an environmental law or regulation and how it has impacted the environment.

Academic Standards for Environment and Ecology



XII. GLOSSARY

Abiotic: A nonliving factor or element (e.g., light, water, heat, rock, energy, mineral).
Acid deposition: Precipitation with a pH less than 5.6 that forms in the atmosphere when certain pollutants mix with water vapor.
Biological diversity: The variety and complexity of species present and interacting in an ecosystem and the relative abundance of each.
Biotic: An environmental factor related to or produced by living organisms.
Closing the loop: A link in the circular chain of recycling events that promotes the use of products made with recycled materials.
Commodities: Economic goods or products before they are processed and/or given a brand name, such as a product of agriculture.
Composting: The process of mixing decaying leaves, manure and other nutritive matter to improve and fertilize soil.
Consumer: 1) Those organisms that obtain energy by feeding on other organisms and their remains. 2) A person buying goods or services for personal needs or to use in the production of other goods for resale.
Decomposer: An organism, often microscopic in size, that obtains nutrients by consuming dead organic matter, thereby making nutrients accessible to other organisms; examples of decomposers include fungi, scavengers, rodents and other animals.
Delineate: To trace the outline; to draw; to sketch; to depict or picture.
Ecosystem: A community of living organisms and their interrelated physical and chemical environment.
Endangered Species: A species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
Environment: The total of the surroundings (air, water, soil, vegetation, people, wildlife) influencing each living being’s existence, including physical, biological and all other factors; the surroundings of a plant or animal, including other plants or animals, climate and location.
Equilibrium: The ability of an ecosystem to maintain stability among its biological resources (e.g., forest, fisheries, crops) so that there is a steady optimum yield.
Extinction: The complete elimination of a species from the earth.
Groundwater: Water that infiltrates the soil and is located in underground reservoirs called aquifers.
Hazardous waste: A solid that, because of its quantity or concentration or its physical, chemical or infectious characteristics, may cause or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Homeostasis: The tendency for a system by resisting change to remain in a state of equilibrium.
Incinerating: Burning to ashes; reducing to ashes.
Integrated pest management: A variety of pest control methods that include repairs, traps, bait, poison, etc. to eliminate pests.
Lentic: Relating to or living in still water.
Lotic: Relating to or living in actively moving water.
Mitigation: The policy of constructing or creating man-made habitats, such as wetlands, to replace those lost to development.
Niche (ecological): The role played by an organism in an ecosystem; its food preferences, requirements for shelter, special behaviors and the timing of its activities (e.g., nocturnal, diurnal), interaction with other organisms and its habitat.
Nonpoint source pollution: Contamination that originates from many locations that all discharge into a location (e.g., a lake, stream, land area).
Nonrenewable resources: Substances (e.g., oil, gas, coal, copper, gold) that, once used, cannot be replaced in this geological age.
Point source pollution: Pollutants discharged from a single identifiable location (e.g., pipes, ditches, channels, sewers, tunnels, containers of various types).
Pest: A label applied to an organism when it is in competition with humans for some resource.
Recycling: Collecting and reprocessing a resource or product to make into new products.
Regulation: A rule or order issued by an executive authority or regulatory agency of a government and having the force of law.
Renewable: A naturally occurring raw material or form of energy that will be replenished through natural ecological cycles or sound management practices (e.g., the sun, wind, water, trees).
Risk management: A strategy developed to reduce or control the chance of harm or loss to one’s health or life; the process of identifying, evaluating, selecting and implementing actions to reduce risk to human health and to ecosystems.
Shredder: Through chewing and/or grinding, microorganisms feed on non-woody coarse particulate matter, primarily leaves.
Stream order: Energy and nutrient flow that increases as water moves toward the oceans (e.g., the smallest stream (primary) that ends when rivers flow into oceans).
Succession: The series of changes that occur in an ecosystem with the passing of time.
Sustainability: The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained.
Trophic levels: The role of an organism in nutrient and energy flow within an ecosystem (e.g., herbivore, carnivore, decomposer).
Waste stream: The flow of (waste) materials from generation, collection and separation to disposal.
Watershed: The land area from which surface runoff drains into a stream, channel, lake, reservoir or other body of water; also called a drainage basin.
Wetlands: Lands where water saturation is the dominant factor determining the nature of the soil development and the plant and animal communities (e.g., sloughs, estuaries, marshes).



APPENDIX C
Academic Standards for Civics and Governmentand Economics and Geography and History



Academic Standards for Civics and Government



Source

   The provisions of this Appendix C adopted January 10, 2003, effective January 12, 2003, 33 Pa.B. 283, unless otherwise noted.

XIII. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction… XIV.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Principles and Documents of Government…5.1.
  
A. Purpose of Government
  B. Rule of Law
  C. Principles and Ideals that Shape Government
  D. Documents and Ideals Shaping Pennsylvania Government
  E. Documents and Ideals Shaping United States Government
  F. Rights Created by the Pennsylvania and United States Constitutions
  G. Use, Display and Respect for the United States Flag
  H. Contributions of Framers of Government
  I. Sources, Purposes and Functions of Law
  J. Individual Rights and the Common Good
  K. Roles of Symbols and Holidays
  L. Role of Courts in Resolving Conflicts
  M. Speeches and Writings that Impact Civic Life

 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship…5.2.
  A. Civic Rights, Responsibilities and Duties
  B. Relationship Between Rights and Responsibilities
  C. Sources and Resolution of Conflicts
  D. Political Leadership and Public Service
  E. Ways Citizens Influence Decisions and Actions of Government
  F. Consequences of Violating Rules and Law
  G. Competent and Responsible Citizen

 How Government Works…5.3.
  
A. Structure, Organization and Operation of Governments
  B. Branches of Government
  C. How a Bill Becomes a Law
  D. Services Performed by Governments
  E. Role of Leaders in Government
  F. Elements of the Election Process
  G. Protection of Individual Rights
  H. Impact of Interest Groups on Government
  I. How and Why Governments Raise Money
  J. Influence of the Media
  K. Systems of Government

 How International Relationships Function…5.4.
  
A. How Customs and Traditions Influence Governments
  B. Role of United States in World Affairs
  C. Impact of United States on the Political Ideals of Nations
  D. How Foreign Policy is Developed and Implemented
  E. Purposes and Functions of International Organizations

 Glossary…XV.

XIV. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Civics and Government that describe what students should know and be able to do in four areas:

 • 5.1. Principles and Documents of Government

 • 5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship

 • 5.3. How Government Works

 • 5.4. How International Relationships Function

 The Civics and Government Academic Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth). Throughout the standard statements, concepts found in lower grades must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.

 The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1790 was the basis for the Free Public School Act of 1834 that is the underpinning of today’s system of schools operating throughout the Commonwealth. These schools were created to educate children to be useful citizens, loyal to the principles upon which our Republic was founded, and aware of their duties as citizens to maintain those ideals.

 The Academic Standards for Civics and Government are based on the Public School Code of 1949 which directs ‘‘. . . teaching and presentation of the principles and ideals of the American republican representative form of government as portrayed and experienced by the acts and policies of the framers of the Declaration of Independence and framers of the Constitution of the United States and Bill of Rights. . .’’. The intent of the Code is that such instruction ‘‘shall have for its purpose also instilling into every boy and girl who comes out of public, private and parochial schools their solemn duty and obligation to exercise intelligently their voting privilege and to understand the advantages of the American republican form of government as compared with various other forms of governments.’’

 The Academic Standards for Civics and Government consist of four standard categories (designated as 5.1., 5.2., 5.3., and 5.4.). Each category has a number of standards statements designated by a capital letter. Some standard statements have bulleted items known as standard descriptors. The standard descriptors are items within the document to illustrate and enhance the standard statement. The categories, statements and descriptors are regulations. The descriptors may be followed by an “e.g.”. The “e.g.’s” are examples to clarify what type of information could be taught. These are suggestions and the choice of specific content is a local decision as is the method of instruction.

 Civics and Government along with Economics, Geography and History are identified as Social Studies in Chapter 4. This identification is consistent with citizenship education in Chapter 49 and Chapter 354. Based on these regulations, Social Studies/Citizenship Programs should include the four sets of standards as an entity in developing a scope and sequence for curriculum and planned instruction.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in clarifying terminology contained in the standards.

5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Describe what government is. A. Explain the purpose of government. A. Identify and explain the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government. A. Evaluate the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government.
B. Explain the purposes of rules and laws and why they are important in the classroom, school, community, state and nation. B. Explain the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good in the community, state, nation and world.  B. Describe historical examples of the importance of the rule of law.
• Sources
• Purposes
• Functions
 B. Analyze the sources, purposes and functions of law.
C. Define the principles and ideals shaping government.
• Justice
• Truth
• Diversity of people and  ideas
• Patriotism
• Common good
• Liberty
• Rule of law
• Leadership
• Citizenship
C. Describe the principles and ideals shaping government.
• Equality
• Majority rule/Minority  rights
• Popular sovereignty
• Privacy
• Checks and balances
• Separation of powers
 C. Analyze the principles and ideals that shape government.
• Constitutional govern-
 ment
• Liberal democracy
• Classical republican-
 ism
• Federalism
 C. Evaluate the importance of the principles and ideals of civic life.


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
D. Identify the document which created Pennsylvania.D. Explain the basic principles and ideals within documents of Pennsylvania government.
• Charter of 1681
• Charter of Privileges
• Pennsylvania  Constitution
• Pennsylvania  Declaration of Rights
D. Interpret significant changes in the basic documents shaping the government of Pennsylvania.
• The Great Law of 1682
• Constitution of 1776
• Constitution of 1790
• Constitution of 1838
• Constitution of 1874
• Constitution of 1968
D. Analyze the principles and ideals that shape the government of Pennsylvania and apply them to the government.
• The Charter of 1681
• Charter of Privileges
• PA Constitution, its revisions and Amend-
 ments


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
E. Identify documents of United States government.
• Declaration of Independence
• Constitution of the United States
• Bill of Rights
E. Explain the basic principles and ideals within documents of United States government. E. Analyze the basic documents shaping the government of the United States.
• Magna Carta
• English Bill of Rights
• Mayflower Compact
• Articles of Confederation
• Declaration of
 Independence
• Federalist papers
• Anti-federalist writings
• United States
 Constitution
E. Evaluate the principles and ideals that shape the United States and compare them to documents of government.


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
F. Explain the meaning of a preamble.
• Constitution of the United States
• Pennsylvania Constitution
F. Explain the meaning of the Preamble to the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and compare it to the Preamble of the Constitution of the United States. F. Contrast the individual rights created by the Pennsylvania Constitution and those created by the Constitution of the United States. F. Analyze and assess the rights of the people as listed in the Pennsylvania Constitution and the Constitution of the United States.
G. Describe the purpose of the United States Flag, The Pledge of Allegiance and The National Anthem. G. Describe the proper use, display and respect for the United States Flag and explain the significance of patriotic activities.
• Reciting The Pledge of  Allegiance
• Standing for The Na-
 tional Anthem
G. Describe the procedures for proper uses, display and respect for the United States Flag as per the National Flag Code. G. Analyze and interpret the role of the United States Flag in civil disobedience and in patriotic activities.


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
H. Identify framers of documents of governments.
• Pennsylvania
• United States
H. Describe the roles played by the framers of the basic documents of governments of Pennsylvania and the United States. H. Explain and interpret the roles of framers of basic documents of government from a national and Pennsylvania perspective. H. Analyze the competing positions held by the framers of the basic documents of government of Pennsylvania and United States.
I. Explain why government is necessary in the classroom, school, community, state and nation and the basic purposes of government in Pennsylvania and the United States. I. Describe and compare the making of rules by direct democracy and by republican form of government. I. Explain the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments and explain the advantages and disadvantages of systems of government.
• Confederal
• Federal
• Unitary
I. Analyze historical examples of the importance of the rule of law explaining the sources, purposes and functions of law.
J. Explain the importance of respect for the property and the opinions of others. J. Describe how the government protects individual and property rights and promotes the common good. J. Explain how law protects individual rights and the common good. J. Analyze how the law promotes the common good and protects individual rights.


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
K. Identify symbols and political holidays.
• Pennsylvania (e.g.,  Charter Day, Liberty  Bell, Keystone State)
• United States (e.g.,  Presidents’ Day, Statue  of Liberty, White  House)
K. Describe the purpose of symbols and holidays. K. Explain why symbols and holidays were created and the ideals they commemorate. K. Analyze the roles of symbols and holidays in society.
L. Identify ways courts resolve conflicts involving principles and ideals of government. L. Explain the role of courts in resolving conflicts involving the principles and ideals of government.
• Local
• State
• Federal
L. Interpret Pennsylvania and United States court decisions that have impacted the principles and ideals of government. L. Analyze Pennsylvania and United States court decisions that have affected principles and ideals of government in civic life.
• Civil rights
• Commerce
• Judicial review
• Federal supremacy


5.1. Principles and Documents of Government
5.1.3. GRADE 35.1.6. GRADE 65.1.9. GRADE 95.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
M. Identify portions of famous speeches and writings that reflect the basic principles and ideals of government (e.g., ‘‘I have a dream,’’ Reverend Martin Luther King; ‘‘One small step for man,’’ Neil Armstrong). M. Explain the basic principles and ideals found in famous speeches and writings (e.g., ‘‘Governments, like clocks, go from the motion people give them,’’ William Penn; ‘‘A date that will live in infamy,’’ Franklin D. Roosevelt). M. Interpret the impact of famous speeches and writings on civic life (e.g., The Gospel of Wealth, Declaration of Sentiments). M. Evaluate and analyze the importance of significant political speeches and writings in civic life (e.g., Diary of Anne Frank, Silent Spring).
Basic concepts found in lower grades for standard statements and their descriptors must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.


5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
5.2.3. GRADE 3 5.2.6. GRADE 6 5.2.9. GRADE 9 5.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Identify examples of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
• Personal rights
• Political rights
• Economic rights
• Personal responsibili-
 ties
• Civic responsibilities
A. Compare rights and responsibilities of citizenship.
• Political rights
• Economic rights
• Personal responsibilities of the individual and to society
• Civic responsibilities of  the individual and to  society
• Traits of character of  individuals and to a  republican form of  government
A. Contrast the essential rights and responsibilities of citizens in systems of government.
• Autocracy
• Democracy
• Oligarchy
• Republic
A. Evaluate an individual’s civic rights, responsibilities and duties in various governments.
B. Identify personal rights and responsibilities.B. Explain the relationship between rights and responsibilities. B. Analyze citizens’ rights and responsibilities in local, state and national government. B. Evaluate citizen’s participation in government and civic life.


5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
5.2.3. GRADE 3 5.2.6. GRADE 6 5.2.9. GRADE 9 5.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
C. Identify sources of conflict and disagreement and different ways conflicts can be resolved.C. Explain ways citizens resolve conflicts in society and government.C. Analyze skills used to resolve conflicts in society and government.C. Interpret the causes of conflict in society and analyze techniques to resolve those conflicts.
D. Identify the importance of political leadership and public service in the school, community, state and nation.D. Describe the importance of political leadership and public service.D. Analyze political leadership and public service in a republican form of government. D. Evaluate political leadership and public service in a republican form of government.
E. Describe ways citizens can influence the decisions and actions of government.E. Identify examples of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.E. Explain the importance of the political process to competent and responsible participation in civic life. E. Analyze how participation in civic and political life leads to the attainment of individual and public goals.
F. Explain the benefits of following rules and laws and the consequences of violating them.F. Describe the impact of the consequences of violating rules and laws in a civil society.F. Analyze the consequences of violating laws of Pennsylvania compared to those of the United States. F. Evaluate how individual rights may conflict with or support the common good.
G. Identify ways to participate in government and civic life.G. Explain the importance of participating in government and civic life.G. Analyze political and civic participation in government and society. G. Evaluate what makes a competent and responsible citizen.


5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
5.2.3. GRADE 3 5.2.6. GRADE 6 5.2.9. GRADE 9 5.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
Basic concepts found in lower grades for standard statements and their descriptors must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.


5.3. How Government Works
5.3.3. GRADE 3 5.3.6. GRADE 6 5.3.9. GRADE 9 5.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the
knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Identify the elected representative bodies responsible for making local, Pennsylvania and United States laws. A. Compare the structure, organization and operation of local, state and national governments. A. Explain the structure, organization and operation of the local, state and national governments including domestic and national policy-making. A. Analyze and evaluate the structure, organization and operation of the local, state and national governments including domestic and national policy-making.
B. Identify the role of the three branches of government.
• Executive
• Legislative
• Judicial
B. Describe the responsibilities and powers of the three branches of government. B. Compare the responsibilities and powers of the three branches within the national government. B. Analyze the responsibilities and powers of the national government.
C. Identify reasons for rules and laws in the school and community. C. Explain how government actions affect citizens’ daily lives. C. Explain how a bill becomes a law on a federal, state, and local level. C. Evaluate the process of how a bill becomes the law on a federal, state, and local levels.


5.3. How Government Works
5.3.3. GRADE 3 5.3.6. GRADE 6 5.3.9. GRADE 9 5.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
D. Identify services performed by the local, state and national governments. D. Describe how local, state and national governments implement their services. D. Explain how independent government agencies create, amend and enforce regulatory policies.
• Local (e.g., Zoning  Board)
• State (e.g.,  Pennsylvania Public  Utility Commission)
• National (e.g., Federal  Communications  Commission)
D. Evaluate how independent government agencies create, amend and enforce regulations.
E. Identify positions of authority at school and in local, state and national governments. E. Identify major leaders of local, state and national governments, their primary duties and their political party affiliation. E. Explain how citizens participate in choosing their leaders through political parties, campaigns and elections. E. Evaluate the roles of political parties in election campaigns.


5.3. How Government Works
5.3.3. GRADE 3 5.3.6. GRADE 6 5.3.9. GRADE 9 5.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
F. Explain what an election is. F. Describe the voting process.
• Pennsylvania
• United States
F. Explain the election process.
• Voter registration
• Primary Elections
• Caucuses
• Political party  conventions
• General Elections
• Electoral College
F. Evaluate the elements of the election process.
G. Explain why being treated fairly is important. G. Describe how the government protects individual rights.
• Presumption of  Innocence
• Right to Counsel
• Trial by Jury
• Bill of Rights
G. Explain how the government protects individual rights.
• Equal protection
• Habeas Corpus • Right Against Self  Incrimination • Double Jeopardy • Right of Appeal
• Due Process
G. Evaluate how the government protects or curtails individual rights and analyze the impact of supporting or opposing those rights.


5.3. How Government Works
5.3.3. GRADE 3 5.3.6. GRADE 6 5.3.9. GRADE 9 5.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
H. Identify individual interests and explain ways to influence others. H. Identify individual interests and how they impact government. H. Analyze how interest groups provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process. H. Evaluate the impact of interest groups on the political process.
I. Explain why taxes are necessary and identify who pays them. I. Describe why and how government raises money to pay for its operations and services. I. Analyze how and why government raises money to pay for its operation and services. I. Evaluate how and why government raises money to pay for its operations and services.
J. Identify the role of the media in society. J. Describe the influence of media in reporting issues. J. Analyze the importance of freedom of the press. J. Evaluate the role of media in political life in the United States and explain the role of the media in setting the public agenda.
K. Identify different ways people govern themselves. K. Describe forms of government.
• Limited
• Unlimited
K. Identify and explain systems of government.
• Autocracy
• Democracy
• Oligarchy
• Republic
K. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of various systems of government.
• Autocracy
• Democracy
• Oligarchy
• Republic
Basic concepts found in lower grades for standard statements and their descriptors must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.


5.4. How International Relationships Function
5.4.3. GRADE 3 5.4.6. GRADE 6 5.4.9. GRADE 9 5.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Identify how customs and traditions influence governments.A. Explain the concept of nation-states.A. Explain how the United States is affected by policies of nation-states, governmental and non-governmental organizations. A. Analyze the impact of international economic, technological and cultural developments on the government of the United States.
B. Recognize that the world is divided into various political units.B. Describe how nation-states coexist in the world community. B. Explain the role of the United States in world affairs. B. Analyze the United States’ interaction with other nations and governmental groups in world events.
C. Identify ways in which countries interact with the United States.C. Describe the governments of the countries bordering the United States and their relationships with the United States. C. Explain the effects United States political ideas have had on other nations. C. Compare how past and present United States’ policy interests have changed over time and analyze the impact on future international relationships.


5.4. How International Relationships Function
5.4.3. GRADE 3 5.4.6. GRADE 6 5.4.9. GRADE 9 5.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
D. Identify treaties and other agreements between or among nations.D. Describe the processes that resulted in a treaty or agreement between the United States and another nation-state. D. Contrast how the three branches of federal government function in foreign policy. D. Explain how foreign policy is developed and implemented.
E. Identify how nations work together to solve problems.E. Explain how nations work together on common environmental problems, natural disasters and trade. E. Explain the development and the role of the United Nations and other international organizations, both governmental and non-governmental. E. Compare the purposes and functions of international organizations.
• Governmental (e.g.,  NATO, World Court,  OAS)
• Nongovernmental  (e.g., International  Red Cross, Amnesty  International, World  Council of Churches)

XV. GLOSSARY

Amendment (Constitutional): Changes in, or additions to, a constitution. Proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress or by a convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures. Ratified by approval of three-fourths of the state.
Articles of Confederation: First framework of government of the United States, 1781. Created a weak national government, replaced in 1789 by the Constitution of the United States.
Authority: Right to control or direct the actions of others, legitimized by law, morality, custom or consent.
Autocracy: A government in which one person possesses unlimited power.
Bill of Rights: First Ten Amendments to the Constitution. Ratified in 1791, these amendments limit government power and protect basic rights and liberties of individuals.
Caucuses:A private meeting of members of a political party to plan action or to select delegates for a nominating convention. The term also refers to distinct groups, either official or unofficial, in Congress, as in the black caucus in the House of Representatives.
Checks and balances: Constitutional mechanisms that authorize each branch of government to share powers with the other branches and thereby check their activities. For example, the president may veto legislation passed by Congress, the Senate must confirm major executive appointments and the courts may declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.
Citizen: Member of a political society who therefore owes allegiance to and is entitled to protection by and from the government.
Citizenship: Status of being a member of a state; one who owes allegiance to the government and is entitled to protection by and from the government.
Civic life:A manner of existence of an individual concerned with the affairs of communities and the common good rather than solely in pursuit of private and personal interests.
Civic responsibilities: Obligation of citizens to take part in the governance of the school, community, tribe, state or nation.
Civil disobedience:Refusal to obey laws. This tactic is usually passive and nonviolent, aimed at bringing injustices to the attention of lawmakers and the public at large. An example of civil disobedience was the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s.
Civil rights: Protections and privileges given to all United States citizens by the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
Civil society: The spheres of voluntary individual, social and economic relationships and organizations that although limited by law are not part of governmental institutions.
Classical republicanism: Refers to government that seeks the public or common good rather than the good of a particular group or class of society.
Common or public good: Benefit or interest of a politically organized society as a whole.
Confederal: Relating to a league of independent states.
Constitutional government:A form of authority in which a legal structure details the powers available to each branch of government and the rights of the individual in relation to the government. Any action by government that is not in accord with the Constitution is considered illegitimate.
Democracy: Form of government in which political control is exercised by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives.
Diplomacy: The art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations.
Direct democracy:Form of government in which the people completely exercise political decisions.
Diversity: State of being different; variety.
Documents of government: Papers necessary for the organization and powers of government.
Double jeopardy:A concept established by law that says a person cannot be tried twice for the same offense. It is part of the Fifth Amendment, which states that ‘‘no person shall . . . be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.’’
Due process of law: Right of every citizen to be protected against arbitrary action by government.
Economic rights:Financial choices and privileges that individuals may select without government prohibition. Economic rights would include: right to own property, change employment, operate a business and join a labor union.
Electoral College:The group of presidential electors that casts the official votes for president after the presidential election. Each state has a number of electors equal to the total of its members in the Senate and House of Representatives.
Enumerated powers: Powers that are specifically granted to Congress by Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution.
Equal protection:An idea that no individual or group may receive special privileges from nor be unjustly discriminated against by the political authority of the legal system.
Equality: The condition of possessing substantially the same rights, privileges and immunities, and being substantially responsible for the same duties as other members of society.
Federal Supremacy Clause: Article VI of the Constitution provides that the Constitution and all federal laws and treaties shall be the ‘‘Supreme Law of the Land.’’ Therefore, all federal laws take precedence over state and local laws.
Federal system (or Federalism): Form of political organization in which governmental power is divided between a central government and territorial subdivisions (e.g., in the United States—the national, state and local governments).
Federalism: The distribution of power in a government between a central authority and states and the distribution of power among states with most powers retained by central government.
Foreign Policy: Actions of the federal government directed to matters beyond United States’ borders, especially relations with other countries.
Government: Institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled.
Habeas Corpus: Court order demanding that the individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention. Habeas corpus is guaranteed by the Constitution and can be suspended only in the case of rebellion or invasion.
Individual responsibility: Fulfilling the moral and legal obligations of membership in society.
Individual rights: Just claims due a person by law, morality or tradition as opposed to those due to groups.
Interest group: Organized body of individuals who share same goals and try to influence public policy to meet those goals.
International organizations: Groups formed by nation-states to achieve common political, social or economic goals.
Judicial Review: Doctrine that permits the federal courts to declare unconstitutional, and thus null and void, acts of the Congress, the executive branch and the states. The precedent for judicial review was established in the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison.
Justice: That which may be obtained through fair distribution of benefits and burdens, fair correction of wrongs and injuries, or use of fair procedures in gathering information and making decisions.
Leadership: State or condition of one who guides or governs.
Liberal Democracy: Government that recognizes that the individual has rights that exist independently of government and which ought to be protected by and against government.
Liberty: Freedom from restraint under conditions essential to the equal enjoyment of the same right by others.
Limited government:A legal structure where officials in authority do not have enormous power. The Constitution of the United States limits government through methods of checks and balances.
Majority rule: Decision by more than half of those participating in the decision-making process.
Minority rights: Opportunities that a member is entitled to have, or to receive from others within the limits of the law, even though he/she may not be part of the controlling group.
Nation-state: Divisions of the world in which each state claims sovereignty over defined territory and jurisdiction over everyone within it. These states interact using diplomacy, formal agreements and sanctions that may be peaceful or may involve the use of force.
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international transatlantic partnership consisting of various European states, the United States and Canada, which was designed through cooperation, consultation and collective defense to maintain peace and promote stability throughout Europe.
Non-governmental organization: A group in a free society that is not a part of any government institution and does not derive its power from government.
OAS: Organization of American States, an international governmental organization formed by the states of North and South America for security and the protection of mutual interests.
Oligarchy: A government in which a small group exercises control. These systems are usually based on wealth, military power or social position.
Patriotism: A feeling of pride in and respect for one’s country.
Personal rights:Private legal privileges and decisions that individuals are free to participate in without intervention from government. Personal rights would include the right to vote, petition, assemble, and seek public office.
Political party: Any group, however loosely organized, that seeks to elect government officials under a given label.
Political rights: Legal claims by citizens to participate in government and be treated fairly. Political rights would include the right to vote, petition, assemble, and seek public office.
Popular sovereignty: The concept that ultimate political authority rests with the people to create, alter or abolish governments.
Presumption of innocence: The legal concept that a criminal defendant is not guilty until the prosecution proves every element of the crime, beyond a reasonable doubt.
Privacy: The right to be left alone; the right of an individual to withhold one’s self and one’s property from public scrutiny if one so chooses.
Public service: Action of benefit to local, state or national communities through appointed or elected office.
Representative Democracy: Form of government in which power is held by the voters and is exercised indirectly through elected representatives who make decisions.
Republic: Form of government in which political control is exercised through elected representatives.
Republican form of government: System of government in which power is held by the voters and is exercised by elected representatives responsible for promoting the common welfare.
Right against self-incrimination: Individual right found in the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution that prevents an individual from being forced to testify against himself or herself.
Right of appeal: The right to seek review by a superior court of an injustice done or error committed by an inferior court, whose judgment or decision the court above is called upon to correct or reverse.
Right to counsel: Individual right found in the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution that requires criminal defendants to have access to legal representation.
Rule of Law: Principle that every member of a society, even a ruler, must follow the law.
Separation of powers: Distribution among the branches of government to ensure that the same person or group will not make the law, enforce the law and interpret the law.
State: A commonwealth; a nation; a civil power.
Treaty: Formal agreement between or among sovereign nations to create or restrict rights and responsibilities. In the United States all treaties must be approved by a two-thirds vote in the Senate.
Trial by jury: Individual right found in the Sixth and Seventh Amendment of the Constitution that guarantees a person an impartial jury.
Truth: Agreement of thought and reality that can eventually be verified.
Unitary government: An authoritative system in which all regulatory power is vested in a central government from which regional and local governments derive their powers (e.g., Great Britain and France as well as the American states within their spheres of authority).
United Nations:International organization comprising most of the nation-states of the world. It was formed in 1945 to promote peace, security and economic development.
Unlimited government:A legal structure where officials in authority have unrestricted power. Examples of unlimited governments would be authoritarian or totalitarian systems without restraints on their power.
World Court:Court in the Hague, the Netherlands, set up by the United Nations treaty to which nations may voluntarily submit disputes.



Academic Standards for Economics



XVI. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction…XVII.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Economic Systems…6.1.
  
A. Similarities and Differences in Economic Systems
  B. Traditional, Command and Market Economics
  C. Measures of Economic Activity
  D. Expansion, Recession and Depression in the Economy

 Markets and the Functions of Governments…6.2.
  
A. Market Transactions
  B. Costs and Benefits of Competition
  C. Function of Money
  D. Economic Institutions
  E. Changes in Supply and Demand
  F. Forces that Can Change Price
  G. Sources of Tax Revenue
  H. Economic Roles for Governments
  I. Public Goods
  J. Costs and Benefits of Taxation
  K. Impact of Media on the Cost and Benefits of Decisions
  L. Exchange Rates

 Scarcity and Choice…6.3.
  
A. Scarcity and Limited Resources
  B. Economic Reasoning of Choices
  C. Allocation of Resources
  D. Marginal Analysis and Decision-Making
  E. Opportunity Cost
  F. Incentives

 Economic Interdependence…6.4.
  
A. Specialization
  B. Trade
  C. Implementation or Reduction of Trade Barriers
  D. Pennsylvania Economic Patterns
  E. Global Production and Consumption of Goods or Services
  F. Comparative Advantage
  G. Geographic Patterns of Economic Activities

 Work and Earnings…6.5.
  
A. Factors Influencing Wages
  B. Labor Productivity
  C. Type of Businesses
  D. Profits and Losses
  E. Distribution of Wealth
  F. Entrepreneurship
  G. Costs and Benefits of Saving
  H. Impact of Interest Rates

 Glossary… XVIII.

XVII. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Economics that describe what students should know and be able to do in five areas:

 • 6.1. Economic Systems

 • 6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments

 • 6.3. Scarcity and Choice

 • 6.4. Economic Interdependence

 • 6.5. Work and Earnings

 The Economic Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth). They reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students are expected to achieve as they progress through school. This document attempts to avoid repetition and makes obvious progression across grade levels. Topics and concepts in Economics directly relate to Environment and Ecology Standard 4.2 and Geography Standard 7.3. As a social science, Economics Standards should be Cross-Walked and related to the Civics and Government, Geography and History Standards to create an interdisciplinary view of the world.

 Economics is concerned with the behavior of individuals and institutions engaged in the production, exchange and consumption of goods and services. As technology helps to reshape the economy, knowledge of how the world works is critical. People entering the workforce cannot function effectively without a basic knowledge of the characteristics of economic systems, how markets establish prices, how scarcity and choice affect the allocation of resources, the global nature of economic interdependence and how work and earnings impact productivity.

 A Pennsylvania governor remarked, ‘‘Among the freedoms we enjoy in America in our pursuit of happiness is the freedom to be independent, creative, visionary and entrepreneurial. We are free to pursue dreams. . .’’ To succeed, however, every student must know how to manage resources, prepare for the workforce, make wise investments and be informed about public policy. These standards are intended to provide direction in learning how economic activity impacts the forces of everyday life.

 The academic standards for Economics consist of five standard categories (designated as 6.1., 6.2., 6.3., 6.4. and 6.5.). Each category has a number of standards statements designated by a capital letter. Some standard statements have bulleted items known as standard descriptors. The standard descriptors are items within the document to illustrate and enhance the standard statement. The categories, statements and descriptors are regulations. The descriptors may be followed by an ‘‘e.g.’’ The “e.g.’s” are examples to clarify what type of information could be taught. These are suggestions and thechoice of specific content is a local decision as is the method of instruction.

 Economics along with Civics and Government, Geography, and History are identified as Social Studies in Chapter 4. This identification is consistent with citizenship education in Chapter 49 and Chapter 354. Based on these regulations, social studies/citizenship programs should include four sets of standards as an entity in developing a scope and sequence for curriculum and planned instruction.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in clarifying terminology contained in the standards.

6.1. Economic Systems
6.1.3. GRADE 3 6.1.6. GRADE 6 6.1.9. GRADE 9 6.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Describe how individuals, families and communities with limited resources make choices. A. Describe and identify the characteristics of traditional, command and market systems. A. Analyze the similarities and differences in economic systems. A. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of traditional, command and market economics.
B. Describe alternative methods of allocating goods and services and advantages and disadvantages of each. B. Explain the three basic questions that all economic systems attempt to answer.
• What goods and services should be produced?
• How will goods and services be produced?
• Who will consume goods and services?
B. Explain how traditional, command and market economies answer the basic economic questions. B. Analyze the impact of traditional, command and market economies on the United States economy.
C. Identify local economic activities.
• Employment
• Output
C. Define measures of economic activity and relate them to the health of the economy.
• Prices
• Employment
• Output
C. Explain how economic indicators reflect changes in the economy.
• Consumer Price Index  (CPI)
• Gross Domestic  Product (GDP)
• Unemployment rate
C. Assess the strength of the regional, national and/or international economy and compare it to another time period based upon economic indicators.
D. Identify examples of local businesses opening, closing, expanding or contracting. D. Explain the importance of expansion and contraction on individual businesses (e.g., gourmet food shops, auto repair shops, ski resorts). D. Describe historical examples of expansion, recession and depression in the United States. D. Describe historical examples of expansion, recession, and depression internationally.


6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments
6.2.3. GRADE 3 6.2.6. GRADE 6 6.2.9. GRADE 9 6.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Define and identify goods, services, consumers and producers. A. Describe market transactions in terms of goods, services, consumers and producers. A. Explain the flow of goods, services and resources in a mixed economy. A. Analyze the flows of products, resources and money in a mixed economy.
B. Identify ways local businesses compete to get customers. B. Describe the costs and benefits of competition to consumers in markets. B. Analyze how the number of consumers and producers affects the level of competition within a market. B. Evaluate the operation of noncompetitive markets.
C. Identify and compare means of payment.
• Barter
• Money
C. Explain the function of money and its use in society. C. Explain the structure and purpose of the Federal Reserve System. C. Analyze policies designed to raise or lower interest rates and how the Federal Reserve Board influences interest rates.
D. Identify groups of competing producers in the local area. D. Define economic institutions (e.g., banks, labor unions). D. Analyze the functions of economic institutions (e.g., corporations, not-for-profit institutions). D. Evaluate changes in economic institutions over time (e.g. stock markets, nongovernment organizations).


6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments
6.2.3. GRADE 3 6.2.6. GRADE 6 6.2.9. GRADE 9 6.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
E. Identify who supplies a product and who demands a product. E. Explain how the interaction of buyers and sellers determines prices and quantities exchanged. E. Explain the laws of supply and demand and how these affect the prices of goods and services. E. Predict how changes in supply and demand affect equilibrium price and quantity sold.
F. Define price and identify the prices of different items. F. Describe how prices influence both buyers and sellers and explain why prices may vary for similar products. F. Analyze how competition among producers and consumers affects price, costs, product quality, service, product design and variety and advertising. F. Identify and analyze forces that can change price.
• Government actions
• Weather conditions
• International events
G. Define what a tax is and identify a tax paid by most families. G. Explain how taxes affect the price of goods and services. G. Contrast the largest sources of tax revenue with where most tax revenue is spent in Pennsylvania. G. Evaluate types of tax systems.
• Progressive
• Proportional
• Regressive


6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments
6.2.3. GRADE 3 6.2.6. GRADE 6 6.2.9. GRADE 9 6.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
H. Identify government involvement in local economic activities. H. Describe the Pennsylvania and United States governments’ roles in monitoring economic activities. H. Analyze the economic roles of governments in market economies.
• Economic growth and  stability
• Legal frameworks
• Other economic goals  (e.g., environmental  protection,  competition)
H. Evaluate the economic roles of governments.
• Macroeconomics (e.g.,  tariffs and quotas,  exchange rates, trade  balance)
• Microeconomics (e.g.,  price controls,  monopolies, cartels)
I. Identify goods and services produced by the government (e.g., postal service, food inspection). I. Identify and describe public goods. I. Explain how government provides public goods. I. Evaluate government decisions to provide public goods.
J. Explain the relationship between taxation and government services. J. Explain the cost and benefits of taxation. J. Contrast the taxation policies of the local, state and national governments in the economy. J. Evaluate the social, political and economic changes in tax policy using cost/benefit analysis.
K. Identify forms of advertising designed to influence personal choice. K. Explain how advertisements influence perceptions of the costs and benefits of economic decisions. K. Interpret how media reports can influence perceptions of the costs and benefits of decisions. K. Analyze the impact of media on decision-making of consumers, producers and policymakers.


6.2. Markets and the Functions of Governments
6.2.3. GRADE 3 6.2.6. GRADE 6 6.2.9. GRADE 9 6.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
L. Explain why most countries create their own form of money. L. Explain what an exchange rate is. L. Explain how the price of one currency is related to the price of another currency (e.g., Japanese yen in American dollar, Canadian dollar in Mexican nuevo peso). L. Analyze how policies and international events may change exchange rates.


6.3. Scarcity and Choice
6.3.3. GRADE 3 6.3.6. GRADE 6 6.3.9. GRADE 9 6.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Define scarcity and identify limited resources scarcity. A. Explain how scarcity influences choices and behaviors.
• Personal decision-making
• Family decision-making
• Community decision-making
A. Describe ways to deal with scarcity.
• Community
• Pennsylvania
• United States
A. Analyze actions taken as a result of scarcity issues in the regional, national and international economies.
B. Define and identify wants of different people. B. Explain how limited resources and unlimited wants cause scarcity. B. Analyze how unlimited wants and limited resources affect decision-making. B. Evaluate the economic reasoning behind a choice.
C. Identify and define natural, human and capital resources. C. Describe the natural, human and capital resources used to produce a specific good or service. C. Explain how resources can be used in different ways to produce different goods and services. C. Evaluate the allocation of resources used to produce goods and services.
D. Identify costs and benefits associated with an economic decision. D. Explain the costs and benefits of an economic decision. D. Explain marginal analysis and decision-making. D. Evaluate regional, national or international economic decisions using marginal analysis.
E. Explain what is given up when making a choice. E. Define opportunity cost and describe the opportunity cost of a personal choice. E. Explain the opportunity cost of a public choice from different perspectives. E. Analyze the opportunity cost of decisions by individuals, businesses, communities and nations.


6.3. Scarcity and Choice
6.3.3. GRADE 3 6.3.6. GRADE 6 6.3.9. GRADE 9 6.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
F. Explain how self interest influences choice. F. Explain how negative and positive incentives affect choices. F. Explain how incentives affect the behaviors of workers, savers, consumers and producers. F. Evaluate in terms of marginal analysis how incentives influence decisions of consumers, producers and policy makers.


6.4. Economic Interdependence
6.4.3. GRADE 3 6.4.6. GRADE 6 6.4.9. GRADE 9 6.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Define specialization and the concept of division of labor. A. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of specialization and division of labor. A. Explain why specialization may lead to increased production and consumption. A. Analyze how specialization may increase the standard of living.
B. Explain why people trade. B. Explain how specialization leads to more trade between people and nations. B. Explain how trade may improve a society’s standard of living. B. Analyze the relationships between trade, competition and productivity.
C. Explain why goods, services and resources come from all over the nation and the world. C. Identify and define imports, exports, inter-regional trade and international trade. C. Explain why governments sometimes restrict or subsidize trade. C. Evaluate how a nation might benefit by lowering or removing trade barriers.
D. Identify local resources.
• Natural (renewable,  nonrenewable and flow  resources)
• Human
• Capital
D. Explain how the locations of resources, transportation and communication networks and technology have affected Pennsylvania economic patterns.
• Agriculture (e.g., farms)
• Forestry (e.g., logging)
• Mining and mineral  extraction (e.g., coal fields)
• Manufacturing (e.g., steel mills)
• Wholesale and retail (e.g., super stores, internet)
D. Explain how the locations of resources, transportation and communication networks and technology have affected United States economic patterns.
• Labor markets (e.g., migrant workers)
• Interstate highway system and sea and inland ports (e.g.,  movement of goods)
• Communication technologies (e.g., facsimile transmission,  satellite-based  communications)
D. Explain how the locations of resources, transportation and communication networks and technology have affected international economic patterns.


6.4. Economic Interdependence
6.4.3. GRADE 3 6.4.6. GRADE 6 6.4.9. GRADE 9 6.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
E. Define specialization and identify examples of interdependence. E. Explain how specialization and trade lead to interdependence. E. Analyze how Pennsylvania consumers and producers participate in the global production and consumption of goods or services. E. Analyze how United States consumers and producers participate in the global production and consumption of goods or services.
F. Explain why some products are produced locally while others are not. F. Explain how opportunity costs influence where goods and services are produced locally and regionally. F. Explain how opportunity cost can be used to determine the product for which a nation has a comparative advantage. F. Evaluate how trade is influenced by comparative advantage and opportunity costs.
G. Identify local geographic patterns of economic activities.
• Agriculture
• Travel and tourism
• Mining and mineral extraction
• Manufacturing
• Wholesale and retail
• Health services
G. Describe geographic patterns of economic activities in Pennsylvania.
• Agriculture
• Travel and tourism
• Mining and mineral  extraction
• Manufacturing
• Wholesale and retail
• Health services
G. Describe geographic patterns of economic activities in the United States.
• Primary—extractive  industries (i.e., farming, fishing,  forestry, mining)
• Secondary—materials  processing industries (i.e., manufacturing)
• Tertiary—service industries (e.g., retailing, wholesaling,  finance, real estate, travel and tourism, transportation)
G. Evaluate characteristics and distribution of international economic activities.
• Primary—extractive  industries (i.e., farming, fishing,  forestry, mining)
• Secondary—materials  processing industries (i.e., manufacturing)
• Tertiary—service industries (e.g., retailing, wholesaling,  finance, real estate, travel and tourism, transportation)


6.5. Work and Earnings
6.5.3. GRADE 3 6.5.6. GRADE 6 6.5.9. GRADE 9 6.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Explain why people work to get goods and services. A. Recognize that the availability of goods and services is the result of work by members of the society. A. Define wages and explain how wages are determined by the supply of and demand of workers. A. Analyze the factors influencing wages.
• Demand for goods and services produced
• Labor unions
• Productivity
• Education/skills
B. Identify different occupations.
B. Explain the concept of labor productivity.
B. Describe how productivity is measured and identify ways in which a person can improve his or her productivity.
B. Evaluate how changes in education, incentives, technology and capital investment alter productivity.
C. Describe businesses that provide goods and businesses that provide services. C. Compare the number of employees at different businesses. C. Identify and explain the characteristics of the three types of businesses.
• Sole Proprietorship
• Partnership
• Corporation
C. Analyze the costs and benefits of organizing a business as a sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation.
D. Define profit and loss. D. Explain how profits and losses serve as incentives. D. Analyze how risks influence business decision-making D. Analyze the role of profits and losses in the allocation of resources in a market economy.


6.5. Work and Earnings
6.5.3. GRADE 3 6.5.6. GRADE 6 6.5.9. GRADE 9 6.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
E. Identify examples of assets.
• Tangible (e.g., houses,  cars, jewelry)
• Financial assets (e.g.,  stocks, bonds, savings  accounts)
E. Describe how people accumulate tangible and financial assets through income, saving, and financial investment. E. Define wealth and describe its distribution within and among the political divisions of the United States. E. Compare distribution of wealth across nations.
F. Define entrepreneurship and identify entrepreneurs in the local community. F. Identify entrepreneurs in Pennsylvania.
• Historical
• Contemporary
F. Identify leading entrepreneurs in Pennsylvania and the United States and describe the risks they took and the rewards they received. F. Assess the impact of entrepreneurs on the economy.


6.5. Work and Earnings
6.5.3. GRADE 3 6.5.6. GRADE 6 6.5.9. GRADE 9 6.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
G. Define saving and explain why people save. G. Identify the costs and benefits of saving.
• Piggy banks
• Savings accounts
• U.S. Savings Bonds
G. Explain the differences among stocks, bonds and mutual funds. G. Analyze the risks and returns of various investments.
• Stocks
• Bonds
• Mutual funds
• Savings bonds
• Retirement savings (e.g., Individual Retirement Account  (IRA), Keogh, 401K)
• Savings accounts (e.g.,  passbook, certificate of  deposit)
H. Explain how banks bring savers and borrowers together. H. Describe why there is a difference between interest rates for saving and borrowing. H. Explain the impact of higher or lower interest rates for savers, borrowers, consumers and producers.H. Evaluate benefits and costs of changes in interest rates to individuals and society.

XVIII. GLOSSARY

Barter: The direct exchange of goods or services between people.
Bond:A financial promise for an investment issued by a corporation or government with regular interest payments and repayment at a later date.
Capital resources:The physical equipment used in the production of goods and services.
Cartels:A group of sellers acting together in the market.
Circular flow: The movement of resources, goods, and services through an economy. As a diagram, it can show how households and business firms interact with each other in the product and resource markets.
Command economy: A system in which decisions are made largely by an authority such as a feudal lord or government planning agency.
Comparative advantage:Economic theory that a country/individual should sell goods and services which it can produce at relatively lower costs and buy goods and services which it can produce at relatively higher costs.
Competition:The rivalry among people and/or business firms for resources and/or consumers.
Consumer:One who buys or rents goods or services and uses them.
Consumer Price Index:The price index most commonly used to measure the impact of changes in prices on households; this index is based on a standard market basket of goods and services purchased by a typical urban family.
Corporation:A business firm that is owned by stockholders and is a legal entity with rights to buy, sell and make contracts. Its chief advantage is that each owner’s liability is limited to the amount of money he or she has invested in the company.
Cost:What is given up when a choice is made; monetary and/or non monetary.
Cost/benefit analysis:The process of weighing all predicted costs against the predicted benefits of an economic choice.
Deflation:A general decline in the price level.
Demand:The different quantities of a resource, good or service that potential buyers are willing and able to purchase at various possible prices during a specific time period.
Depression:A severe recession in terms of magnitude or length, or both.
Division of labor:A method of organizing production whereby each worker specializes in part of the productive process.
Economic growth:An increase in a society’s output.
Economic systems:The ways societies organize to determine what goods and services should be produced, how goods and services should be produced and who will consume goods and services. Examples include traditional, command and market.
Economics:The study of the behavior of individuals and institutions engaged in the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
Entrepreneur:Individual who begins, manages and bears the risks of a business (e.g., Milton Hershey, F.W. Woolworth).
Equilibrium price:The outlay at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied; market clearing price.
Exchange rate:The price of one country’s currency measured in terms of another country’s currency (e.g., American dollar in German mark, Japanese yen in Canadian dollar).
Federal Reserve System:The ‘‘Central Bank’’ of the United States (consisting of the Board of Governors and 12 district banks) which controls monetary policy; sometimes referred to as ‘‘The Fed’’ or Federal Reserve.
Fiscal policy:Government decisions on taxation and spending to achieve economic goals.
Flow resources:Temporal energy forces that are neither renewable nor nonrenewable, but must be used as, when and where they occur or they are lost (e.g., wind, sunlight).
Gross Domestic Product:The market value of the total output of final goods and services produced by an economy in a given time period, usually 1 year.
Goods:Objects that can satisfy people’s wants.
Household:The group of people living together under one roof; a group of individuals whose economic decision making is interrelated.
Human resources:People’s intellectual and physical abilities.
Incentives:Factors that motivate or influence human behavior.
Income:Payments earned by people in exchange for providing resources used to produce goods and services.
Inflation:A general rise in the price level.
Interdependence:Ideas, goods and services in one area affect decisions and events in other areas reducing self-sufficiency.
Interest:Payment made for the use of borrowed money.
Interest rate:The price of borrowed money.
Labor force:That part of the population which is employed or actively seeking employment.
Labor union:An organization of workers who seek to improve their common interests.
Labor productivity:The total output divided by the quantity of labor employed to produce it.
Law of demand:The lower the price of a good or service, the greater the quantity that people will buy, all else held constant (e.g., incomes, tastes).
Law of supply:The higher the price of a good or service, the greater the quantity that business will sell, all else held constant (e.g., resource costs, technology).
Loss:The difference that arises when a firm’s total revenues are less than its total costs.
Macroeconomics: Study of aggregate economic activity including how the economy works as a whole. Seeks to identify levels of National income, output, employment and prices.
Marginal analysis:A decision making tool that weighs additional costs and benefits.
Market:A place or process through which goods and services are exchanged.
Market economy:An economic system in which decisions are made largely by the interactions of buyers and sellers.
Microeconomics:Study of the behaviors of consumers, firms and determination of the market prices.
Mixed economy:An economic system in which decisions are made by markets, government and tradition.
Monetary policy:Government decisions on money supply and interest rates to achieve economic goals.
Money:A medium of exchange.
Money supply:The amount of liquid assets which exists in the economy at a given time (e.g., currency, checkable deposits, travelers’ checks).
Mutual fund:An investment option that uses cash from a pool of savers to buy a wide range of securities.
Natural resources:Anything found in nature that can be used to produce a product (e.g., land, water, coal).
Nonrenewable resources:Finite elements that cannot be replaced once they are used (e.g., petroleum, minerals).
Opportunity cost:The highest valued alternative given up when a decision is made.
Output:The total amount of a commodity produced.
Partnership:A business in which ownership is shared by two or more people who receive all the profits and rewards and bear all the losses and risks.
Price:The amount people pay in exchange for unit of a particular good or service.
Price control:Government restraint of prices to keep the cost of living down. It most usually happens in time of war, but there are also instances in peacetime.
Price index:A measure of the average level of costs at one time compared to the average level of costs at another time.
Producer:One who makes goods or services.
Productivity:Amount of output per unit of input over a period of time. It is used to measure the efficiency with which inputs can be used.
Profit:Total revenue minus total costs.
Progressive tax:A levy for which the percentage of income used to pay the levy increases as the taxpayer’s income increases.
Proportional tax:A levy for which the percentage of income used to pay the levy remains the same as the taxpayer’s income increases.
Public goods:Goods and services provided by the government rather than by the private sector. Goods and services that more than one person can use without necessarily preventing others from using them.
Public policy:A government’s course of action that guides present and future decisions.
Quantity demanded:The amount of a good or service people are willing and able to purchase at a given price during a specific time period.
Quantity supplied:The amount of a good or service people are willing and able to sell at a given price during a specific time period.
Quota:A form of import protectionism where the total quantity of imports of a particular commodity is limited.
Recession:A contraction in National production that lasts 6 months or longer. A recession might be marked by job layoffs and high unemployment, stagnant wages, reductions in retail sales and slowing of housing and car markets.
Regressive tax:A levy for which the percentage of income used to pay the levy decreases as the taxpayer’s income increases.
Renewable resources:Substances that can be regenerated if used carefully (e.g., fish, timber).
Resources:Inputs used to produce goods and services; categories include natural, human and capital.
Scarcity:An economic condition that exists when demand is greater than supply.
Services:Actions that are valued by others.
Sole proprietorship:A business owned by an individual who receives all the profits and rewards and bears all the losses and risks.
Specialization:A form of division of labor in which each individual or firm concentrates its productive efforts on a single or limited number of activities.
Standard of living:A measurement of an individual’s quality of life. A larger consumption of goods, services, and leisure is often assumed to indicate a higher standard of living.
Stock:A certificate representing a share of ownership in a company.
Supply:The different quantities of a resource, good or service that potential sellers are willing and able to sell at various possible prices during a specific time period.
Tariff:A surcharge placed on imported goods and services. The purpose of a tariff is to protect domestic products from foreign competition.
Tertiary:The third level of economic activity. It includes service and service-related industries.
Trade:Voluntary exchange between two parties in which both parties benefit.
Trade balance:The payments of a nation that deal with merchandise imports or exports.
Traditional economy:An economic system in which decisions are made largely by repeating the actions from an earlier time or generation.
Unemployment rate:The percentage of the labor force that is actively seeking employment.
Wants:Desires that can be satisfied by consuming goods, services or leisure activities.



Academic Standards for Geography



XIX. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction… XX.
THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS
Basic Geographic Literacy…7.1.
 A. Geographic Tools
 B. Location of Places and Regions
The Physical Characteristics of Places and
 Regions…
7.2.
 A. Physical Systems and Properties
 B. Physical Processes
The Human Characteristics of Places and
 Regions…
7.3.
 A. Population
 B. Culture
 C. Settlement
 D. Economic Activity
 E. Political Activity
The Interactions Between People and
 Places…
7.4.
 A. Impact of Physical Systems on People
 B. Impact of People on Physical Systems
Glossary… XXI.



XX. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Geography that describe what students should know and be able to do in four areas:

 • 7.1. Basic Geographic Literacy

 • 7.2. The Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions

 • 7.3. The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions

 • 7.4. The Interactions Between People and Places

 The Geography Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth). They reflect the increasingly complex and sophisticated understanding of geography that students are expected to achieve as they progress through school. Throughout the standards, all grade levels must address the local-to-global progression (scales). Basic concepts found in lower grade levels must be developed more fully at higher grade levels.

 Geography is the science of space and place on Earth’s surface. Its subject matter is the physical and human phenomena that make up the world’s environments and places. These standards build on using geographic tools as a means for asking and answering geographic questions; setting information into a range of spatial contexts; recognizing places and regions as human concepts; understanding the physical processes that have shaped Earth’s surface and the patterns resulting from those processes; identifying the relationships between people and environments; recognizing the characteristics and distribution of people and cultures on Earth’s surface; focusing on the spatial patterns of settlements and their resulting political structures; and exploring the networks of economic interdependence and the importance of resources.

 At each grade level, instructional content should be selected to support the development of geographic understanding. In the primary grade levels (1-3), the emphasis should be on identifying the basic characteristics of the world (answering the what question); at the intermediate grade levels (4-6), the emphasis should be on describing spatial patterns of phenomena (answering the where and when questions); at the middle grade levels (7-9), the emphasis should be on explaining spatial patterns of phenomena (answering the how question); and at high school grade levels (10-12), the emphasis should be on analyzing spatial patterns of phenomena (answering the why question). Although the emphasis may focus on specific questions, these questions may be encountered at any grade level.

 Geography is an integrative discipline that enables students to apply geography skills and knowledge to life situations at home, at work and in the community. Therefore, these standards should be cross-walked with those in Civics and Government, Economics and History to create an interdisciplinary view of the world. Topics and concepts in geography directly relate to standard statements in Environment and Ecology, Economics, Mathematics, Science and Technology and Civics and Government.

 Teachers should employ the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography while proceeding through the Academic Standards for Geography. The relationship between the themes and the standards is clear. The standards describe what students should know and be able to do while the themes provide a clear conceptual basis for teachers and students to use in organizing their knowledge.

 These are the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography:

 

Theme Description
 Location The absolute and relative position of a place on Earth’s surface
Place How physical and human characteristics define and distinguish a place
Human-Environ ment
 Interactions
How humans modify and adapt to natural settings
Movement How people, ideas and materials move between and among locations
Regions How an area displays unity in terms of physical and human characteristics

 The academic standards for Geography consist of four standard categories (designated as 7.1., 7.2., 7.3., and 7.4.). Each category has two to five standard statements (designated by a capital letter). Most standard statements have bulleted items known as standard descriptors. The standard descriptors are items within the document to illustrate and enhance the standard statement. The categories, statements and descriptors are regulations. The descriptors may be followed by an ‘‘e.g.’’ The ‘‘e.g.’s’’ are examples to clarify what type of information could be taught. These are suggestions and the choice of specific content is a local decision as is the method of instruction.

 Geography along with Civics and Government, Economics, and History are identified as Social Studies in Chapter 4. This identification is consistent with citizenship education in Chapter 49 and Chapter 354. Based on these regulations, Social Studies/Citizenship programs should include the four sets of standards as an entity in developing a scope and sequence for curriculum and planned instruction.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in clarifying terminology contained in the standards.

7.1. Basic Geographic Literacy
7.1.3. GRADE 3 7.1.6. GRADE 6 7.1.9. GRADE 9 7.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Identify geographic tools and their uses.
• Characteristics and purposes of different geographic representations
• Maps and basic map elements
• Globes
• Graphs
• Diagrams
• Photographs

  • Geographic representations to display spatial information
• Sketch maps
• Thematic maps
• Mental maps to describe the human and physical features of the local area

A. Describe geographic tools and their uses.
• Basis on which maps, graphs and diagrams are created
• Aerial and other photographs
• Reference works
• Field observations
• Surveys

  • Geographic representations to display spatial information
• Absolute location
• Relative location
• Flows (e.g., goods, people, traffic)
• Topography
• Historic events

  • Mental maps to organize an understanding of the human and physical features of Pennsylvania and the home county

  • Basic spatial elements for depicting the patterns of physical and human features

A. Explain geographic tools and their uses.
• Development and use of geographic tools
• Geographic information systems [GIS]
• Population pyramids
• Cartograms
• Satellite-produced images
• Climate graphs
• Access to computer-based geographic data (e.g., Internet, CD-ROMs)

  • Construction of maps
• Projections
• Scale
• Symbol systems
• Level of generalization
• Types and sources of data

  • Geographic representations to track spatial patterns
• Weather
• Migration
• Environmental change (e.g., tropical forest reduction, sea-level changes)

A. Analyze data and issues from a spatial perspective using the appropriate geographic tools.
• Spatial patterns of human features that change over time (e.g., intervening opportunity, distance decay, central place theory, locational preference)
• Physical patterns of physical features that change over time (e.g., climate change, erosion, ecological invasion and succession)
• Human and physical features of the world through mental maps


7.1. Basic Geographic Literacy
7.1.3. GRADE 3 7.1.6. GRADE 6 7.1.9. GRADE 9 7.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
• Point, line, area, location, distance, scale
• Map grids
• Alpha-numeric system
• Cardinal and intermediate directions

  • Mental maps to organize and understand the human and physical features of the United States

B. Identify and locate places and regions.
• Physical features
• Continents and oceans
• Major landforms, rivers and lakes in North America
• Local community

  • Human features
• Countries (i.e., United States, Mexico, Canada)
• States (i.e., Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, West Virginia)
• Cities (i.e., Philadelphia, Erie, Altoona, Pittsburgh, Scranton, Harrisburg, Johnstown, Allentown, Washington D.C., Baltimore, New York, Toronto, Cleveland
• Local community

  • Regions as areas with unifying geographic characteristics
• Physical regions (e.g., landform regions, climate regions, river basins)

B. Describe and locate places and regions.
• Coordinate systems (e.g., latitude and longitude, time zones)
• Physical features
• In the United States (e.g., Great Lakes, Rocky Mountains, Great Plains)
• In Pennsylvania (e.g., Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Appalachians)

  • Human features
• Countries (e.g., United Kingdom, Argentina, Egypt)
• Provinces (e.g., Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia)
• Major human regions (e.g., Mid Atlantic, New England, Southwest)
• States (e.g., California, Massachusetts, Florida)
• Major cities (e.g., London, Los Angeles, Tokyo)
• Counties (e.g., Lancaster, Lackawanna, Jefferson)

B. Explain and locate places and regions.
• How regions are created to interpret Earth’s complexity (i.e., the differences among formal regions, functional regions, perceptual regions)
• How characteristics contribute to regional changes (e.g., economic development, accessibility, demographic change)
• How culture and experience influence perceptions of places and regions
• How structures and alliances impact regions
• Development (e.g., First vs. Third World, North vs. South)
• Trade (e.g., NAFTA, the European Union)
• International treaties (e.g., NATO, OAS)
B. Analyze the location of places and regions.
• Changing regional characteristics (e.g., short- and long-term climate shifts; population growth or decline; political instability)
• Criteria to define a region (e.g., the reshaping of south Florida resulting from changing migration patterns; the US-Mexico border changes as a function of NAFTA; metropolitan growth in the Philadelphia region)
• Cultural change (e.g., influence on people’s perceptions of places and regions)


7.1. Basic Geographic Literacy
7.1.3. GRADE 3 7.1.6. GRADE 6 7.1.9. GRADE 9 7.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
• Human regions (e.g., neighborhoods, cities, states, countries)
• Townships (e.g., Dickinson, Lower Mifflin, Southampton)

  • Ways in which different people view places and regions (e.g., places to visit or to avoid)

  • Community connections to other places
• Dependence and interdependence
• Access and movement

  • How regions are connected (e.g., watersheds and river systems, patterns of world trade, cultural ties, migration)

Basic Geography Literacy must include local-to-global progression (scales) for all students at all grade levels for the standard statements and their descriptors. Basic concepts introduced in lower grade levels must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels. Portions of Basic Geography Literacy relate directly to the Mathematics Standards.


7.2 The Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions
7.2.3. GRADE 3 7.2.6. GRADE 6 7.2.9. GRADE 9 7.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Identify the physical characteristics of places and regions.
• Physical properties
• Landforms (e.g., plains, hills, plateaus and mountains)
• Bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes, seas and oceans)
• Weather and climate
• Vegetation and animals

  • Earth’s basic physical systems
• Lithosphere
• Hydrosphere
• Atmosphere
• Biosphere

A. Describe the physical characteristics of places and regions.
• Components of Earth’s physical systems (e.g., clouds, storms, relief and elevation [topography], tides, biomes, tectonic plates)
• Comparison of the physical characteristics of different places and regions (e.g., soil, vegetation, climate, topography)
• Climate types (e.g., marine west coast, humid continental, tropical wet and dry)
A. Explain the physical characteristics of places and regions including spatial patterns of Earth’s physical systems.
• Climate regions
• Landform regions
A. Analyze the physical characteristics of places and regions including the interrelationships among the components of Earth’s physical systems.
• Biomes and ecosystem regions
• Watersheds and river basins
• World patterns of biodiversity
B. Identify the basic physical processes that affect the physical characteristics of places and regions.
• Earth-sun relationships (i.e., seasons and length of daylight, weather and climate)
• Extreme physical events (e.g., earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes)
B. Describe the physical processes that shape patterns on Earth’s surface.
• Earth-sun relationships (i.e., differences between equinoxes and solstices, reasons they occur and their relationship to latitude)
• Climate influences (e.g., elevation, latitude, nearby ocean currents)
• Climate change, (e.g., global warming/cooling, decertification, glaciations)
• Plate tectonics
• Hydrologic cycle
B. Explain the dynamics of the fundamental processes that underlie the operation of Earth’s physical systems.
• Wind systems
• Water cycle
• Erosion/deposition cycle
• Plate tectonics
• Ocean currents
• Natural hazards
B. Analyze the significance of physical processes in shaping the character of places and regions.
• Circulation of the oceans
• Ecosystem processes
• Atmospheric systems
• Extreme natural events

The Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions must include local-to-global progression (scales) for all students at all grade levels for the standard statements and their descriptors. Basic concepts must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels. Portions of Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions relate directly to Science and Technology and Environment and Ecology standards.


7.3 The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions
7.3.3. GRADE 3 7.3.6. GRADE 6 7.3.9. GRADE 9 7.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. .
A. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their population characteristics.
• The number and distribution of people in the local community
• Human movement in the local community (e.g., mobility in daily life, migration)
A. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their population characteristics.
• Spatial distribution, size, density and demographic characteristics of population at the county and state level.
• Causes of human movement
• Mobility (e.g., shopping, commuting, recreation)
• Migration models (e.g., push/pull factors, barriers to migration)
A. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their population characteristics.
• Spatial distribution, size, density and demographic characteristics of population at the state and National level
• Demographic structure of a population (e.g., life expectancy, fertility rate, mortality rate, infant mortality rate, population growth rate, the demographic transition model)
• Effects of different types and patterns of human movement
• Mobility (e.g., travel for business)
• Migration (e.g., rural to urban, short term vs. long term, critical distance)
A. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their population characteristics:
• Spatial distribution, size, density and demographic characteristics of population at the international level
• Demographic trends and their impacts on patterns of population distribution (e.g., carrying capacity, changes in fertility, changes in immigration policy, the mobility transition model)
• Impact of movement on human systems (e.g., refugees, guest workers, illegal aliens)
B. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
• Components of culture (e.g., language, belief systems and customs, social organizations, foods, ethnicity)
• Ethnicity of people in the local community (e.g., customs, celebrations, languages, religions)
B. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
• Ethnicity of people at the county and state levels (e.g., customs, celebrations, languages, religions)
• Spatial arrangement of cultures creates distinctive landscapes (e.g., cultural regions based on languages, customs, religion, building styles as in the Pennsylvania German region)
B. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
• Ethnicity of people at national levels (e.g., customs, celebrations, languages, religions)
• Culture distribution (e.g., ethnic enclaves and neighborhoods)
• Cultural diffusion (e.g., acculturation and assimilation, cultural revivals of language)
B. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
• Cultural conflicts (e.g., over language (Canada), over political power (Spain), over economic opportunities (Mexico))
• Forces for cultural convergence (e.g., the diffusion of foods, fashions, religions, language)
C. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
• Types of settlements (e.g., villages, towns, suburbs, cities, metropolitan areas)
• Factors that affect where people settle (e.g., water, resources, transportation)
C. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
• Current and past settlement patterns in the local area
• Factors that affect the growth and decline of settlements (e.g., immigration, transportation development, depletion of natural resources, site and situation)
C. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
• Current and past settlement patterns in Pennsylvania and the United States
• Forces that have re-shaped modern settlement patterns (e.g., central city decline, suburbanization, the development of transport systems)
• Internal structure of cities (e.g., manufacturing zones, inner and outer suburbs, the location of infrastructure)
C. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
• Description of current and past settlement patterns at the international scale (e.g., global cities)
• Use of models of the internal structure of cities (e.g., concentric zone, sector, multiple nuclei)
• Forces that have reshaped settlement patterns (e.g., commuter railroads, urban freeways, the development of megalopolis and edge cities)
D. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their economic activities.
• Location factors in the spatial distribution of economic activities (e.g., market, transportation, workers, materials)
• Producers of consumer products and services (e.g., bread, pizza, television, shopping malls)
• Products of farms and factories at the local and regional level (e.g., mushrooms, milk, snack foods, furniture)

  • Spatial distribution of resources
• Non-renewable resources
• Renewable resources
• Flow resources (e.g., water power, wind power)

D. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their economic activities.
• Spatial distribution of economic activities in the local area (e.g., patterns of agriculture, forestry, mining, retailing, manufacturing, services)
• Factors that influence the location and spatial distribution of economic activities (e.g., market size for different types of business, accessibility, modes of transportation used to move people, goods and materials)
• Spatial distribution of resources and their relationship to population distribution
• Historical settlement patterns and natural resource use (e.g.,
D. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their economic activities.
• Spatial distribution of economic activities in Pennsylvania and the United States (e.g., patterns of agriculture, forestry, mining, retailing, manufacturing, services)
• Factors that shape spatial patterns of economic activity both Nationally and internationally (e.g., comparative advantage in location of economic activities; changes in resource trade; disruption of trade flows)
• Technological changes that affect the definitions of, access to, and use of natural resources (e.g., the role of exploration, extraction, use and depletion of resources)
D. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their economic characteristics.
• Changes in spatial distribution of economic activities at the global scale (e.g., patterns of agriculture, forestry, mining, retailing, manufacturing, services)
• Forces that are reshaping business (e.g., the information economy, business globalization, the development of off-shore activities)
• Effects of changes and movements in factors of production (e.g., resources, labor, capital)


7.3 The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions
7.3.3. GRADE 3 7.3.6. GRADE 6 7.3.9. GRADE 9 7.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to.
waterpower sites along the FallLine)
• Natural resource-based industries (e.g., agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry)
E. Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their political activities.
• Type of political units (e.g., townships, boroughs, towns, cities, counties, states, countries (nation-state))
• Political units in the local area
E. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their political activities.
• Spatial pattern of political units in Pennsylvania
• Functions of political units (e.g., counties, municipalities, townships, school districts, PA General Assembly districts (House and Senate), U.S. Congressional districts, states)
E. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their political activities.
• Spatial pattern of political units in the United States
• Geographic factors that affect decisions made in the United States (e.g., territorial expansion, boundary delineation, allocation of natural resources)
• Political and public policies that affect geography (e.g., open space, urban development)
E. Analyze the significance of human activity in shaping places and regions by their political characteristics:
• Spatial pattern of political units in the global system
• Role of new political alliances on the international level (e.g., multinational organizations, worker’s unions, United Nations’ organizations)
• Impact of political conflicts (e.g., secession, fragmentation, insurgencies, invasions)

The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions must include local-to-global progression (scales) for all students at all grade levels for the standard statements and their descriptors. Basic concepts found in lower grade levels must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels. Portions of Human Characteristics of Places and Regions relate directly to the Civics and Government and Economics Standards.


7.4 The Interactions Between People and Places
7.4.3. GRADE 3 7.4.6. GRADE 6 7.4.9. GRADE 9 7.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Identify the impacts of physical systems on people.
• How people depend on, adjust to and modify physical systems on a local scale (e.g., soil quality and agriculture, snowfall and daily activities, drought and water use)
• Ways in which natural hazards affect human activities (e.g., storms, lightning, flooding)
A. Describe the impacts of physical systems on people.
• How people depend on, adjust to and modify physical systems on regional scale (e.g., coastal industries, development of coastal communities, flood control)
• Ways in which people adjust to life in hazard-prone areas (e.g., California and earthquakes, Florida and hurricanes, Oklahoma and tornadoes)
A. Explain the impacts of physical systems on people.
• How people depend on, adjust to and modify physical systems on National scale (e.g., soil conservation programs, projects of The Corps of Engineers)
• Ways in which people in hazard-prone areas adjust their ways of life (e.g., building design in earthquake areas, dry-farming techniques in drought-prone areas)
A. Analyze the impacts of physical systems on people.
• How people depend on, adjust to and modify physical systems on international scales (e.g., resource development of oil, coal, timber)
• Ways in which people modify ways of life to accommodate different environmental contexts (e.g., building in permafrost areas; the role of air-conditioning in the United States South and Southwest; the development of enclosed spaces for movement in cold climates)
B. Identify the impacts of people on physical systems.
• Effects of energy use (e.g., water quality, air quality, change in natural vegetation)
• Ways humans change local ecosystems (e.g., land use, dams and canals on waterways, reduction and extinction of species)
B. Describe the impacts of people on physical systems.
• Changing spatial patterns on Earth’s surface that result from human activities (e.g., lake desiccation as in the Aral Sea, construction of dikes, dams and storm surge barriers in the Netherlands, designation of State parks and forests throughout Pennsylvania)
• Ways humans adjust their impact on the habitat (e.g., Endangered Species Act, replacement of wetlands, logging and replanting trees)
B. Explain the impacts of people on physical systems.
• Forces by which people modify the physical environment (e.g., increasing population; new agricultural techniques; industrial processes and pollution)
• Spatial effects of activities in one region on another region (e.g., scrubbers on power plants to clean air, transportation systems such as Trans-Siberian Railroad, potential effects of fallout from nuclear power plant accidents)
B. Analyze the impacts of people on physical systems.
• How people develop international agreements to manage environmental issues (e.g., Rio de Janeiro Agreement, the Law of the Sea, the Antarctica Treaty)
• How local and regional processes can have global effects (e.g., wind and hydroelectric power transmitted across regions, water use and irrigation for crop production)
• Sustainability of resources (e.g., reforestation, conservation)
• World patterns of resource distribution and utilization (e.g., oil trade, regional electrical grids)
The Interactions Between People and Places must include local to global scales for all students at all grade levels for the standard statements and their descriptors. Basic concepts found in lower grade levels must be developed more fully throughout higher grade levels.

XXI. GLOSSARY

Absolute location:The position of a point on Earth’s surface that can usually be described by latitude and longitude. Another example of absolute location would be the use of a nine digit zip code and street address.
Acculturation:The process of adopting the traits of a cultural group.
Assimilation:The acceptance, by one culture group or community, of cultural traits associated with another.
Atmosphere:The body of gases, aerosols and other materials that surrounds Earth and is held close by gravity. It extends about twelve miles from Earth’s surface.
Barriers to migration:Factors that keep people from moving (e.g., lack of information about potential destination, lack of funds to cover the costs of moving, regulations that control migration).
Basic map elements:Materials included on geographic representations. These include title, directions, date of map, mapmaker’s name, a legend and scale. Often a geographic grid, the source of information and sometimes an index of places on the map are also included.
Biomes:A community of living organisms of a single major ecological region.
Biosphere:The domain of Earth that includes all plant and animal life forms.
Boundary:The limit or extent within which a system exists or functions, including a social group, a state or physical features.
Capital:One of the factors of production of goods and services. Capital can be goods (e.g., factories and equipment, highways, information, communications systems) and/or funds (investment and working capital) used to increase production and wealth. Other factors are land, water and labor.
Cardinal directions:The four main points of the compass; north, east, south and west.
Carrying capacity:Maximum population that an area can support over time depending upon environmental conditions, human interventions and interdependence.
Central Place Theory:The conceptual framework that explains the size, spacing and distribution of settlements and their economic relationships with their market areas.
Climate:Long-term patterns and trends in weather elements and atmospheric conditions.
Climate graph (climagraph):A diagram that combines average monthly temperature and precipitation data for a particular place.
Comparative advantage:The specialization by a given area in the production of one or a few commodities for which it has a particular edge (e.g., labor quality, resources availability, production costs).
Concentric Zone Model:A framework that proposes that urban functions and the associated land uses are arranged in rings that grow outward from a central area. One of three models developed to explain how cities and metropolitan areas are arranged internally. The other models are the Sector and the Multiple Nuclei.
Country:Unit of political space often referred to as a state or nation-state.
Culture:Learned behavior of people, which includes their belief systems and languages, their social relationships, their institutions and organizations and their material goods—food, clothing, buildings, tools and machines.
Cultural diffusion:The spread of cultural elements from one culture to another.
Cultural landscape:The human imprint on the physical environment; the humanized image as created or modified by people.
Demographic change:Variation in population size, composition, rates of growth, density, fertility and mortality rates and patterns of migration.
Density:The population or number of objects per unit area (e.g., per square kilometer or mile).
Decertification:The spread of desert conditions in arid and semiarid regions resulting from a combination of climatic changes and increasing human pressures (e.g., overgrazing, removal of vegetation, cultivation of marginal land).
Desiccation:See lake desiccation.
Developed country:An area of the world that is technologically advanced, highly urbanized and wealthy and has generally evolved through both economic and demographic transitions.
Diffusion:The spread of people, ideas, technology and products among places.
Distance decay:The tendency for the acceptance of new ideas and technologies to decrease with distance from their source.
Earthquake:Vibrations and shock waves caused by the sudden movement of tectonic plates along fracture zones, called faults, in Earth’s crust.
Ecosystem (ecological system):A network formed by the interaction of all living organisms (plants, animals, humans) with each other and with the physical and chemical factors of the environment in which they live.
Elevation:Height of a point or place above sea level (e.g., Mount Everest has an elevation of 29,028 feet above sea level).
Enclaves:A country, territorial or culturally distinct unit enclosed within a larger country or community.
Environment:Everything in and on Earth’s surface and its atmosphere within which organisms, communities or objects exist.
Equilibrium:The point in the operation of a system when driving forces and resisting forces are in balance.
Equinoxes:The two days during the calendar year (usually September 23 and March 21) when all latitudes have twelve hours of both daylight and darkness and the sun is directly overhead at the Equator.
Erosional processes:The removal and transportation of weathered (loose) rock material by water, wind, waves and glaciers. Deposition is the end result of erosion and occurs when transported material is dropped.
Fall line:A linear connection joining the waterfalls on numerous rivers and streams that marks the point where each river and stream descends from the upland and the limit of the navigability of each river (e.g., the narrow boundary zone between the coastal plain and the Piedmont in the Eastern United States where there are falls and rapids on streams and rivers as they drop from the more resistant rocks of the Piedmont onto the softer rocks of the coastal plain).
Fertility rate:A measure of the number of children a woman will have during her child-bearing years (15 to 49 years of age) in comparison to the adult female population in a particular place.
Formal region:An area defined by the uniformity or homogeneity of certain characteristics (e.g., precipitation, landforms, subculture).
Functional region:An area united by a strong core (node) or center of human population and activity (e.g., banking linkages between large cities and smaller cities and towns).
Geographic Information System: A geographic database that contains information about the distribution of physical and human characteristics of places. In order to test hypotheses, maps of one characteristic or a combination can be produced from the database to analyze the data relationships.
Geographic scale:The size of Earth’s surface being studied. Study areas vary from local to regional to global. Scale also refers to the relationship between the size of space on a map and the size of that space on Earth’s surface. Maps are referred to as large scale if they are of smaller (local) areas and small scale if they represent much or all of the Earth’s surface. Map scale is expressed as a bar graph or representative fraction.
Global warming:The theory that Earth’s atmosphere is gradually warming due to the buildup of certain gases, including carbon dioxide and methane, which are released by human activities. The increased levels of these gases cause added heat energy from Earth to be absorbed by the atmosphere instead of being lost in space.
Globe:A scale model of Earth that correctly represents area, relative size and shape of physical features, distance between points and true compass direction.
Grid:A pattern of lines on a chart or map, such as those representing latitude and longitude, which helps determine absolute location and assists in the analysis of distribution patterns.
Human features:Tangible and intangible ideas associated with the culture, society and economy of places or areas. These include the spatial arrangement of land uses including transportation, the design of buildings and the nature and timing of activities that people conduct in these spaces.
Hydroelectric power:Electrical energy generated by the force of falling water which rotates turbines housed in power plants in dams on rivers.
Hydrosphere:The water realm of Earth which includes water contained in the oceans, lakes, rivers, ground, glaciers and water vapor in the atmosphere.
Infant mortality rate:The annual number of deaths among infants under 1 year of age for every 1,000 live births. It usually provides an indication of health care levels. The United States, for example, has a 1994 rate of 8.3 infant deaths per 1,000 live births while Angola has a rate of 137 infant deaths per 1,000 births.
Interdependence:Ideas, goods and services in one area affect decisions and events in other areas reducing self-sufficiency.
Intermediate directions:The points of the compass that fall between north and east, north and west, south and east, south and west (e.g., NE, NW, SE, SW).
Intervening opportunity:An alternate area that is a source of a product or service or a destination in the case of migration.
Lake desiccation:The reduction in water level (drying out) of an inland water body.
Landform:The shape, form or nature of a specific physical feature of Earth’s surface (e.g., plain, hill, plateau, mountain).
Land use:The range of uses of Earth’s surface made by humans. Uses are classified as urban, rural, agricultural, forested, etc. with more specific sub-classifications useful for specific purposes (e.g., low-density residential, light industrial, nursery crops).
Life expectancy:The average number of remaining years a person can expect to live under current mortality levels in a society. Life expectancy at birth is the most common use of this measure.
Lithosphere:The uppermost portion of the solid Earth including soil, land and geologic formations.
Location:The position of a point on Earth’s surface expressed by means of a grid (absolute) or in relation (relative) to the position of other places.
Map:A graphic representation of a portion of Earth that is usually drawn to scale on a flat surface.
Materials:Raw or processed substances that are used in manufacturing (secondary economic activities). Most substances used in factories are already manufactured to some degree and come from other factories rather than from sources of raw materials.
Megalopolis:The intermingling of two or more large metropolitan areas into a continuous or almost continuous built-up urban complex; sometimes referred to as a conurbation.
Mental map:A geographic representation which conveys the cognitive image a person has of an area, including knowledge of features and spatial relationships as well as the individual’s perceptions and attitudes regarding the place; also known as a cognitive map.
Metropolitan area:The Federal Office of Management and Budget’s designation for the functional area surrounding and including a central city; has a minimum population of 50,000; is contained in the same county as the central city; and includes adjacent counties having at least 15% of their residents working in the central city’s county.
Migration:The act or process of people moving from one place to another with the intent of staying at the destination permanently or for a relatively long period of time.
Multinational organizations:An association of nations aligned around a common economic or political cause (e.g., the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Organization of American States).
Multiple Nuclei Model:A representation of urban structure based on the idea that the functional areas (land use) of cities develop around various points rather than just one in the Central Business District.
Municipality:A political unit incorporated for local self-government (e.g., Pennsylvania’s boroughs, townships).
NAFTA:North American Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA is an accord to establish clear and mutually advantageous rules governing commerce among Canada, Mexico and the United States.
NATO:North Atlantic Treaty Organization. An international transatlantic partnership consisting of various European states, the United States and Canada, which was designed through cooperation, consultation and collective defense to maintain peace and promote stability throughout Europe.
Nation:A cultural concept for a group of people bound together by a strong sense of shared values and cultural characteristics including language, religion and common history.
Natural hazard:An event in the physical environment, such as a hurricane or earthquake, that is destructive to human life and property.
Natural resource:An element of the physical environment that people value and use to meet a need for fuel, food, industrial product or something else of value.
Nonrenewable resource:A finite element that cannot be replaced once it is used (e.g., petroleum, minerals).
Ocean currents:The regular and consistent horizontal flow of water in the oceans, usually in response to persistent patterns of circulation in the atmosphere.
OAS:Organization of American States. An international governmental organization formed by the nation-states of North America and South America for security and the protection of mutual interests.
OPEC:The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel of thirteen nations designed to promote collective pricing of petroleum, unified marketing policies and regulation of petroleum extraction.
Perceptual region:Ideas that people have about the character of areas based on impressions from a variety of sources of information including other individuals and media. Mental maps can be used to access these ideas to find out what people think about particular areas.
Physical feature:An aspect of a place or area that derives from the physical environment.
Physical process:A course or method of operation that produces, maintains or alters Earth’s physical system (e.g., glacial eroding, depositing landforms).
Place:An area with distinctive human and physical characteristics; these characteristics give it meaning and character and distinguish it from other areas.
Plate tectonics:The theory that Earth’s surface is composed of rigid slabs or plates (see tectonic plates). The divergence, convergence and slipping side-by-side of the different plates is responsible for present-day configurations of continents, ocean basins and major mountain ranges and valley systems.
Pollution:The direct or indirect process resulting from human action by which any part of the environment is made potentially or actually unhealthy, unsafe or hazardous to the welfare of the organisms which live in it.
Population density:The number of individuals occupying an area derived from dividing the number of people by the area they occupy (e.g., 2,000 people divided by ten square miles = 200 people per square mile).
Population pyramid:A bar graph showing the distribution by gender and age of a country’s population.
Primary economic activity:The production of naturally existing or culturally improved resources (i.e., agriculture, ranching, forestry, fishing, extraction of minerals and ores).
Pull factors:In migration theory, the social, political, economic and environmental attractions of new areas that draw people away from their previous location.
Push factors:In migration theory, the social, political, economic and environmental forces that drive people from their previous location.
Region:An area with one or more common characteristics or features that give it a measure of consistency and make it different from surrounding areas.
Relative location:The site of a place or region in relation to other places or regions (e.g., northwest, downstream).
Renewable resource:A substance that can be regenerated if used carefully (e.g., fish, timber).
Resource:An aspect of the physical environment that people value and use to meet a need for fuel, food, industrial product or something else of value.
Satellite image:A representation produced by a variety of sensors (e.g., radar, microwave detectors, scanners) that measure and record electromagnetic radiation. The collected data are turned into digital form for transmission to ground receiving stations. The data can be reconverted into imagery in a form resembling a photograph.
Scale:On maps the relationship or ratio between a linear measurement on a map and the corresponding distance on Earth’s surface. For example, the scale 1:1,000,000 means one unit (inch or centimeter) on the map represents 1,000,000 of the same units on Earth’s surface. Also refers to the size of places or regions being studied.
Sector Model:A theory of urban structure that recognizes the impact of transportation on land prices within the city and the resulting tendency for functional areas to be organized into sectors.
Secondary economic activity:Processing of raw and manufactured materials into products with added value.
Settlement pattern:The spatial distribution and arrangement of human habitations (e.g., rural, urban).
Site:The specific location where something may be found including its physical setting (e.g., on a floodplain).
Situation:The general location of something in relation to other places or features of a larger region (e.g., in the center of a group of cities).
Soil:Unconsolidated material found at the surface of Earth, which is divided into layers (or horizons) characterized by the accumulation or loss of organic and inorganic compounds. Loam types and depths vary greatly over Earth’s surface and are very much influenced by climate, organisms, rock type, local relief, time and human activity.
Spatial:Pertains to space on Earth’s surface.
Spatial distribution:The distribution of physical and human elements on Earth’s surface.
Spatial organization:The arrangement on Earth’s surface of physical and human elements.
Suburbanization:The shift in population from living in higher density urban areas to lower density developments on the edge of cities.
System:A collection of entities that are linked and interrelated (e.g., the hydrologic cycle, cities, transportation modes).
Technology:Application of knowledge to meet the goals, goods and services needed and desired by people.
Tectonic plates:Sections of Earth’s rigid crust that move as distinct units on a plastic-like ledge (mantle) on which they rest. As many as twenty different plates have been identified, but only seven are considered to be major (e.g., Eurasian Plate, South American Plate).
Thematic map:A geographic representation of a specific spatial distribution, theme or topic (e.g., population density, cattle production, climates of the world).
Time zone:A division of Earth, usually 15 degrees longitude, within which the time at the central meridian of the division represents the whole division.
Topography:The shape of Earth’s surface.
Water cycle:The continuous circulation of water from the oceans, through the air, to the land and back to the sea. Water evaporates from oceans, lakes, rivers and the land surfaces and transpires from vegetation. It condenses into clouds in the atmosphere that may result in precipitation returning water to the land. Water then seeps into the soil or flows out to sea completing the circulation. Also known as Hydrologic Cycle.



Academic Standards for History



XXII. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction… XXIII.
THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS
Historical Analysis and Skills Development…8.1.
 A. Chronological Thinking
 B. Historical Comprehension
 C. Historical Interpretation
 D. Historical Research
Pennsylvania History…8.2.
 A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups
 B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places
 C. Influences of Continuity and Change
 D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups
United States History…8.3.
 A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups
 B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places
 C. Influences of Continuity and Change
 D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups
World History…8.4.
 A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups
 B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places
 C. Influences of Continuity and Change
 D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups
Glossary… XXIV.



XXIII. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for History that describe what students should know and be able to do in four areas:

 • 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development

 • 8.2. Pennsylvania History

 • 8.3. United States History

 • 8.4. World History

 The History Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth). They reflect an understanding of chronological events and the application of historical thinking skills in viewing the human record. These academic standards provide an organizing content for schools.

 The Academic Standards for History are grounded in the Public School Code of 1949 which directs ‘‘... study in the history and government of that portion of America which has become the United States of America, and of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania . . .’’. Chapter 4—Academic Standards and Assessment in §  4.21 (relating to elementary education; primary and intermediate levels) reinforces the School Code by indicating that the history of the United States and the history of the Commonwealth must be taught once by the end of elementary school. In addition, §  4.22 (relating to middle level education) indicates that planned instruction in the history and cultures of the United States, the Commonwealth and world shall be provided. Chapter 4 also states that planned instruction shall be provided in the history and cultures of the United States, the Commonwealth and world in §  4.23 (relating to high school education).

 To support the intent of the Public School Code and Chapter 4, this document creates four standard categories. The four standard categories were designed to meld historical thinking (8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development) with historical understanding (8.2. Pennsylvania History, 8.3. United States History, and 8.4. World History) to describe what students should know and be able to do.

 Standard category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skill Development provides the basis for learning the content within the other three standard categories. The intent of the history standards is to instill in each student an ability to comprehend chronology, develop historical comprehension, evaluate historical interpretation and to understand historical research. One should not view these standards as a list of facts to recall, rather as stated in the opening phrase to the Pennsylvania, United States and World standard categories, ‘‘Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze the interaction of cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations.’’

 These standards provide a history framework to permit every school and teacher to create planned instruction. The content within this document is general and does not represent a course or even a portion thereof. Every school is encouraged to move beyond these standards. These standards are merely a starting point for the study of history. Planned instruction to meet these standards is required; however, the methodology, resources and time are not recommended nor implied.

 History is a discipline that interprets and analyzes the past. It is a narrative—a story. In order to tell the story it is not sufficient to simply recall facts; it is also necessary to understand the context of the time and place and to apply historical thinking skills. It is with this concept established, that the content delineated in Pennsylvania, United States and World histories should be approached. Having established the need to move beyond recall, it is the intent of these standards to give students throughout Pennsylvania a common cultural literacy.

 Pennsylvania, United States, and World History standard categories use the same four standard statements to guide teachers in developing planned instruction. The four standard statements are: (A) Political and Cultural Contributions of Individuals and Groups; (B) Primary Documents, Material Artifacts and Historical Places; (C) How Continuity and Change Has Influenced History; (D) Conflict and Cooperation Among Social Groups and Organizations. The chart, Four Standard Statements within the Academic Standards for History: An Overview outlines standard statements and descriptors.

 Although the standard statements are similar across grade levels and standard categories, the degree of comprehension, changes in content and shifts in chronology differ. Although different grade levels outline different chronological periods within the standards, it is intended that the specified chronological eras be linked to past learnings and that all eras be linked to the present. Linking to past learnings and the present is important, but so is addressing the standard statements in more depth. Therefore the following chronological time periods for the standard categories are established for the standard categories.

   Pennsylvania and
  United States History
     World History
Grades 1-3 Beginnings to Present Grades 1-3 Beginnings to Present
Grades 4-6 Beginnings to 1824 Grades 4-6 Beginnings to Present
Grades 7-9 1787 to 1914 Grades 7-9 Beginnings to 1500
Grades 10-12 1890 to Present Grades 10-12 1450 to Present

 Districts are encouraged to delineate each chronological period into less expansive historical eras within their planned instruction. The content listed in grade levels 1-3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 should be age appropriate for the students in those grade levels and the reader should interpret each standard descriptor in that manner.

 The Academic Standards for History consist of four standard categories (designated as 8.1., 8.2., 8.3., and 8.4.). Each category has four standard statements (designated A, B, C, and D). Most standard statements have bulleted items known as standard descriptors. The standard descriptors are items within the document to illustrate and enhance the standard statement. The categories, statements and descriptors are the regulations. The descriptors many times are followed by an ‘‘e.g..’’ The ‘‘e.g.’s’’ are examples to clarify what type of information could be taught. These are suggestions and the choice of specific content is a local decision as is the method of instruction.

 History along with civics and government, economics and geography are identified as social studies in Chapter 4. This identification is consistent with citizenship education in Chapters 49 and 354 (relating to certification of professional personnel; and preparation of professional educators). Based on these regulations, social studies/citizenship programs should include the four sets of standards as an entity in developing a scope and sequence for curriculum and planned instruction.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

Four Standard Statements within the Academic Standards for History: An Overview
Political and Cultural Contributions of Individuals and Groups
 • Inhabitants (cultures, subcultures, groups)
 • Political Leaders (monarchs, governors, elected officials)
 • Military Leaders (generals, noted military figures)
 • Cultural and Commercial Leaders (entrepreneurs, corporate executives, artists, entertainers, writers)
 • Innovators and Reformers (inventors, philosophers, religious leaders, social change agents, improvers of technology)
How Continuity and Change Have Influenced
History
 • Belief Systems and Religions (ideas, beliefs, values)
 • Commerce and Industry (jobs, trade, environmental change, labor systems, entertainment)
 • Innovations (ideas, technology, methods and processes)
 • Politics (political party systems, administration of government, rules, regulations and laws, political and judicial interpretation)
 • Transportation (methods of moving people and goods over time, transportation routes, circulation systems)
 • Settlement Patterns and Expansion (population density and diversity, settlement types, land use, colonization)
 • Social Organization (social structure, identification of social groups, families, groups and communities, education, school population, suffrage, civil rights)
 • Women’s Movement (changing roles of women, social and political movements, breaking barriers, role models)
Primary Documents, Material Artifacts and
Historical Places
 • Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (government documents, letters and diaries, fiction and non-fiction works, newspapers and other media, folklore)
 • Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (historic sites and places, museums and museum collections, official and popular cultural symbols, material culture)
Conflict and Cooperation Among Social Groups and Organizations
 • Domestic Instability (political unrest, natural and man-made disasters, genocide)
 • Ethnic and Racial Relations (racism and xenophobia, ethnic and religious prejudices, collective and individual actions)
 • Immigration and Migration (causes of population shifts, xenophobia, intercultural activity)
 • Labor Relations (strikes and collective bargaining, working conditions over time, labor/management identity)
 • Military Conflicts (causes, conduct and impact of military conflicts, wars and rebellions)
Each standard statement outlines its respective standard descriptors. Each standard descriptor suggests content that may be addressed. These are not all encompassing and local planned instruction is not limited to these examples.


8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development
8.1.3. GRADE 38.1.6. GRADE 6 8.1.9. GRADE 98.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Understand chronological thinking and distinguish between past, present and future time.
• Calendar time
• Time lines
• Continuity and change
• Events (time and place)
A. Understand chronological thinking and distinguish between past, present and future time.
• Calendar time
• Time lines
• People and events in time
• Patterns of continuity and change
• Sequential order
• Context for events
A. Analyze chronological thinking.
• Difference between past, present and future
• Sequential order of historical narrative
• Data presented in time lines
• Continuity and change
• Context for events
A. Evaluate chronological thinking.
• Sequential order of historical narrative
• Continuity and change
• Context for events knowledge and skills needed to . . .
B. Develop an understanding of historical sources.
• Data in historical maps
• Visual data from maps and tables
• Mathematical data from graphs and tables
• Author or historical source
B. Explain and analyze historical sources.
• Literal meaning of a historical passage
• Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs and tables
• Author or historical source
• Multiple historical perspectives
• Visual evidence
• Mathematical data from graphs and tables
B. Analyze and interpret historical sources.
• Literal meaning of historical passages
• Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs, and tables
• Different historical perspectives
• Data from maps, graphs and tables
• Visual data presented in historical evidence
B. Synthesize and evaluate historical sources.
• Literal meaning of historical passages
• Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs and tables
• Different historical perspectives
• Data presented in maps, graphs and tables
• Visual data presented in historical evidence


8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development
8.1.3. GRADE 38.1.6. GRADE 6 8.1.9. GRADE 98.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
C. Understand fundamentals of historical interpretation.
• Difference between fact and opinion
• The existence of multiple points of view
• Illustrations in historical stories
• Causes and results
C. Explain the fundamentals of historical interpretation.
• Difference between fact and opinion
• Multiple points of view
• Illustrations in historical stories
• Causes and results
• Author or source of historical narratives
C. Analyze the fundamentals of historical interpretation.
• Fact versus opinion
• Reasons/causes for multiple points of view
• Illustrations in historical documents and stories
• Causes and results
• Author or source used to develop historical narratives
• Central issue
C. Evaluate historical interpretation of events.
• Impact of opinions on the perception of facts
• Issues and problems in the past
• Multiple points of view
• Illustrations in historical stories and sources
• Connections between causes and results
• Author or source of historical narratives’ points of view
• Central issue
D. Understand historical research.
• Event (time and place)
• Facts, folklore and fiction
• Formation of historical question
• Primary sources
• Secondary sources
• Conclusions (e.g., storytelling, role playing, diorama)
D. Describe and explain historical research.
• Historical events (time and place)
• Facts, folklore and fiction
• Historical questions
• Primary sources
• Secondary sources
• Conclusions (e.g., simulations, group projects, skits and plays)
D. Analyze and interpret historical research.
• Historical event (time and place)
• Facts, folklore and fiction
• Historical questions
• Primary sources
• Secondary sources
• Conclusions (e.g., History Day projects, mock trials, speeches)
• Credibility of evidence
D. Synthesize historical research.
• Historical event (time and place)
• Facts, folklore and fiction
• Historical questions
• Primary sources
• Secondary sources
• Conclusions (e.g., Senior Projects, research papers, debates)
• Credibility of evidence
Pennsylvania History, 8.3. United States History and 8.4. World History.

Historical Analysis and Skill Development are learned through and applied to the standards statements and their descriptors for 8.2 Pennsylvania History, 8.3 United States History and 8.4 World History


8.2. Pennsylvania History
8.2.3. GRADE 38.2.6. GRADE 68.2.9. GRADE 9 8.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
A. Understand the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history.
• William Penn
• Benjamin Franklin
• Pennsylvanians impacting American Culture (e.g., John Chapman, Richard Allen, Betsy Ross, Mary Ludwig Hayes, Rachel Carson, Elizabeth Jane Cochran, Marian Anderson)
• Local historical figures in municipalities and counties.
A. Identify and explain the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Inhabitants (e.g., Native Americans, Europeans, Africans)
• Military Leaders (e.g., Anthony Wayne, Oliver H. Perry, John Muhlenberg)
• Political Leaders (e.g., William Penn, Hannah Penn, Benjamin Franklin)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Robert Morris, John Bartram, Albert Gallatin)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Society of Friends, Richard Allen, Sybilla Masters)
A. Analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
• Political Leaders (e.g., James Buchanan, Thaddeus Stevens, Andrew Curtin)
• Military Leaders (e.g., George Meade, George McClellan, John Hartranft)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., John J. Audubon, Rebecca Webb Lukens, Stephen Foster)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., George Westinghouse, Edwin Drake, Lucretia Mott)
A. Evaluate the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from 1890 to Present.
• Political Leaders (e.g., Gifford Pinchot, Genevieve Blatt, K. Leroy Irvis)
• Military Leaders (e.g., Tasker H. Bliss, Henry ‘‘Hap’’ Arnold, George C. Marshall)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Milton Hershey, Marian Anderson, Fred Rogers)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Frank Conrad, Rachel Carson, Joseph Rothrock)
B. Identify and describe primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Penn’s Charter, Pennsylvania ‘‘Declaration of Rights’)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Local historical sites, museum collections, Independence Hall)
• Liberty Bell
• Official Commonwealth symbols (e.g., tree, bird, dog, insect)
B. Identify and explain primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Charter of Privileges, The Gradual Abolition of Slavery Act of 1780, Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Conestoga Wagon, Pennsylvania rifle, Brig Niagara)
B. Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Pennsylvania Constitutions of 1838 and 1874, The ‘‘Gettysburg Address,’’ The Pittsburgh Survey)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Gettysburg, Eckley Miners’ Village, Drake’s Well)
B. Identify and evaluate primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from 1890 to Present.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Constitution of 1968, Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, Pennsylvania historical markers)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., 28th Division Shrine, Fallingwater, Levittown, Allegheny Ridge heritage corridor)
C. Identify and describe how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Native Americans, early settlers, contemporary religions)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., jobs, trade, environmental change)
• Innovations (e.g., technology, ideas, processes)
• Politics (e.g., rules, regulations, laws)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., farms, towns, rural communities, cities)
• Social Organization (e.g., relationships of individuals, families, groups, communities; ability to be educated)
• Transportation (e.g., methods of moving people and goods over time)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., changes in roles and rights over time)
C. Identify and explain how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from the Beginnings to 1824.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Native Americans, Quakers)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., iron production, sailing, fur trade)
• Innovations (e.g., steam boat, Conestoga Wagon)
• Politics (e.g., The Mason-Dixon Line, Pennsylvania’s acquisition and detachment of the ‘‘lower three counties,’’ movements of State capital)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., native settlements, Westward expansion, development of towns)
• Social Organization (e.g., trade and development of cash economy, African Methodist Episcopal Church founded, schools in the colony)
C. Identify and analyze how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Ephrata Cloister, Harmonists, Amish, immigrant influences)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., mining coal, producing iron, harvesting timber)
• Innovations (e.g., John Roebling’s steel cable, steel-tipped plow, improved techniques for making iron, steel and glass)
• Politics (e.g., Fugitive Slave Act reaction, canal system legislation, The Free School Act of 1834)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., farms and growth of urban centers)
C. Identify and evaluate how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from the 1890s to Present.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., work of defense industries, rise and decline of the steel industry, increase of service industries)
• Innovations (e.g., polio vaccine, air pollution examined, nuclear power plants)
• Politics (e.g., Great Depression special legislative session, creation of the state income tax)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., growth and decline of cities, coal towns, Pittsburgh Renaissance)


8.2. Pennsylvania History
8.2.3. GRADE 38.2.6. GRADE 68.2.9. GRADE 9 8.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
• Transportation (e.g., trade routes, turnpikes, post roads)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., voting qualifications, role models)
• Social Organization (e.g., the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876, prohibition of racial discrimination in schools)
• Transportation (e.g., canals, National Road, Thompson’s Horseshoe Curve)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., work of the Equal Rights League of Pennsylvania)
• Social Organization (e.g., creation of the State Soil Conservation Commission, First Amendment challenges to education, social services)
• Transportation (e.g., Pennsylvania Turnpike, Interstate highways, international airports)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., League of Women Voters, Commission for Women)


8.2. Pennsylvania History
8.2.3. GRADE 38.2.6. GRADE 68.2.9. GRADE 9 8.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
D. Identify and describe conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., political, economic and geographic impact on daily activities)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., treatment of various ethnic and racial groups in history)
• Labor Relations (e.g., working conditions, over time)
• Immigration (e.g., diverse groups inhabiting the state)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., struggle for control)
D. Identify and explain conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., religious diversity, toleration and conflicts, incursion of the Iroquois)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., Penn’s Treaties with Indians, the Underground Railroad, the abolition of slavery)
• Labor Relations (e.g., indentured servants, working conditions)
• Immigration (e.g., Germans, Irish)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., Dutch, Swedish and English struggle for control of land, Wyoming Massacre, The Whiskey Rebellion)
D. Identify and analyze conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., impact of war, 1889 Johnstown Flood)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., Christiana riots, disenfranchisement and restoration of suffrage for African-Americans, Carlisle Indian School)
• Labor Relations (e.g., National Trade Union, The ‘‘Molly Maguires,’’ Homestead steel strike)
• Immigration (e.g., Anti-Irish Riot of 1844, new waves of immigrants)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., Battle of Lake Erie, the Mexican War, the Civil War)
D. Identify and evaluate conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from 1890 to Present.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., The Great Depression, Three-Mile Island nuclear accident, floods of 1936, 1972 and 1977)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., segregation, desegregation, racial profiling)
• Labor Relations (e.g., strikes, work stoppages, collective bargaining)
• Immigration (e.g., increased immigration from Europe, migration of African-Americans from the South, influx of Hispanic and Asian peoples)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., World War I, World War II, Persian Gulf War)
Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors. Suggested chronology for grade levels 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 focus on a particular century; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior and later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.


8.3. United States History
8.3.3. GRADE 38.3.6. GRADE 68.3.9. GRADE 9 8.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
A. Identify contributions of individuals and groups to United States history.
• George Washington
• Thomas Jefferson
• Abraham Lincoln
• Theodore Roosevelt
• Franklin D. Roosevelt
• Individuals who are role models (e.g., Abigail Adams, Sacajawea, Frederick Douglass, Clara Barton, Jackie Robinson, Rosa Parks, Archbishop Patrick Flores, Jamie Escalante, Sally Ride, Tiger Woods, Cal Ripken, Jr., Sammy Sosa)
A. Identify and explain the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Native Americans, Africans and Europeans
• Political Leaders (e.g., John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall)
• Military Leaders (e.g. George Washington, Meriwether Lewis, Henry Knox)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Paul Revere, Phyllis Wheatley, John Rolfe)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Ann Hutchinson, Roger Williams, Junipero Serra)
A. Identify and analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from 1787 to 1914.
• Political Leaders (e.g., Daniel Webster, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson)
• Military Leaders (e.g., Andrew Jackson, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Jane Addams, Jacob Riis, Booker T. Washington)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Alexander G. Bell, Frances E. Willard, Frederick Douglass)
A. Identify and evaluate the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from 1890 to Present.
• Political Leaders (e.g., Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt)
• Military Leaders (e.g., John Pershing, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight D. Eisenhower)
• Cultural and Commerical Leaders (e.g., Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, Langston Hughes, Alan Greenspan)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Wilbur and Orville Wright, John L. Lewis, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King)
B. Identify and describe primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history.
• Documents (e.g., Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights)
• Writings and Communications (e.g., Pledge of Allegiance, famous quotations and sayings)
• Historic Places (e.g., The White House, Mount Rushmore, Statue of Liberty)
• The Flag of the United States
B. Identify and explain primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Documents (e.g., Mayflower Compact, Northwest Ordinance, Washington’s Farewell Address)
• 18th Century Writings and Communications (e.g., Paine’s Common Sense; Franklin’s ‘‘Join, or Die,’’ Henry’s ‘‘Give me liberty or give me death’’)
• Historic Places (e.g., Cahokia Mounds, Spanish Missions, Jamestown)
B. Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from 1787 to 1914.
• Documents (e.g., Fugitive Slave Law, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Emancipation Proclamation)
• 19th Century Writings and Communications (e.g., Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Brown’s ‘‘Washed by Blood,’’ Key’s Star Spangled Banner)
• Historic Places (e.g., The Alamo, Underground Railroad sites, Erie Canal)
B. Identify and evaluate primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from 1890 to Present.
• Documents (e.g., Treaty of Versailles, North Atlantic Treaty, Neutrality Acts)
• 20th Century Writings and Communication (e.g., Coolidge’s ‘‘The Business of America is Business,’’ King’s ‘‘I Have A Dream,’’ Armstrong’s ‘‘One Small Step for Man’’)
• Historic Places (e.g., Ellis Island, Pearl Harbor, Los Alamos)


8.3. United States History
8.3.3. GRADE 38.3.6. GRADE 68.3.9. GRADE 9 8.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
C. Identify important changes in United States history (e.g., Belief Systems and Religions, Commerce and Industry, Innovations, Politics, Settlement Patterns and Expansion, Social Organization, Transportation, Women’s Movement). C. Explain how continuity and change has influenced United States history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., impact on daily life, colonial government established religions, communal sects)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., fur trade, development of cash crops)
• Innovations (e.g., cotton gin, Whitney; wooden clock, Banneker; stove, Franklin)
• Politics (e.g., Hamilton’s defense of John Peter Zenger, The Great Compromise, Marbury v. Madison)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., frontier settlements, slave plantation society, growth of cities)
• Social Organization (e.g., community structure on the frontier, cultural and language barriers)
C. Analyze how continuity and change has influenced United States history from 1787 to 1914.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., 19th century trends and movements)
• Commerce and Industry (e.g., growth of manufacturing industries, economic nationalism)
• Innovations (e.g., Brooklyn Bridge, refrigerated shipping, telephone)
• Politics (e.g., election of 1860, impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Jim Crow Laws)
• Settlement Patterns and Expansion (e.g., Manifest Destiny, successive waves of immigrants, purchase of Alaska and Hawaii)
• Social Organization (e.g., social class differences, women’s rights and antislavery movement, education reforms)
C. Evaluate how continuity and change has influenced United States history from 1890 to Present.
• Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., 20th century movements, religions of recent immigrants)
• (Commerce and Industry (e.g., corporations, conglomerates, multinational corporations)
• Innovations (e.g., The Tin Lizzie, radio, World Wide Web)
• Politics (e.g., New Deal legislation, Brown v. Topeka, isolationist/non-isola-
tionist debate)
• Settlement Patterns (e.g., suburbs, large urban centers, decline of city population)
• Social Organization (e.g., compulsory school laws, court decisions expanding individual rights, technological impact)


8.3. United States History
8.3.3. GRADE 38.3.6. GRADE 68.3.9. GRADE 9 8.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
• Transportation and Trade (e.g., methods of overland travel, water transportation, National Road)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., roles and changing status of women, Margaret Brent’s vote, soldier Deborah Sampson)
• Transportation and Trade (e.g., Pony Express, telegraph, Transcontinental Railroad)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., roles in the Civil War, medical college for women, Seneca Falls Conference)
• Transportation and Trade (e.g., expansion and decline of railroads, increased mobility, Internet)
• Women’s Movement (e.g., right to vote, women in the war effort, Women’s Peace Party)
D. Identify conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., impact on daily activities)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., treatment of minority groups in history)
• Labor Relations (e.g., working conditions over time)
• Immigration (e.g., diverse groups inhabiting the state)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., struggle for control)
D. Identify and explain conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history from Beginnings to 1824.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., Salem Witch Trials, Shays Rebellion, religious persecution)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., cooperation between and among Native Americans and European settlers, slave uprisings, ‘‘Colored’’ troops in the Revolution)
• Labor Relations (e.g., early union efforts, 10-hour day, women’s role)
• Immigration and Migration (e.g., western settlements, Louisiana Purchase, European immigration)
D. Identify and analyze conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history from 1787 to 1914.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., wartime confiscation of private property, abolitionist movement, Reconstruction)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., Cherokee Trail of Tears, slavery and the Underground Railroad, draft riots)
• Labor Relations (e.g., female and child labor, trade unionism, strike breakers)
• Immigration and Migration (e.g., Manifest Destiny, eastern and southern European immigration, Chinese Exclusion Act)
D. Identify and evaluate conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in United States history from 1890 to the Present.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., Great Depression, assassination of political and social leaders, terrorist threats)
• Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., internment camps for Japanese Americans, Montgomery Alabama Bus Boycott, land tensions with Native Americans)
• Labor Relations (e.g., rise and decline of industrial unions, free trade agreements, imports impact on domestic employment)
• Immigration and Migration (e.g., anti-immigrant attitudes, quota laws, westward and southward migration)


8.3. United States History
8.3.3. GRADE 38.3.6. GRADE 68.3.9. GRADE 9 8.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
• Military Conflicts (e.g., French and Indian War, American Revolutionary War, War of 1812)• Military Conflicts (e.g., Native American opposition to expansion and settlement, Civil War, Spanish-American War)• Military Conflicts (e.g., World War I, World War II, War on Terrorism)

Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors. Suggested chronology for grade levels 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 focus on a particular century; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior or later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.


8.4. World History
8.4.3. GRADE 38.4.6. GRADE 68.4.9. GRADE 9 8.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to . . .
A. Identify individuals and groups who have made significant political and cultural contributions to world history.
• Africa (e.g., Nefertiti, Mansa Musa, Nelson Mandela)
• Americas (e.g., Montezuma, Simon Bolivar, Fidel Castro)
• Asia (e.g., Hammurabi, Mohandas Gandhi, Benazir Bhutto)
• Europe (e.g., Julius Ceasar, Joan of Arc, Pope John Paul)
A. Identify and explain how individuals and groups made significant political and cultural contributions to world history.
• Africa (e.g., Nelson Mandela, Desmond Tutu, F. W. de Klerk, Pieter Botha, African National Congress)
• Americas (e.g., Pizarro, Atahualpa, Aztecs, Incas, Montezuma, Cortez)
• Asia (e.g., Tokugawa Ieyasu, Toyotomi clan, shogun Iemitsu, Commodore Perry, daimyo)
• Europe (e.g., Pope Leo X, John Calvin, John Wesley, Martin Luther, Ignatius of Loyola)
A. Analyze the significance of individuals and groups who made major political and cultural contributions to world history before 1500.
• Political and Military Leaders (e.g., King Ashoka, Montezuma I, Ghenghis Khan, William the Conqueror)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Mansa Musa, Yak Pac, Cheng Ho, Marco Polo)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Erastostenes, Tupac Inka Yupenqui, Johannes Gutenberg)
A. Evaluate the significance of individuals and groups who made major political and cultural contributions to world history since 1450.
• Political and Military Leaders (e.g., Askia Daud, Simon Bolivar, Napoleon Bonaparte, Mao Zedong)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Chinua Achebe, Gabriel Garcia Marquiez, Akira Kurosa, Christopher Columbus)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Nelson Mandela, Louis-Joseph Papineau, Mohandas Gandhi, Alexander Fleming)
B. Identify historic sites and material artifacts important to world history.
• Africa (e.g., Pyramids, treasures of Tutankhamen, Nefertiti’s sculpture)
• Americas (e.g., Olmec ritualistic centers, Mayan pyramids, arrowheads)
• Asia (e.g., Code of Hammurabi, Ziggurat at Ur, canals)
• Europe (e.g., ancient megaliths, Arc de Triomphe, Acropolis)
B. Identify and explain important documents, material artifacts and historic sites in world history.
• Africa (e.g., Prohibition of Marriages Act, prison on Robben Island)
• Americas (e.g., Tenochtitlan, Aztec masks)
• Asia (e.g., samurai sword, Commodore Perry’s Black Ships)
• Europe (e.g., Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses, Wittenberg Castle Church)
B. Analyze historical documents, material artifacts and historic sites important to world history before 1500.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Rosetta Stone, Aztec glyph writing, Dead Sea Scrolls, Magna Carta)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Ethiopian rock churches, Mayan pyramids, Nok terra cotta figures, megaliths at Stonehenge)
• Historic districts (e.g., Memphis and its Necropolis, Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls, Centre of Rome and the Holy See)
B. Evaluate historical documents, material artifacts and historic sites important to world history since 1450.
• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Declaration of the International Conference on Sanctions Against South Africa; Monroe Doctrine, Communist Manifesto, Luther’s Ninety-five Theses)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Robben Island, New York Trade Center, Hiroshima Ground Zero Memorial, Nazi concentration camps)
• Historic districts (e.g., Timbuktu, Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco, Taj Mahal and Gardens, Kremlin and Red Square)
C. Compare similarities and differences between earliest civilizations and life today. (e.g., Africa, Egypt; Asia, Babylonia; Americas, Olmec; Europe, Neolithic settlements). C. Identify and explain how continuity and change has affected belief systems, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organizations, transportation and women’s roles in world history.
• Africa (e.g., Apartheid)
• Americas (e.g., European conquest)
• Asia (e.g., Japanese society prior to the Meiji Restoration)
• Europe (e.g., Impact of the Great Schism and Reformation)
C. Analyze how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organization, transportation and roles of women before 1500.
• Africa
• Americas
• Asia
• Europe
C. Evaluate how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organization, transportation and roles of women since 1450.
• Africa
• Americas
• Asia
• Europe
D. Identify how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations affected world history.
• Domestic Instability (e.g., political, economic and geographic impact on normal activities)
• Labor Relations (e.g., working conditions over time)
• Racial and Ethnic Relations (e.g., treatment of various ethnic and racial groups in history)
• Immigration and migration (e.g., diverse groups inhabiting a territory)
• Military Conflicts (e.g., struggle for control)
D. Explain how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations affected world history
• Africa (e.g., imperialism)
• Americas (e.g., European diseases)
• Asia (e.g., trade routes)
• Europe (e.g., Counter reformation)
D. Analyze how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations impacted world history through 1500 in Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe
• Domestic Instability
• Ethnic and Racial Relations
• Labor Relations
• Immigration and Migration
• Military Conflicts
D. Evaluate how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations impacted world history from 1450 to Present in Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe.
• Domestic Instability
• Ethnic and Racial Relations
• Labor Relations
• Immigration and Migration
• Military Conflicts
Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors. Suggested chronology in organizing the content for grade levels 7-9 and 10-12 use the 15th century as the dividing point; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior and later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.

XXIV. GLOSSARY

Artifact:Any object made by human work or skill.
Beginnings: A demarcation of time designating studies to commence with the written historical record.
Central issue:The primary concern from which other problems or matters are derived. For example, today’s world migration flows are a central issue from which other concerns such as terrorist threats may arise.
Chronology:The science of measuring time and of dating events. Examples include BCE (before the common era) and CE (common era). Another reference to chronology is CA, around the time, circa.
Conflict:The opposition of persons or groups that gives rise to dramatic action. Such actions could include the use of force as in combat.
Culture:The skills and arts of a given people in a given period of time or a civilization.
Document:Anything written or printed used to record or prove something.
Historical evidence:Something that makes something else noticeable, obvious or evident.
Historical passage:An article or section of a longer work that has importance to the past.
Innovation:The introduction of something new; an idea, method or devise.
Interpretation:Explanation or to reply to a situation in order to make sense of it (e.g., a time period, an individual’s actions).
Memorial:An object or ceremony serving as a remembrance for a person, group, day, site or event.
Museum:A historical display in a building, room, etc. for exhibiting artistic, historical or scientific objects.
Present:A demarcation of time designating studies to the current year.
Opinion:A belief based not on certainty but on what seems to be true or probable.
Strike:A work stoppage by employees organized against the management of a business entity.
Time lines:A measure of a period during which something exists or happens; usually displayed in chronological order on a graph or linear lines.
War:A conflict in which two or more nations or two or more entities inside a nation are at odds.
Xenophobia:An intense fear or dislike of groups unknown or not within one’s experience including the group’s customs and culture.



APPENDIX D
Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities and Health, Safety and Physical Education and Family and Consumer Sciences



Source

   The provisions of this Appendix D adopted January 10, 2003, effective January 11, 2003, 33 Pa.B. 255, unless otherwise noted.

XXV. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction … XXVI.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts … 9.1.

  A. Elements and Principles in each Art Form

  B. Demonstration of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts

  C. Vocabulary within each Art Form

  D. Styles in Production, Performance and Exhibition

  E. Themes in Art Forms

  F. Historical and Cultural Production, Performance and Exhibition

  G. Function and Analysis of Rehearsals and Practice Sessions

  H. Safety Issues in the Arts

  I. Community Performances and Exhibitions

  J. Technologies in the Arts

  K. Technologies in the Humanities

 Historical and Cultural Contexts … 9.2.

  A. Context of Works in the Arts

  B. Chronology of Works in the Arts

  C. Styles and Genre in the Arts

  D. Historical and Cultural Perspectives

  E. Historical and Cultural Impact on Works in the Arts

  F. Vocabulary for Historical and Cultural Context

  G. Geographic Regions in the Arts

  H. Pennsylvania Artists

  I. Philosophical Context of Works in the Arts

  J. Historical Differences of Works in the Arts

  K. Traditions Within Works in the Arts

  L. Common Themes in Works in the Arts

 Critical Response … 9.3.

  A. Critical Processes

  B. Criteria

  C. Classifications

  D. Vocabulary for Criticism

  E. Types of Analysis

  F. Comparisons

  G. Critics in the Arts

 Aesthetic Response … 9.4.

  A. Philosophical Studies

  B. Aesthetic Interpretation

  C. Environmental Influences

  D. Artistic Choices

 Glossary … XXVII.

XXVI. INTRODUCTION


 The Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities describe what students should know and be able to do at the end of grades 3, 5, 8 and 12 in the visual and performing arts and the understanding about humanities context within the arts. The arts include dance, music, theatre and visual arts. The arts and the humanities are interconnected through the inclusion of history, criticism and aesthetics. In addition, the humanities include literature and language, philosophy, social studies and world languages. The areas encompassed in the humanities such as jurisprudence, comparative religions and ethics are included among other standards documents. The interconnected arts and humanities areas are divided into these standards categories:

 • 9.1. Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts

 • 9.2. Historical and Cultural Contexts

 • 9.3. Critical Response

 • 9.4. Aesthetic Response

 The Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities define the content for planned instruction that will result in measurable gains for all students in knowledge and skills and provide a basis of learning for continued study in the arts. The unifying themes of production, history, criticism and aesthetics are common to each area of study within the Academic Standards in the Arts and Humanities.

 • Dance Education is a kinesthetic art form that satisfies the human need to respond to life experiences through movement of the physical being.

 • Music Education is an aural art form that satisfies the human need to respond to life experiences through singing, listening and/or playing an instrument.

 • Theatre Education is an interdisciplinary art form that satisfies the human need to express thoughts and feelings through written text, dramatic interpretation and multimedia production.

 • Visual Arts Education is a spatial art form that satisfies the human need to respond to life experiences through images, structures and tactile works.

 • Humanities Education is the understanding and integration of human thought and accomplishment.

 Knowledge of the Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities incorporates carefully developed and integrated components:

 • Application of problem solving skills

 • Extensive practice in the comprehension of basic symbol systems and abstract concepts

 • Application of technical skills in practical production and performance

 • Comprehension and application of the creative process

 • Development and practice of creative thinking skills

 • Development of verbal and nonverbal communication skills

 These standards provide the targets essential for success in student learning in arts and humanities. They describe the expectations for students’ achievement and performance throughout their education in Pennsylvania schools. Utilizing these standards, school entities can develop a local school curriculum that will meet their students’ needs.

 The arts represent society’s capacity to integrate human experience with individual creativity. Comprehensive study of the arts provides an opportunity for all students to observe, reflect and participate both in the arts of their culture and the cultures of others. Sequential study in the arts and humanities provides the knowledge and the analytical skills necessary to evaluate and critique a media-saturated culture. An arts education contributes to the development of productive citizens who have gained creative and technological knowledge necessary for employment in the 21st Century.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

9.1. Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts
9.1.3. GRADE 3 9.1.5. GRADE 5 9.1.8. GRADE 8 9.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Know and use the elements and principles of each art form to create works in the arts and humanities.
• Elements
• Dance: • energy/force • space • time
• Music: • duration • intensity • pitch • timbre
• Theatre: • scenario • script/text • set design
• Visual Arts: • color • form/shape • line • space • texture • value
• Principles
• Dance: • choreography • form • genre • improvisation • style • technique
• Music: • composition • form • genre • harmony • rhythm • texture
• Theatre: • balance • collaboration • discipline • emphasis • focus • intention • movement • rhythm • style
voice
• Visual Arts: • balance • contrast • emphasis/focal point • movement/rhythm • proportion/scale • repetition
unity/harmony
B. Recognize, know, use and demonstrate a variety of appropriate arts elements and principles to produce, review and revise original works in the arts.
• Dance: • move • perform • read and notate dance • create and choreograph • improvise
• Music: • sing • play an instrument • read and notate music • compose and arrange • improvise
• Theatre: • stage productions • read and write scripts • improvise • interpret a role • design sets • direct
• Visual Arts: • paint • draw • craft • sculpt • print • design for environment, communication, multi-media
C. Recognize and use fundamental vocabulary within each of the arts forms. C. Know and use fundamental vocabulary within each of the arts forms. C. Identify and use comprehensive vocabulary within each of the arts forms. C. Integrate and apply advanced vocabulary to the arts forms.
D. Use knowledge of varied styles within each art form through a performance or exhibition of unique work. D. Describe and use knowledge of a specific style within each art form through a performance or exhibition of a unique work. D. Demonstrate knowledge of at least two styles within each art form through performance or exhibition of unique works. D. Demonstrate specific styles in combination through the production or performance of a unique work of art (e.g., a dance composition that combines jazz dance and African dance).
E. Demonstrate the ability to define objects, express emotions, illustrate an action or relate an experience through creation of works in the arts. E. Know and demonstrate how arts can communicate experiences, stories or emotions through the production of works in the arts. E. Communicate a unifying theme or point of view through the production of works in the arts. E. Delineate a unifying theme through the production of a work of art that reflects skills in media processes and techniques.
F. Identify works of others through a performance or exhibition (e.g., exhibition of student paintings based on the study of Picasso). F. Describe works of others through performance or exhibition in two art forms. F. Explain works of others within each art form through performance or exhibition. F. Analyze works of arts influenced by experiences or historical and cultural events through production, performance or exhibition.
G. Recognize the function of rehearsals and practice sessions. G. Identify the function and benefits of rehearsal and practice sessions. G. Explain the function and benefits of rehearsal and practice sessions. G. Analyze the effect of rehearsal and practice sessions.
H. Handle materials, equipment and tools safely at work and performance spaces.
• Identify materials used.
• Identify issues of cleanliness related to the arts.
• Recognize some mechanical/electrical equipment.
• Recognize differences in selected physical space/environments.
• Recognize the need to select safe props/stage equipment.
• Identify methods for storing materials in the arts.
H. Use and maintain materials, equipment and tools safely at work and performance spaces.
• Describe some materials used.
• Describe issues of cleanliness related to the arts.
• Describe types of mechanical/electrical equipment usage.
• Know how to work in selected physical space/environments.
• Identify the qualities of safe props/stage equipment.
• Describe methods for storing materials in the arts.
H. Demonstrate and maintain materials, equipment and tools safely at work and performance spaces.
• Analyze the use of materials.
• Explain issues of cleanliness related to the arts.
• Explain the use of mechanical/electrical equipment.
• Demonstrate how to work in selected physical space/environment.
• Demonstrate the selection of safe props/stage equipment.
• Demonstrate methods for storing materials in the arts.
H. Incorporate the effective and safe use of materials, equipment and tools into the production of works in the arts at work and performance spaces.
• Evaluate the use and applications of materials.
• Evaluate issues of cleanliness related to the arts.
• Evaluate the use and applications of mechanical/electrical equipment.
• Evaluate differences among selected physical space/environment.
• Evaluate the use and applications of safe props/stage equipment.
• Evaluate the use and apply safe methods for storing materials in the arts.
I. Identify arts events that take place in schools and in communities. I. Describe arts events that take place in schools and in communities. I. Know where arts events, performances and exhibitions occur and how to gain admission. I. Distinguish among a variety of regional arts events and resources and analyze methods of selection and admission.
J. Know and use traditional and contemporary technologies for producing, performing and exhibiting works in the arts or the works of others.
• Know and use traditional technologies (e.g., charcoal, pigments, clay, needle/thread, quill pens, stencils, tools for wood carving, looms, stage equipment).
• Know and use contemporary technologies (e.g., CDs/software, audio/sound equipment, polymers, clays, board-mixers, photographs, recorders).
J. Apply traditional and contemporary technologies for producing, performing and exhibiting works in the arts or the works of others.
• Experiment with traditional technologies (e.g., ceramic/wooden tools, earthen clays, masks, instruments, folk shoes, etching tools, folk looms).
• Experiment with contemporary technologies (e.g., color fills on computers, texture methods on computers, fonts/point systems, animation techniques, video teleconferencing, multimedia techniques, internet access, library computer card catalogues).
J. Incorporate specific uses of traditional and contemporary technologies within the design for producing, performing and exhibiting works in the arts or the works of others.
• Explain and demonstrate traditional technologies (e.g., paint, tools, sponges, weaving designs, instruments, natural pigments/glazes).
• Explain and demonstrate contemporary technologies (e.g., MIDI keyboards, internet design, computers, interactive technologies, audio/sound equipment, board-mixer, video equipment, computerized lighting design).
J. Analyze and evaluate the use of traditional and contemporary technologies for producing, performing and exhibiting works in the arts or the works of others.
• Analyze traditional technologies (e.g., acid printing, etching methods, musical instruments, costume materials, eight track recording, super 8 movies).
• Analyze contemporary technologies (e.g., virtual reality design, instrument enhancements, photographic tools, broadcast equipment, film cameras, preservation tools, web graphics, computer generated marching band designs).
K. Know and use traditional and contemporary technologies for furthering knowledge and understanding in the humanities. K. Apply traditional and contemporary technology in furthering knowledge and understanding in the humanities. K. Incorporate specific uses of traditional and contemporary technologies in furthering knowledge and understanding in the humanities. K. Analyze and evaluate the use of traditional and contemporary technologies in furthering knowledge and understanding in the humanities.


9.2. Historical and Cultural Contexts
9.2.3. GRADE 3 9.2.5. GRADE 5 9.2.8. GRADE 8 9.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to identify, compare, contrast and analyze works in the arts in their historical and cultural context appropriate for each grade level in concert with districts’ social studies, literature and language standards.
 A. Explain the historical, cultural and social context of an individual work in the arts.
 B. Relate works in the arts chronologically to historical events (e.g., 10,000 B.C. to present).
 C. Relate works in the arts to varying styles and genre and to the periods in which they were created (e.g., Bronze Age, Ming Dynasty, Renaissance, Classical, Modern, Post-Modern, Contemporary, Futuristic, others).
 D. Analyze a work of art from its historical and cultural perspective.
 E. Analyze how historical events and culture impact forms, techniques and purposes of works in the arts (e.g., Gilbert and Sullivan operettas).
 F. Know and apply appropriate vocabulary used between social studies and the arts and humanities.
 G. Relate works in the arts to geographic regions:
• Africa
• Asia
• Australia
• Central America
• Europe
• North America
• South America
 H. Identify, describe and analyze the work of Pennsylvania Artists in dance, music, theatre and visual arts.
 I. Identify, explain and analyze philosophical beliefs as they relate to works in the arts (e.g., classical architecture, rock music, Native American dance, contemporary American musical theatre).
 J. Identify, explain and analyze historical and cultural differences as they relate to works in the arts (e.g., plays by Shakespeare, works by Michelangelo, ethnic dance and music).
 K. Identify, explain and analyze traditions as they relate to works in the arts (e.g., story telling—plays, oral histories— poetry, work songs—blue grass).
 L. Identify, explain and analyze common themes, forms and techniques from works in the arts (e.g., Copland and Graham’s Appalachian Spring and Millet’s The Gleaners).


9.3. Critical Response
9.3.3. GRADE 3 9.3.5. GRADE 5 9.3.8. GRADE 8 9.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Recognize critical processes used in the examination of works in the arts and humanities.
• Compare and contrast
• Analyze
• Interpret
• Form and test hypotheses
• Evaluate/form judgments
A. Identify critical processes in the examination of works in the arts and humanities.
• Compare and contrast
• Analyze
• Interpret
• Form and test hypotheses
• Evaluate/form judgments
A. Know and use the critical process of the examination of works in the arts and humanities.
• Compare and contrast
• Analyze
• Interpret
• Form and test hypotheses
• Evaluate/form judgments
A. Explain and apply the critical examination processes of works in the arts and humanities.
• Compare and contrast
• Analyze
• Interpret
• Form and test hypotheses
• Evaluate/form judgments
B. Know that works in the arts can be described by using the arts elements, principles and concepts (e.g., use of color, shape and pattern in Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie-Woogie; use of dynamics, tempo, texture in Ravel’s Bolero). B. Describe works in the arts comparing similar and contrasting characteristics (e.g., staccato in Grieg’s In the Hall of the Mountain King and in tap dance). B. Analyze and interpret specific characteristics of works in the arts within each art form (e.g., pentatonic scales in Korean and Indonesian music). B. Determine and apply criteria to a person’s work and works of others in the arts (e.g., use visual scanning techniques to critique the student’s own use of sculptural space in comparison to Julio Gonzales’ use of space in Woman Combing Her Hair).
C. Know classification skills with materials and processes used to create works in the arts (e.g., sorting and matching textiles, musical chants, television comedies). C. Classify works in the arts by forms in which they are found (e.g., farce, architecture, graphic design). C. Identify and classify styles, forms, types and genre within art forms (e.g., modern dance and the ethnic dance, a ballad and a patriotic song). C. Apply systems of classification for interpreting works in the arts and forming a critical response.
D. Explain meanings in the arts and humanities through individual works and the works of others using a fundamental vocabulary of critical response. D. Compare similar and contrasting important aspects of works in the arts and humanities based on a set of guidelines using a comprehensive vocabulary of critical response. D. Evaluate works in the arts and humanities using a complex vocabulary of critical response. D. Analyze and interpret works in the arts and humanities from different societies using culturally specific vocabulary of critical response.
E. Recognize and identify types of critical analysis in the arts and humanities.
• Contextual criticism
• Formal criticism
• Intuitive criticism
E. Describe and use types of critical analysis in the arts and humanities.
• Contextual criticism
• Formal criticism
• Intuitive criticism
E. Interpret and use various types of critical analysis in the arts and humanities.
• Contextual criticism
• Formal criticism
• Intuitive criticism
E. Examine and evaluate various types of critical analysis of works in the arts and humanities.
• Contextual criticism
• Formal criticism
• Intuitive criticism
F. Know how to recognize and identify similar and different characteristics among works in the arts (e.g., Amish and Hawaiian quilts, Navaho weavings and Kente cloth from West Africa). F. Know how to recognize the process of criticism in identifying and analyzing characteristics among works in the arts. F. Apply the process of criticism to identify characteristics among works in the arts. F. Analyze the processes of criticism used to compare the meanings of a work in the arts in both its own and present time.
G. Know and demonstrate what a critic’s position or opinion is related to works in the arts and humanities (e.g., I like patriotic songs because ...; The movie was enjoyed for its exceptional special effects). G. Describe a critic’s position or opinion about selected works in the arts and humanities (e.g., student’s presentation of a critical position on Walt Disney’s Evolution of Mickey and Minnie Mouse). G. Compare and contrast critical positions or opinions about selected works in the arts and humanities (e.g., critic’s review and comparison of Alvin Ailey’s Revelations to Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake). G. Analyze works in the arts by referencing the judgments advanced by arts critics as well as one’s own analysis and critique.


9.4. Aesthetic Response
9.4.3. GRADE 3 9.4.5. GRADE 5 9.4.8. GRADE 8 9.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Know how to respond to a philosophical statement about works in the arts and humanities (e.g., ‘‘Can artworks that depict or are about ugly or unpleasant things ever be beautiful?’’). A. Identify uses of expressive symbols that show philosophical meanings in works in the arts and humanities (e.g., American TV ads versus Asian TV ads). A. Compare and contrast examples of group and individual philosophical meanings of works in the arts and humanities (e.g., group discussions on musical theatre versus the individual’s concept of musical theatre). A. Evaluate an individual’s philosophical statement on a work in the arts and its relationship to one’s own life based on knowledge and experience.
B. Know how to communicate an informed individual opinion about the meaning of works in the arts (e.g., works of an artist of the month). B. Investigate and communicate multiple philosophical views about works in the arts. B. Compare and contrast informed individual opinions about the meaning of works in the arts to others (e.g., debate philosophical opinions within a listserve or at an artist’s website). B. Describe and analyze the effects that works in the arts have on groups, individuals and the culture (e.g., Orson Welles’ 1938 radio broadcast, War of the Worlds).
C. Recognize that the environment of the observer influences individual aesthetic responses to works in the arts (e.g., the effect of live music as opposed to listening to the same piece on a car radio). C. Identify the attributes of various audiences’ environments as they influence individual aesthetic response (e.g., Beatles’ music played by the Boston Pops versus video taped concerts from the 1970s). C. Describe how the attributes of the audience’s environment influence aesthetic responses (e.g., the ambiance of the theatre in a performance of Andrew Lloyd Weber’s Cats). C. Compare and contrast the attributes of various audiences’ environments as they influence individual aesthetic response (e.g., viewing traditional Irish dance at county fair versus the performance of River Dance in a concert hall).
D. Recognize that choices made by artists regarding subject matter and themes communicate ideas through works in the arts and humanities (e.g., artist’s interpretation through the use of classical ballet of the American West in Agnes De Mille’s Rodeo). D. Explain choices made regarding media, technique, form, subject matter and themes that communicate the artist’s philosophy within a work in the arts and humanities (e.g., selection of stage lighting in Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story to communicate mood). D. Describe to what purpose philosophical ideas generated by artists can be conveyed through works in the arts and humanities (e.g., T. Ganson’s Destructive Periods in Russia During Stalin’s and Deniken’s Leadership conveys her memories and emotions of a specific incident). D. Analyze and interpret a philosophical position identified in works in the arts and humanities.

XXVII. GLOSSARY

Aesthetics: A branch of philosophy that focuses on the nature of beauty, the nature and value of the arts and the inquiry processes and human responses they produce.
Aesthetic criteria: Standards on which to make judgments about the artistic merit of a work of art, derived from cultural and emotional values and cognitive meaning.
Aesthetic response:A philosophical reply to works in the arts.
Artistic choices: Selections made by artists in order to convey meaning.
Arts resource: An outside community asset (e.g., performances, exhibitions, performers, artists).
Assess: To analyze and determine the nature and quality of the process/product through means appropriate to the art form.
Community: A group of people who share a common social, historical, regional or cultural heritage.
Contemporary technology: Tools, machines or implements emerging and used today for the practice or production of works in the arts.
Context: A set of interrelated background conditions (e.g., social, economic, political) that influence and give meaning to the development and reception of thoughts, ideas or concepts and that define specific cultures and eras.
Create: To produce works in the arts using materials, techniques, processes, elements, principles and analysis.
Critical analysis: The process of examining and discussing the effective uses of specific aspects of works in the arts.
 Contextual criticism:Discussion and evaluation with consideration of factors surrounding the origin and heritage to works in the arts and humanities.
 Formal Criticism:Discussion and evaluation of the elements and principles essential to works in the arts and humanities.
 Intuitive Criticism:Discussion and evaluation of one’s subjective insight to works in the arts and humanities.
Critical process: The use of sequential examination through comparison, analysis, interpretation, formation and testing of hypothesis and evaluation to form judgments.
Critical response:The act or process of describing and evaluating the media, processes and meanings of works in the arts and making comparative judgments.
Culture: The way of life of a group of people, including customs, beliefs, arts, institutions and worldview. Culture is acquired through many means and is always changing.
Elements: Core components that support the principles of the arts.
Genre: A type or category (e.g., music—opera, oratorio; theater—tragedy, comedy; dance—modern, ballet; visual arts—pastoral, scenes of everyday life).
Humanities: The branch of learning that connects the fine arts, literature, languages, philosophy and cultural science. The humanities are concerned with the understanding and integration of human thought and accomplishment.
Improvisation: Spontaneous creation requiring focus and concentration.
MIDI keyboard: (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) A piece of equipment that interacts with a computer that uses a MIDI language set-up to notate and play music.
Multimedia:The combined use of media, such as movies, CD-ROMs, television, radio, print and the Internet for entertainment and publicity.
Original works in the arts: Dance, music, theatre and visual arts pieces created by performing or visual artists.
Principles: Essential assumptions, basic or essential qualities determining intrinsic characteristics.
Style: A distinctive or characteristic manner of expression.
Technique: Specific skills and details employed by an artist, craftsperson or performer in the production of works in the arts.
Timbre: A unique quality of sound.
Traditions: Knowledge, opinions and customs a group feels is so important that members continue to practice it and pass it on to other generations.
Traditional technology: Tools, machines or implements used for the historical practice or production of works in the arts.
Vocabulary: Age and content appropriate terms used in the instruction of the arts and humanities that demonstrate levels of proficiency as defined in local curriculum (i.e., fundamental—grade 3, comprehensive—grade 5, discriminating—grade 8 and advanced—grade 12).



Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education



XXVIII. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction … XXIX.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Concepts of Health … 10.1.

  A. Stages of Growth and Development

  B. Interaction of Body Systems

  C. Nutrition

  D. Alcohol, Tobacco and Chemical Substances

  E. Health Problems and Disease Prevention

 Healthful Living … 10.2.

  A. Health Practices, Products and Services

  B. Health Information and Consumer Choices

  C. Health Information and the Media

  D. Decision-making Skills

  E. Health and the Environment

 Safety and Injury Prevention … 10.3.

  A. Safe/Unsafe Practices

  B. Emergency Responses/ Injury Management

  C. Strategies to Avoid/Manage Conflict

  D. Safe Practices in Physical Activity

 Physical Activity … 10.4.

  A. Physical Activities That Promote Health and Fitness

  B. Effects of Regular Participation

  C. Responses of the Body Systems to Physical Activity

  D. Physical Activity Preferences

  E. Physical Activity and Motor Skill Improvement

  F. Physical Activity and Group Interaction

 Concepts, Principles and Strategies of
 Movement … 10.5.

  A. Movement Skills and Concepts

  B. Motor Skill Development

  C. Practice Strategies

  D. Principles of Exercise/Training

  E. Scientific Principles That Affect Movement

  F. Game Strategies

 Glossary … XXX.


XXIX. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education in these categories:

 • 10.1 Concepts of Health

 • 10.2 Healthful Living

 • 10.3 Safety and Injury Prevention

 • 10.4 Physical Activity

 • 10.5 Concepts, Principles and Strategies of Movement

 The Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of third, sixth, ninth and twelfth grade. The standards are sequential across the grade levels and reflect the increasing complexity and rigor that students are expected to achieve. The Standards define the content for planned instruction that will result in measurable gains for all students in knowledge and skill. School entities will use these standards to develop local school curriculum and assessments that will meet the needs of the students.

 The Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education provide students with the knowledge and skills that will enable them to achieve and maintain a physically active and healthful life. The attainment of these standards will favorably impact their lives and the lives of those around them. By becoming and remaining physically, mentally, socially and emotionally healthy, students will increase their chances of achieving to their highest academic potential.

 The Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education provide parents with specific information about the knowledge and skills students should be developing as they progress through their educational programs. With the standards serving as clearly defined targets, parents, students, teachers and community members will be able to become partners in helping children achieve educational success.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

10.1. Concepts of Health
10.1.3. GRADE 3 10.1.6. GRADE 6 10.1.9. GRADE 9 10.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify and describe the stages of growth and development.
• infancy
• childhood
• adolescence
• adulthood
• late adulthood
A. Describe growth and development changes that occur between childhood and adolescence and identify factors that can influence these changes.
• education
• socioeconomic
A. Analyze factors that impact growth and development between adolescence and adulthood.
• relationships (e.g., dating, friendships, peer pressure)
• interpersonal communication
• risk factors (e.g., physical inactivity, substance abuse, intentional/unintentional injuries, dietary patterns)
• abstinence
• STD and HIV prevention
• community
A. Evaluate factors that impact growth and development during adulthood and late adulthood.
• acute and chronic illness
• communicable and non- communicable disease
• health status
• relationships (e.g., marriage, divorce, loss)
• career choice
• aging process
• retirement
B. Identify and know the location and function of the major body organs and systems.
• circulatory
• respiratory
• muscular
• skeletal
• digestive
B. Identify and describe the structure and function of the major body systems.
• nervous
• muscular
• integumentary
• urinary
• endocrine
• reproductive
• immune
B. Analyze the interdependence existing among the body systems.
B. Evaluate factors that impact the body systems and apply protective/preventive strategies.
• fitness level
• environment (e.g., pollutants, available health care)
• health status (e.g., physical, mental, social)
• nutrition
C. Explain the role of the food guide pyramid in helping people eat a healthy diet.
• food groups
• number of servings
• variety of food
• nutrients
C. Analyze nutritional concepts that impact health.
• caloric content of foods
• relationship of food intake and physical activity (energy output)
• nutrient requirements
• label reading
• healthful food selection
C. Analyze factors that impact nutritional choices of adolescents.
• body image
• advertising
• dietary guidelines
• eating disorders
• peer influence
• athletic goals
C. Analyze factors that impact nutritional choices of adults.
• cost
• food preparation (e.g., time, skills)
• consumer skills (e.g., understanding food labels, evaluating fads)
• nutritional knowledge
• changes in nutritional requirements (e.g., age, physical activity level)
D. Know age appropriate drug information.
• definition of drugs
• effects of drugs
• proper use of medicine
• healthy/unhealthy risk-taking (e.g. inhalant use, smoking)
• skills to avoid drugs
D. Explain factors that influence childhood and adolescent drug use.
• peer influence
• body image (e.g., steroids, enhancers)
• social acceptance
• stress
• media influence
• decision-making/refusal skills
• rules, regulations and laws
• consequences
D. Analyze prevention and intervention strategies in relation to adolescent and adult drug use.
• decision-making/refusal skills
• situation avoidance
• goal setting
• professional assistance (e.g., medical, counseling. support groups)
• parent involvement
D. Evaluate issues relating to the use/non-use of drugs.
• psychology of addiction
• social impact (e.g., cost, relationships)
• chemical use and fetal development
• laws relating to alcohol, tobacco and chemical substances
• impact on the individual
• impact on the community
E. Identify types and causes of common health problems of children.
• infectious diseases (e.g., colds, flu, chickenpox)
• noninfectious diseases (e.g., asthma, hay fever, allergies, lyme disease)
• germs
• pathogens
• heredity
E. Identify health problems that can occur throughout life and describe ways to prevent them.
• Diseases (e.g., cancer diabetes, STD/HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease)
• Preventions (i.e. do not smoke, maintain proper weight, eat a balanced diet, practice sexual abstinence, be physically active)
E. Analyze how personal choice, disease and genetics can impact health maintenance and disease prevention.
E. Identify and analyze factors that influence the prevention and control of health problems.
• research
• medical advances
• technology
• government policies/regulations


10.2. Healthful Living
10.2.3. GRADE 3 10.2.6. GRADE 6 10.2.9. GRADE 9 10.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify personal hygiene practices and community helpers that promote health and prevent the spread of disease.
A. Explain the relationship between personal health practices and individual well-being.
• immunizations
• health examinations
A. Identify and describe health care products and services that impact adolescent health practices.
A. Evaluate health care products and services that impact adult health practices.
B. Identify health-related information.
• signs and symbols
• terminology
• products and services
B. Explain the relationship between health-related information and consumer choices.
• dietary guidelines/food selection
• sun exposure guidelines/sunscreen selection
B. Analyze the relationship between health-related information and adolescent consumer choices.
• tobacco products
• weight control products
B. Assess factors that impact adult health consumer choices.
• access to health information
• access to health care
• cost
• safety
C. Identify media sources that influence health and safety.
C. Explain the media’s effect on health and safety issues.
C. Analyze media health and safety messages and describe their impact on personal health and safety.
C. Compare and contrast the positive and negative effects of the media on adult personal health and safety.
 D. Identify the steps in a decision making process.
D. Describe and apply the steps of a decision making process to health and safety issues.
D. Analyze and apply a decision making process to adolescent health and safety issues. D. Examine and apply a decision making process to the development of short and long-term health goals.
E. Identify environmental factors that affect health.
• pollution (e.g., air, water, noise, soil)
• waste disposal
• temperature extremes
• insects/animals
E. Analyze environmental factors that impact health.
• indoor air quality (e.g., second-hand smoke, allergens)
• chemicals, metals, gases (e.g., lead, radon, carbon monoxide)
• radiation
• natural disasters
E. Explain the interrelationship between the environment and personal health.
• ozone layer/skin cancer
• availability of health care/individual health
• air pollution/respiratory disease
• breeding environments/lyme disease/West Nile virus
E. Analyze the interrelationship between environmental factors and community health.
• public health policies and laws/health promotion and disease prevention
• individual choices/maintenance of environment
• recreational opportunities/health status


10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention
10.3.3. GRADE 3 10.3.6 GRADE 6 10.3.9. GRADE 9 10.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Recognize safe/unsafe practices in the home, school and community.
• general (e.g., fire, electrical, animals)
• modes of transportation (e.g., pedestrian, bicycle, vehicular)
• outdoor (e.g., play, weather, water)
• safe around people (e.g., safe/unsafe touch, abuse, stranger, bully)
A. Explain and apply safe practices in the home, school and community.
• emergencies (e.g., fire, natural disasters)
• personal safety (e.g., home alone, latch key, harassment)
• communication (e.g., telephone, Internet)
• violence prevention (e.g., gangs, weapons)
A. Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safe practices and injury prevention in the home, school and community.
• modes of transportation (e.g., pedestrian, bicycle, vehicular, passenger, farm vehicle, all-terrain vehicle)
• violence prevention in school
• self-protection in the home
• self-protection in public places
A. Assess the personal and legal consequences of unsafe practices in the home, school or community.
• loss of personal freedom
• personal injury
• loss of income
• impact on others
• loss of motor vehicle operator’s license
B. Recognize emergency situations and explain appropriate responses.
• importance of remaining calm
• how to call for help
• simple assistance procedures
• how to protect self
B. Know and apply appropriate emergency responses.
• basic first aid
• Heimlich maneuver
• universal precautions
B. Describe and apply strategies for emergency and long-term management of injuries.
• rescue breathing
• water rescue
• self-care
• sport injuries
B. Analyze and apply strategies for the management of injuries.
• CPR
• advanced first aid
C. Recognize conflict situations and identify strategies to avoid or resolve.
• walk away
• I-statements
• refusal skills
• adult intervention
C. Describe strategies to avoid or manage conflict and violence.
• anger management
• peer mediation
• reflective listening
• negotiation
C. Analyze and apply strategies to avoid or manage conflict and violence during adolescence.
• effective negotiation
• assertive behavior
C. Analyze the impact of violence on the victim and surrounding community.
D. Identify and use safe practices in physical activity settings (e.g., proper equipment, knowledge of rules, sun safety, guidelines of safe play, warm-up, cool-down).
D. Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safety during physical activity.
D. Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safety during organized group activities.
D. Evaluate the benefits, risks and safety factors associated with self-selected life-long physical activities.


10.4. Physical Activity
10.4.3. GRADE 3 10.4.6. GRADE 6 10.4.9. GRADE 9 10.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify and engage in physical activities that promote physical fitness and health.
A. Identify and engage in moderate to vigorous physical activities that contribute to physical fitness and health. A. Analyze and engage in physical activities that are developmentally/individually appropriate and support achievement of personal fitness and activity goals. A. Evaluate and engage in an individualized physical activity plan that supports achievement of personal fitness and activity goals and promotes life-long participation.
B. Know the positive and negative effects of regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities.
B. Explain the effects of regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities on the body systems. B. Analyze the effects of regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities in relation to adolescent health improvement.
• stress management
• disease prevention
• weight management
B. Analyze the effects of regular participation in a self-selected program of moderate to vigorous physical activities.
• social
• physiological
• psychological
C. Know and recognize changes in body responses during moderate to vigorous physical activity.
• heart rate
• breathing rate
C. Identify and apply ways to monitor and assess the body’s response to moderate to vigorous physical activity.
• heart rate monitoring
• checking blood pressure
• fitness assessment
C. Analyze factors that affect the responses of body systems during moderate to vigorous physical activities.
• exercise (e.g., climate, altitude, location, temperature)
• healthy fitness zone
• individual fitness status (e.g., cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility)
• drug/substance use/abuse
C. Evaluate how changes in adult health status may affect the responses of the body systems during moderate to vigorous physical activity.
• aging
• injury
• disease
D. Identify likes and dislikes related to participation in physical activities.
D. Describe factors that affect childhood physical activity preferences.
• enjoyment
• personal interest
• social experience
• opportunities to learn new activities
• parental preference
• environment
D. Analyze factors that affect physical activity preferences of adolescents.
• skill competence
• social benefits
• previous experience
• activity confidence
D. Evaluate factors that affect physical activity and exercise preferences of adults.
• personal challenge
• physical benefits
• finances
• motivation
• access to activity
• self-improvement
E. Identify reasons why regular participation in physical activities improves motor skills.
E. Identify factors that have an impact on the relationship between regular participation in physical activity and the degree of motor skill improvement.
• success-oriented activities
• school-community resources
• variety of activities
• time on task
E. Analyze factors that impact on the relationship between regular participation in physical activity and motor skill improvement.
• personal choice
• developmental differences
• amount of physical activity
• authentic practice
E. Analyze the interrelationships among regular participation in physical activity, motor skill improvement and the selection and engagement in lifetime physical activities.
F. Recognize positive and negative interactions of small group activities.
• roles (e.g., leader, follower)
• cooperation/sharing
• on task participation
F. Identify and describe positive and negative interactions of group members in physical activities.
• leading
• following
• teamwork
• etiquette
• adherence to rules
F. Analyze the effects of positive and negative interactions of adolescent group members in physical activities.
• group dynamics
• social pressure
F. Assess and use strategies for enhancing adult group interaction in physical activities.
• shared responsibility
• open communication
• goal setting


10.5. Concepts, Principles and Strategies of Movement
10.5.3. GRADE 3 10.5.6. GRADE 6 10.5.9. GRADE 9 10.5.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Recognize and use basic movement skills and concepts.
• locomotor movements (e.g., run, leap, hop)
• non-locomotor movements (e.g., bend, stretch, twist)
• manipulative movements (e.g., throw, catch, kick)
• relationships (e.g., over, under, beside)
• combination movements (e.g., locomotor, non-locomotor, manipulative)
• space awareness (e.g., self-space, levels, pathways, directions)
• effort (e.g., speed, force)
A. Explain and apply the basic movement skills and concepts to create and perform movement sequences and advanced skills.
A. Describe and apply the components of skill-related fitness to movement performance.
• agility
• balance
• coordination
• power
• reaction time
• speed
A. Apply knowledge of movement skills, skill-related fitness and movement concepts to identify and evaluate physical activities that promote personal lifelong participation.
B. Recognize and describe the concepts of motor skill development using appropriate vocabulary.
• form
• developmental differences
• critical elements
• feedback
B. Identify and apply the concepts of motor skill development to a variety of basic skills.
• transfer between skills
• selecting relevant cues
• types of feedback
• movement efficiency
• product (outcome/result)
B. Describe and apply concepts of motor skill development that impact the quality of increasingly complex movement.
• response selection
• stages of learning a motor skill i.e. verbal cognitive, motor, automatic
• types of skill i.e. discrete, serial, continuous
B. Incorporate and synthesize knowledge of motor skill development concepts to improve the quality of motor skills.
• open and closed skills
• short-term and long-term memory
• aspects of good performance
C. Know the function of practice.
C. Describe the relationship between practice and skill development.
C. Identify and apply practice strategies for skill improvement.
C. Evaluate the impact of practice strategies on skill development and improvement.
D. Identify and use principles of exercise to improve movement and fitness activities.
• frequency/how often to exercise
• intensity/how hard to exercise
• time/how long to exercise
• type/what kind of exercise
D. Describe and apply the principles of exercise to the components of health-related and skill-related fitness.
• cardiorespiratory endurance
• muscular strength
• muscular endurance
• flexibility
• body composition
D. Identify and describe the principles of training using appropriate vocabulary.
• specificity
• overload
• progression
• aerobic/anaerobic
• circuit/interval
• repetition/set
D. Incorporate and synthesize knowledge of exercise principles, training principles and health and skill-related fitness components to create a fitness program for personal use.
E. Know and describe scientific principles that affect movement and skills using appropriate vocabulary.
• gravity
• force production/absorption
• balance
• rotation
E. Identify and use scientific principles that affect basic movement and skills using appropriate vocabulary.
• Newton’s Laws of Motion
• application of force
• static/dynamic balance
• levers
• flight
E. Analyze and apply scientific and biomechanical principles to complex movements.
• centripetal/centrifugal force
• linear motion
• rotary motion
• friction/resistance
• equilibrium
• number of moving segments
E. Evaluate movement forms for appropriate application of scientific and biomechanical principles.
• efficiency of movement
• mechanical advantage
• kinetic energy
• potential energy
• inertia
• safety
F. Recognize and describe game strategies using appropriate vocabulary.
• faking/dodging
• passing/receiving
• moving to be open
• defending space
• following rules of play
F. Identify and apply game strategies to basic games and physical activities.
• give and go
• one on one
• peer communication
F. Describe and apply game strategies to complex games and physical activities.
• offensive strategies
• defensive strategies
• time management
F. Analyze the application of game strategies for different categories of physical activities.
• individual
• team
• lifetime
• outdoor

XXX. GLOSSARY

Abstinence: Choosing not to do something or completely giving something up in order to gain something.
Acute illness: A health condition of sudden onset, sharp rises and short course.
Adolescence: The period of life beginning with puberty and ending with completed growth.
Aerobic: Physical activity or exercise done at a steady pace for an extended period of time so that the heart can supply as much oxygen as the body needs (e.g., walking, running, swimming, cycling).
Agility: A component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body in space with speed and accuracy.
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: a condition that results when infection with HIV causes a breakdown of the body’s ability to fight other infections.
Allergen: A substance that stimulates the production of antibodies and subsequently results in allergic reactions (e.g., mold spores, cat/dog dander, dust).
Anaerobic: Physical activity or exercise done in short, fast bursts so that the heart cannot supply oxygen as fast as the body needs (e.g., sprinting, weightlifting, football).
Assertive: The expression of thoughts and feelings without experiencing anxiety or threatening others.
Automatic Stage of Learning: Movement responses flow and the individual can focus on what to do without thinking about it.
Balance: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the maintenance of equilibrium while stationary or moving.
Biomechanical principles: The science concerned with the action of forces, internal or external, on the living body.
Body composition: A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the percentage of fat tissue and lean tissue in the body.
Body systems: Anatomically or functionally related parts of the body (e.g., skeletal, nervous, immune, circulatory systems).
Caloric content: The amount of energy supplied by food. The more calories in the food, the more fattening.
Cardiorespiratory fitness: A health related component of physical fitness relating to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity.
Centrifugal: The force that seems to pull an object away from the center as it moves in a circle.
Centripetal: The force that is required to keep an object moving around a circular path.
Chronic illness: A health condition of long duration or frequent recurrence.
Circuit training: Exercise program, similar to an obstacle course, in which the person goes from one place to another doing a different exercise at each place.
Closed: Skills that are performed in an environment that does not change or that changes very little, such as archery or the foul shot in basketball.
Communicable: Illness caused by pathogens that enter the body through direct or indirect contact and can be transmitted from one host to another.
Community helpers:Any group or individual who plays a role in health promotion or disease prevention such as doctors, nurses, dentists, teachers, parents, firemen, policemen, trash collectors, animal control officers.
Continuous: Two or more repetitions of the same skill such as dribbling in basketball or soccer.
Cool-down: Brief, mild exercise done after vigorous exercise to help the body safely return to a resting state.
Coordination: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to use the senses together with body parts in performing motor tasks smoothly and accurately.
CPR: A first aid technique, which involves rescue breathing and chest (heart) compressions, that is used to revive a person whose heart has stopped beating.
Critical elements: The important parts of a skill.
Decision-making process: An organized approach to making choices.
Developmental differences: Learners are at different levels in their motor, cognitive, emotional, social and physical development. The learners’ developmental status will affect their ability to learn or improve.
Developmentally appropriate: Motor skill development and change that occur in an orderly, sequential fashion and are age and experience related.
Directions: Forward, backward, left, right, up, down.
Discrete: Single skill performed in isolation from other motor skills such as the soccer penalty kick and golf stroke.
Dynamic balance: Equilibrium used when in motion, starting and stopping.
Eating disorders: Food-related dysfunction in which a person changes eating habits in a way that is harmful to the mind or body (e.g., bulimia, anorexia nervosa).
Efficiency of movement: The state or quality of competence in performance with minimum expenditure of time and effort.
Equilibrium: State in which there is no change in the motion of a body.
Feedback: Information given to the learner about how to improve or correct a movement.
Flexibility: A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the range of motion available at a joint.
Food guide pyramid: A visual tool used to help people plan healthy diets according to the Dietary Guidelines for America.
Force: Any external agent that causes a change in the motion of a body.
Form: Manner or style of performing a movement according to recognized standards of technique.
Good performance: The ability to correctly select what to do and the ability to execute the selection appropriately.
Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being; not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.
Health education: Planned, sequential K—12 program of curricula and instruction that helps students develop knowledge, attitudes and skills related to the physical, mental, emotional and social dimensions of health.
Health-related fitness: Components of physical fitness that have a relationship with good health. Components are cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and body composition.
Heimlich maneuver: A first aid technique that is used to relieve complete airway obstruction.
HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus that infects cells of the immune system and other tissues and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
I-statement: A statement describing a specific behavior or event and the effect that behavior or event has on a person and the feelings that result.
Inertia: A body at rest will remain at rest and a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by a force.
Inhalant: Chemicals that produce vapors that act on the central nervous system and alter a user’s moods, perceptions, feelings, personality and behavior such as airplane glue and aerosols.
Integumentary system: Body system composed of the skin, hair, nails and glands.
Intensity: How hard a person should exercise to improve fitness.
Interval training: An anaerobic exercise program that consists of runs of short distance followed by rest.
Kinetic: Energy that an object possesses because it is moving, such as a pitched baseball or a person running.
Levels: Positions of the body (e.g., high, medium, low).
Linear motion: Movement which occurs in a straight path.
Locomotor movement: Movements producing physical displacement of the body, usually identified by weight transference via the feet. Basic locomotor steps are the walk, run, hop and jump as well as the irregular rhythmic combinations of the skip, slide and gallop.
Long-term memory: Ability to recall information that was learned days or even years ago.
Manipulative movements: Control of objects with body parts and implements. Action causes an object to move from one place to another.
Mechanical advantage: The ratio between the force put into a machine and the force that comes out of the same machine.
Media sources:Various forms of mass communication such as television, radio, magazines, newspapers and Internet.
Moderate physical activity: Sustained, repetitive, large muscle movements (e.g., walking, running, cycling) done at less than 60% of maximum heart rate for age. Maximum heart rate is 220 beats per minute minus participant’s age.
Motor skills: Non-fitness abilities that improve with practice and relate to one’s ability to perform specific sports and other motor tasks (e.g., tennis serve, shooting a basketball).
Motor stage of learning: Individual working to perfect the motor skill and makes conscious adjustments to the environment.
Movement skills: Proficiency in performing nonlocomotor, locomotor and manipulative movements that are the foundation for participation in physical activities.
Muscular endurance: A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of a muscle to continue to perform without fatigue.
Muscular strength: A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of the muscle to exert force.
Newton’s Laws of Motion: Three laws by Sir Isaac Newton that explain the relations between force and the motions produced by them: The Law of Inertia, Force and Acceleration, Reacting Forces.
Noncommunicable: Illness that is not caused by a pathogen that is not transmitted from one host to another.
Nonlocomotor movement: Movements that do not produce physical displacement of the body.
Nutrient: A basic component of food that nourishes the body.
Open: Skill performed in an environment that varies or is unpredictable such as the tennis forehand or the soccer pass.
Overload: A principle of exercise that states that the only way to improve fitness is to exercise more than the normal.
Pathways: Patterns of travel while performing locomotor movements (e.g., straight, curved, zigzag).
Physical activity: Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and which substantially increases energy expenditure.
Physical education: Planned, sequential, movement-based program of curricula and instruction that helps students develop knowledge, attitudes, motor skills, self-management skills and confidence needed to adapt and maintain a physically active life.
Physical fitness: A set of attributes that people have or achieve and that relate to their ability to perform physical activity. Generally accepted to consist of health-related fitness and skill-related fitness.
Potential: Energy stored in a body because of its position such as the crouch position prior to a jump.
Power: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the rate at which one can perform work.
Principles of exercise: Guidelines to follow to obtain the maximum benefits from physical activity and exercise.
Principles of training: Guidelines to follow to obtain the maximum benefits from an exercise plan.
Progression: A principle of exercise that states that a person should start slowly and increase exercise gradually.
Reaction time: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the time elapsed between stimulation and the beginning of the response to it.
Reflective listening: An active listening skill in which the individual lets others know he/she has heard and understands what has been said.
Refusal skills: Systematic ways to handle situations in which a person wants to say no to an action and/or leave an environment that threatens health or safety, breaks laws, results in lack of respect for self and others or disobeys guidelines set by responsible adults.
Repetitions: Number of times an exercise is repeated.
Rescue breathing: Technique used to supply air to an individual who is not breathing.
Rotary motion: Force that produces movement that occurs around an axis or center point such as a somersault.
Safety education: Planned, sequential program of curricula and instruction that helps students develop the knowledge, attitudes and confidence needed to protect them from injury.
Self-space: All the space that the body or its parts can reach without traveling from a starting location.
Serial: Two or more different skills performed with each other such as fielding a ball and throwing it or dribbling a basketball and shooting it.
Set: A group of several repetitions.
Short-term memory: Ability to recall recently learned information, such as within the past few seconds or minutes.
Skill-related fitness: Consists of components of physical fitness that have a relationship with enhanced performance in sports and motor skills. The components are agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time and speed.
Specificity: A principle of exercise that states that specific kinds of exercises must be done to develop specific aspects of the body and specific aspects of fitness.
Speed: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time.
Static balance: Maintaining equilibrium while holding a pose or remaining motionless.
STD: Sexually transmitted disease.
Universal precautions: An approach to infection control. All human blood and body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious.
Warm-up: Brief, mild exercise that is done to get ready for more vigorous exercise.
Verbal cognitive stage of learning: The individual is attempting to move from verbal instruction to trying to figure out how to actually do the skill. The first attempts at the skill are generally mechanical and success is inconsistent. The individual thinks through each step of the movement.
Vigorous physical activity: Sustained, repetitive, large muscle movements (e.g., running, swimming, soccer) done at 60% or more of maximum heart rate for age. Maximum heart rate is 220 beats per minute minus the participant’s age. Activity makes person sweat and breathe hard.



Academic Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences



XXXI. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction … XXXII.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Financial and Resource Management … 11.1.

  A. Resource Management

  B. Spending Plan

  C. Housing

  D. Consumer Rights and Responsibilities

  E. Income

  F. Purchasing

  G. Services

 Balancing Family, Work and Community Responsibility … 11.2.

  A. Practical Reasoning

  B. Action Plans

  C. Team Building

  D. Space Planning

  E. Technology

  F. Family Functions

  G. Family Life Cycle

  H. Communications

 Food Science and Nutrition … 11.3.

  A. Food Supply

  B. Safety and Sanitation

  C. Nutrient Analysis

  D. Nutrition and Health

  E. Calories and Energy

  F. Meal Management

  G. Food Science

 Child Development … 11.4.

  A. Developmental Stages

  B. Health and Safety

  C. Learning Environments

  D. School Involvement

  E. Literacy

 Glossary … XXXIII.


XXXII. INTRODUCTION


 This document includes Academic Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth) with the emphasis on what students will know and be able to do in the following areas:

 • 11.1. Financial and Resource Management

 • 11.2. Balancing Family, Work, and Community Responsibility

 • 11.3. Food Science and Nutrition

 • 11.4. Child Development.

 The focus of the Academic Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences education is the individual, the family and the community. The economic, social and political well-being of our state depends on the well-being of Pennsylvania’s families. The family is responsible for nurturing its members. Family experiences, to a great extent, determine who a person is and what a person becomes. Family and Consumer Sciences, working with Pennsylvania’s families, supports the development of the knowledge and skills that students need as family members both now and in the future. The 21st Century requires students to develop the ability to transform information into knowledge by using standards to certify that this information is meaningful, categorizing it to a purpose and then transforming their knowledge into wisdom by applying it to real life.

 Family and Consumer Sciences is a discipline composed of strong subject matter concentrations with a commitment to integration. Concepts form a framework for learning based on these tenets:

 • Families are the fundamental unit of society.

 • A life-span approach to individual and family development contributes to creating lifelong learners.

 • Meeting individual and family needs inside and outside the home are shared responsibilities.

 • Individual, family and community well-being is strengthened through an awareness of diversity.

 • The use of diverse modes of inquiry strengthens intellectual development.

 • The content learning in Family and Consumer Sciences classes’ enhances the mastery of academic standards.

 • Standards-based learning within Family and Consumer Sciences’ classrooms can best be demonstrated through performance based assessment.

 Learners in Family and Consumer Sciences nurture themselves and others, taking increased responsibility for improving their quality of living.

 The Academic Standards for Family and Consumer Sciences are written to empower individuals and families to manage the challenges of living and working in a diverse, global society. These Academic Standards address the functioning of families and their interrelationships with work, community and society. The focus is on the recurring, practical problems of individuals and families. An integrative approach is used to help individuals and families identify, create and evaluate goals and alternative solutions to significant problems of everyday life. Students are taught to take responsibility for the consequences of their actions. Comprehensive classroom experiences allow students to develop the knowledge and skills needed in making choices to meet their personal, family and work responsibilities.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

11.1. Financial and Resource Management
11.1.3. GRADE 3 11.1.6. GRADE 6 11.1.9. GRADE 9 11.1.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Identify money denominations, services and material resources available as trade-offs within the home, school and community. A. Justify the decision to use or not use resources based on scarcity. A. Analyze current conservation practices and their effect on future renewable and non-renewable resources.
• Refuse
• Reduce
• Reuse
• Recycle
A. Evaluate the impact of family resource management on the global community.
B. Define the components of a spending plan (e.g., income, expenses, savings).
B. Know the relationship of the components of a simple spending plan and how that relationship allows for managing income, expenses and savings.
B. Explain the responsibilities associated with managing personal finances (e.g., savings, checking, credit, noncash systems, investments, insurance).
B. Analyze the management of financial resources across the lifespan.
C. Explain the need for shelter for the purpose of safety, warmth and comfort.
C. Describe the adaptability to meet basic human needs of the different types of housing available (e.g., single home, apartment, mobile home, shelter, recreational vehicle, public housing).
C. Delineate and assess the factors affecting the availability of housing (e.g., supply and demand, market factors, geographical location, community regulations). C. Analyze the relationship among factors affecting consumer housing decisions (e.g., human needs, financial resources, location, legal agreements, maintenance responsibilities).
D. Explain consumer rights and responsibilities.
• To be safe
• To be informed
• To be heard
• To choose
• To redress
D. Analyze information in care instructions, safety precautions and the use of consumable goods as a demonstration of understanding of consumer rights and responsibilities. D. Explain how consumer rights and responsibilities are protected (e.g., government agencies, consumer protection agencies, consumer action groups). D. Evaluate the role of consumer rights and responsibilities in the resolution of a consumer problem through the practical reasoning process.
E. Explain the relationship between work and income. E. Explain the principles of child labor laws and the opportunity cost of working by evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of holding a job while a teenager. E. Compare the influences of income and fringe benefits to make decisions about work. E. Compare and contrast factors affecting annual gross and taxable income and reporting requirements (e.g., W-2 form, Income tax form).
F. Describe criteria needed to identify quality in consumer goods and services (e.g., food, clothing, furniture, home technology, health care, transportation, services). F. Explain practices to maintain and/or repair consumer goods and services. F. Evaluate different strategies to obtain consumer goods and services. F. Compare and contrast the selection of goods and services by applying effective consumer strategies.
G. Identify the services that communities provide for individuals and families. G. Identify the public and nonpublic services that are available to serve families within the community. G. Analyze how public, nonpublic and for-profit service providers serve the family. G. Compare the availability, costs and benefits of accessing public, nonpublic and for-profit services to assist the family.


11.2. Balancing Family, Work and Community Responsibility
11.2.3. GRADE 3 11.2.6. GRADE 6 11.2.9. GRADE 9 11.2.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Examine consequences of family, work or career decisions. A. Contrast the solutions reached through the use of a simple decision making process that includes analyzing consequences of alternative solutions against snap decision making methods. A. Solve dilemmas using a practical reasoning approach
• Identify situation
• Identify reliable information
• List choices and examine the consequences of each
• Develop a plan of action
• Draw conclusions
• Reflect on decisions
A. Justify solutions developed by using practical reasoning skills.
B. Identify the importance of routines and schedules while differentiating between short and long term goals. B. Deduce the importance of time management skills (e.g. home, school, recreational activities). B. Know FCCLA action planning procedure and how to apply it to family, work and community decisions. B. Evaluate the effectiveness of action plans that integrate personal, work, family and community responsibilities.
C. Indicate the benefits and costs of working as an individual or as a team member and of being a leader or follower. C. Classify the components of effective teamwork and leadership. C. Assess the effectiveness of the use of teamwork and leadership skills in accomplishing the work of the family. C. Analyze teamwork and leadership skills and their application in various family and work situations.
D. Explain the importance of organizing space for efficiency and a sense of comfort (e.g., desk space, classroom space). D. Identify the concepts and principles used in planning space for activities. D. Analyze the space requirements for a specified activity to meet a given need (e.g., family room, home office, kitchen). D. Based on efficiency, aesthetics and psychology, evaluate space plans (e.g., home, office, work areas) for their ability to meet a variety of needs including those of individuals with special needs.
E. Analyze the effectiveness of technology used for school and home in accomplishing the work of the family (e.g., security, entertainment, communication, education). E. Describe the role of technology within a community in maintaining a safe and healthy living environment (e.g., safety, hospitals, waste treatment, water quality, schools). E. Evaluate the impact of technology and justify the use or nonuse of it (e.g., safety, cost/budget, appearance, efficiency). E. Assess the availability of emerging technology that is designed to do the work of the family and evaluate the impact of its use on individuals, families and communities.
F. Explain daily activities that fulfill family functions in meeting responsibilities (e.g., economic, emotional support, childcare and guidance, housekeeping, maintaining kinship, providing recreation). F. Compare and contrast how different cultures meet family responsibilities within differing configurations (e.g., new parent, just married, single adult living alone, ‘‘empty nest,’’ retired, senior citizen). F. Contrast past and present family functions and predict their probable impact on the future of the family. F. Assess the relationship of family functions to human developmental stages.
G. Identify the life stages by identifying their developmental task (e.g., infant, pre-schooler, school age, teen-age, adult, senior citizen). G. Identify the characteristics of the stages of the family life cycle (e.g., beginning, expanding, developing, launching, middle years, retirement, variations). G. Explain the influences of family life cycle stages on the needs of families and communities (e.g., a large number of young families needing day care, fixed income senior citizens, school age children). G. Hypothesize the impact
of present family life-cycle trends on the global community (e.g., over population, increase in
an aging population, economic base).
H. Identify how to resolve conflict using interpersonal communications skills.
• Speaking and listening
• I messages
• Active listening
• Checking for understanding
• Following directions
• Empathy
• Feedback
H. Describe positive and negative interactions within patterns of interpersonal communications.
• Placating
• Blaming
• Distracting
• Intellectualizing
• Asserting
H. Justify the significance of interpersonal communication skills in the practical reasoning method of decision making. H. Evaluate the effectiveness of using interpersonal communication skills to resolve conflict.


11.3. Food Science and Nutrition
11.3.3. GRADE 3 11.3.6. GRADE 6 11.3.9. GRADE 9 11.3.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to . . .
A. Know the production steps that a food travels from the farm to the consumer. A. Demonstrate knowledge of techniques used to evaluate food in various forms (e.g., canned, frozen, dried, irradiated). A. Explain how scientific and technological developments enhance our food supply (e.g., food preservation techniques, packaging, nutrient fortification). A. Analyze how food engineering and technology trends will influence the food supply.
B. Describe personal hygiene techniques in food handling (e.g., handwashing, sneeze control, signs of food spoilage). B. Describe safe food handling techniques (e.g., storage, temperature control, food preparation, conditions that create a safe working environment for food production). B. Identify the cause, effect and prevention of microbial contamination, parasites and toxic chemicals in food. B. Evaluate the role of Government agencies in safeguarding our food supply (e.g., USDA, FDA, EPA and CDC).
C. Explain the importance of eating a varied diet in maintaining health. C. Analyze factors that effect food choices. C. Analyze the impact of food addictions and eating disorders on health. C. Evaluate sources of food and nutrition information.
D. Classify foods by food group within the food guide pyramid including the serving size and nutrient function within the body. D. Describe a well-balanced daily menu using the dietary guidelines and the food guide pyramid. D. Analyze relationship between diet and disease and risk factors (e.g., calcium and osteoporosis; fat, cholesterol and heart disease; folate and birth defects; sodium and hypertension). D. Critique diet modifications for their ability to improve nutritionally-related health conditions (e.g., diabetes, lactose-intolerance, iron deficiency).
E. Define energy-yielding nutrients and calories. E. Explain the relationship between calories, nutrient and food input versus energy output; describe digestion. E. Analyze the energy requirements, nutrient requirements and body composition for individuals at various stages of the life cycle. E. Analyze the breakdown of foods, absorption of nutrients and their conversion to energy by the body.
F. Identify components of a basic recipe (e.g., volume, weight, fractions, recipe ingredients, recipe directions, safety techniques). F. Analyze basic food preparation techniques and food-handling procedures. F. Hypothesize the effectiveness of the use of meal management principles (e.g., time management, budgetary considerations, sensory appeal, balanced nutrition, safety, sanitation). F. Evaluate the application of nutrition and meal planning principles in the selection, planning, preparation and serving of meals that meet the specific nutritional needs of individuals across their lifespan.
G. Classify foods according to senses (e.g., taste, touch, smell, mouth feel, sight, sound). G. Describe the physical, biological, and chemical changes that take place in food preparation. G. Analyze the application of physical and chemical changes that occur in food during preparation and preservation. G. Analyze the relevance of scientific principles to food processing, preparation and packaging.


11.4. Child Development
11.4.3. GRADE 3 11.4.6. GRADE 6 11.4.9. GRADE 9 11.4.12. GRADE 12
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .
A. Identify characteristics in each stage of child development.
• Infancy/birth to 1 year
• Early childhood/1 to 6 years
• Middle childhood/6 to 9 years
• Late childhood/9—13 years
• Adolescence/13—18 years
A. Compare and contrast child development guided practices according to the stage of child development. A. Analyze physical, intellectual and social/emotional development in relation to theories of child development. A. Analyze current research on existing theories in child development and its impact on parenting (e.g., Piaget, Erikson and prior findings versus new brain development research).
B. Identify health and safety needs for children at each stage of child development. B. Identify ways to keep children healthy and safe at each stage of child development. B. Evaluate health and safety hazards relating to children at each stage of child development. B. Analyze current issues in health and safety affecting children at each stage of child development.
C. Identify the characteristics of a learning environment. C. Identify the role of the caregiver in providing a learning environment (e.g., babysitting, daycare, preschool). C. Evaluate various environments to determine if they provide the characteristics of a proper learning environment. C. Analyze practices that optimize child development (e.g., stimulation, safe environment, nurturing caregivers, reading to children).
D. Identify community resources provided for children. D. Identify child-care provider considerations. D. Analyze the roles, responsibilities and opportunity for family involvement in schools.
D. Analyze plans and methods to blend work and family responsibilities to meet the needs of children.
E. Explain how the home and community help a person learn to read, write and compute. E. Identify characteristics of quality literature for children and other literacy enhancing activities. E. Explain how storytelling, story reading and writing enhance literacy development in children. E. Identify practices that develop the child’s imagination, creativity and reading and writing skills through literature.

XXXIII. GLOSSARY

Aesthetics: Appreciation of and responsive to beauty.
CDC: Center for Disease Control
Child-care provider considerations: Criteria to use in evaluating child care facilities. These include well-trained and highly motivated staff, pleasant sanitary surroundings, variety in toys and supplies, ratio of staff to children.
Child development stage: An age range with similar growth characteristics: infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, late childhood, adolescence.
Consumer responsibilities: The need to interpret information in care instructions, safety precautions and proper use of consumable goods as a user of goods and services.
Consumer rights: The guarantee to be safe, the right to be informed, to be heard, to choose consumer education and to redress as a user of goods and services.
Dietary guidelines: A set of seven recommendations developed by the United States Department of Agriculture and Health and Human Services to help healthy people over age 2 know what to eat to stay healthy.
Developmental tasks: Changes in the thinking and behavior of individuals over time.
Empathy: The action of understanding another’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors.
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
FCCLA Action planning procedure: The decision making process endorsed by the Family, Career and Community Leaders of America, involving five steps:
1. Identify concerns—brainstorm and evaluate, narrow choices to workable ideas.
2. Set your goals—write what you want to accomplish as an achievable objective.
3. Form a plan—who, what, when, where and how.
4. Act—carry out the plan.
5. Follow up—determine if your goal was met and create an improvement plan.
FDA: Food and Drug Administration
Family, Career and: Community Leaders Of America: Vocational student organization sponsored by Family and Consumer Sciences’ classrooms.
Food guide pyramid: A visual tool used to help people plan healthy diets according to the Dietary Guidelines for America.
Guided practices: Interaction with a child based on age appropriate developmental principles.
I message: A statement containing three parts:
1. The situation
2. How it makes the speaker feel
3. What will happen if it continues.
Kinship: Relationships or relatives.
Leadership skills: The ability to:
• Use resources
• Delegate authority
• Communicate effectively
• Assess composition of group
• Determine and rank goals
• Evaluate consequences.
Microbial contamination: Most common food contaminants causing foodborne illnesses.
Nutrient: A basic component of food that nourishes the body.
Opportunity cost: The tangible and nontangible trade-off necessary to procure a good or service or to take an action.
Practical reasoning: A decision making process unique because of its emphasis on relationships and involving six steps:
1. Identify situation to be solved
2. Identify reliable information
3. List choices and examine consequences
4. Develop plan of action
5. Draw conclusions
6. Reflect on decisions.
Redress: To set right or remedy.
Toxic chemical: Contaminants found in natural, environmental and pesticide residue forms that are poisonous to the body.
Scarcity: The lack of provisions for the support of life.
Team work skills: The ability to:
• Collaborate
• Cooperate
• Set community goals
• Reach consensus.
Trade-off: Exchange of goods, services or monies.
USDA: United States Department of Agriculture



APPENDIX E


Academic Standards for Career Education
and Work



Source

   The provisions of this Appendix E adopted July 7, 2006, effective July 8, 2006, 36 Pa.B. 3528, unless otherwise noted.

XXXVII. TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Introduction…XXXVIII.

 THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

 Career Awareness and Preparation…13.1.
 
A. Abilities and Aptitudes
B. Personal Interests
C. Nontraditional Workplace Roles
D. Local Career Preparation Opportunities
E. Career Selection Influences
F. Preparation for Careers
G. Career Plan Components
H. Relationship Between Education and Career

 Career Acquisition (Getting a Job)…13.2.
 
A. Interviewing Skills
B. Resources
C. Career Acquisition Documents
D. Career Planning Portfolios
E. Career Acquisition Process

 Career Retention and Advancement…13.3.
 
A. Work Habits
B. Cooperation and Teamwork
C. Group Interaction
D. Budgeting
E. Time Management
F. Workplace Changes
G. Lifelong Learning

 Entrepreneurship…13.4.
 A. Risks and Rewards
B. Character Traits
C. Business Plan

 Glossary…XXXIX.

XXXVII. INTRODUCTION


 The Academic Standards for Career Education and Work reflect the increasing complexity and sophistication that students experience as they progress through school. Career Education and Work Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (3, 5, 8 and 11) in four areas:

 • 13.1 Career Awareness and Preparation

 • 13.2 Career Acquisition (Getting a Job)

 • 13.3 Career Retention and Advancement

 • 13.4 Entrepreneurship

 Pennsylvania’s economic future depends on having a well-educated and skilled workforce. No student should leave secondary education without a solid foundation in Career Education and Work. It is the rapidly changing workplace and the demand for continuous learning and innovation on the part of the workers that drive the need to establish academic standards in Career Education and Work.

 Through a comprehensive approach, Career Education and Work Standards complement all disciplines and other academic standards. If Pennsylvania’s students are to succeed in the workplace, there are certain skills that they need to obtain prior to graduation from high school. These skills have been identified in the Career Education and Work Standards, but it is up to individual school districts to decide how they are to be taught. Districts can implement integration strategies within existing disciplines or can implement stand-alone courses to specifically address these standards.

 A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

13.1. Career Awareness and Preparation
13.1.3. GRADE 3
13.1.5. GRADE 5
13.1.8. GRADE 8
13.1.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Recognize that individuals have unique interests.
A. Describe the impact of individual interests and abilities on career choices. A. Relate careers to individual interests, abilities and aptitudes. A. Relate careers to individual interests, abilities and aptitudes.
B. Identify current personal interests. B. Describe the impact of personal interest and abilities on career choices. B. Relate careers to personal interests, abilities and aptitudes. B. Analyze career options based on personal interests, abilities, aptitudes, achievements and goals.
C. Recognize that the roles of individuals at home, in the workplace and in the community are constantly changing. C. Relate the impact of change to both traditional and nontraditional careers. C. Explain how both traditional and nontraditional careers offer or hinder career opportunities. C. Analyze how the changing roles of individuals in the workplace relate to new opportunities within career choices.
D. Identify the range of jobs available in the community. D. Describe the range of career training programs in the community such as, but not limited to:
• Two-and-four year colleges
• Career and technical  education programs at centers  (formerly AVTS) and high  schools
• CareerLinks
• Community/recreation centers
• Faith-based organizations
• Local industry training  centers
• Military
• Registered apprenticeship
• Vocational rehabilitation  centers
• Web-based training
D. Explain the relationship of career training programs to employment opportunities. D. Evaluate school-based opportunities for career awareness/preparation, such as, but not limited to:
• Career days
• Career portfolio
• Community service
• Cooperative education
• Graduation/senior project
• Internship
• Job shadowing
• Part-time employment
• Registered apprenticeship
• School-based enterprise
E. Describe the work done by school personnel and other individuals in the community. E. Describe the factors that influence career choices, such as, but not limited to:
• Geographic location
• Job description
• Salaries/benefits
• Work schedule
• Working conditions
E. Analyze the economic factors that impact employment opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Competition
• Geographic location
• Global influences
• Job growth
• Job openings
• Labor supply
• Potential advancement
• Potential earnings
• Salaries/benefits
• Unemployment
E. Justify the selection of a career.
F. Explore how people prepare for careers. F. Investigate people’s rationale for making career choices. F. Analyze the relationship of school subjects, extracurricular activities and community experiences to career preparation. F. Analyze the relationship between career choices and career preparation opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Associate degree
• Baccalaureate degree
• Certificate/licensure
• Entrepreneurship
• Immediate part/full time  employment
• Industry training
• Military training
• Professional degree
• Registered apprenticeship
• Tech Prep
• Vocational rehabilitation  centers
G. Explain why education and training plans are important to careers. G. Identify the components of a career plan, such as, but not limited to:
• Beginnings of career portfolio
• Career goals
• Individual interests and  abilities
• Training/education  requirements and costs
G. Create an individualized career plan including, such as, but not limited to:
• Assessment and continued  development of career  portfolio
• Career goals
• Cluster/pathway opportunities
• Individual interests and  abilities
• Training/education  requirements and financing
G. Assess the implementation of the individualized career plan through the ongoing development of the career portfolio.
H. Explain how workers in their careers use what is learned in the classroom. H. Connect personal interests and abilities and academic strengths to personal career options. H. Choose personal electives and extra curricular activities based upon personal career interests, abilities and academic strengths. H. Review personal high school plan against current personal career goals and select postsecondary opportunities based upon personal career interests.


13.2. Career Acquisition (Getting a Job)
13.2.3. GRADE 3
13.2.5. GRADE 5
13.2.8. GRADE 8
13.2.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify appropriate speaking and listening techniques used in conversation. A. Apply appropriate speaking and listening techniques used in conversation. A. Identify effective speaking and listening skills used in a job interview. A. Apply effective speaking and listening skills used in a job interview.
B. Discuss resources available in researching job opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Internet
• Magazines
• Newspapers
B. Identify and review resources available in researching job opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Internet
• Magazines
• Newspapers
B. Evaluate resources available in researching job opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• CareerLinks
• Internet (i.e. O*NET)
• Networking
• Newspapers
• Professional associations
• Resource books (that is  Occupational Outlook  Handbook, PA Career Guide)
B. Apply research skills in searching for a job.
• CareerLinks
• Internet (i.e. O*NET)
• Networking
• Newspapers
• Professional associations
• Resource books (that is  Occupational Outlook  Handbook, PA Career Guide)
C. Compose a personal letter. C. Compose and compare a business and a personal letter. C. Prepare a draft of career acquisition documents, such as, but not limited to:
• Job application
• Letter of appreciation  following an interview
• Letter of introduction
• Request for letter of  recommendation
• Resume
C. Develop and assemble, for career portfolio placement, career acquisition documents, such as, but not limited to:
• Job application
• Letter of appreciation  following an interview
• Letter of introduction
• Postsecondary education/ training applications
• Request for letter of  recommendation
• Resume
D. Identify the importance of developing a plan for the future. D. Identify individualized career portfolio components, such as, but not limited to:
• Achievements
• Awards/recognitions
• Career exploration results
• Career plans
• Community service  involvement/projects
• Interests/hobbies
• Personal career goals
• Selected school work
• Self inventories
D. Develop an individualized career portfolio including components, such as, but not limited to:
• Achievements
• Awards/recognitions
• Career exploration results
• Career plans
• Community service  involvement/projects
• Interests/hobbies
• Personal career goals
• Selected school work
• Self inventories
D. Analyze, revise and apply an individualized career portfolio to chosen career path.
E. Discuss the importance of the essential workplace skills, such as, but not limited to:
• Dependability
• Health/safety
• Team building
• Technology
E. Apply to daily activities, the essential workplace skills, such as, but not limited to:
• Commitment
• Communication
• Dependability
• Health/safety
• Personal initiative
• Scheduling/time management
• Team building
• Technical literacy
• Technology
E. Explain, in the career acquisition process, the importance of the essential workplace skills/knowledge, such as, but not limited to:
• Commitment
• Communication
• Dependability
• Health/safety
• Laws and regulations (that is  Americans With Disabilities  Act, child labor laws, Fair  Labor Standards Act, OSHA,  Material Safety Data Sheets)
• Personal initiative
• Self-advocacy
• Scheduling/time management
• Team building
• Technical literacy
• Technology
E. Demonstrate, in the career acquisition process, the application of essential workplace skills/knowledge, such as, but not limited to:
• Commitment
• Communication
• Dependability
• Health/safety
• Laws and regulations (that is  Americans With Disabilities  Act, child labor laws, Fair  Labor Standards Act, OSHA,  Material Safety Data Sheets)
• Personal initiative
• Self-advocacy
• Scheduling/time management
• Team building
• Technical literacy
• Technology


13.3. Career Retention and Advancement
13.3.3. GRADE 3
13.3.5. GRADE 5
13.3.8. GRADE 8
13.3.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Identify attitudes and work habits that contribute to success at home and school. A. Explain how student attitudes and work habits transfer from the home and school to the workplace. A. Determine attitudes and work habits that support career retention and advancement. A. Evaluate personal attitudes and work habits that support career retention and advancement.
B. Identify how to cooperate at both home and school. B. Explain the importance of working cooperatively with others at both home and school to complete a task. B. Analyze the role of each participant’s contribution in a team setting. B. Evaluate team member roles to describe and illustrate active listening techniques:
• Clarifying
• Encouraging
• Reflecting
• Restating
• Summarizing
C. Explain effective group interaction terms, such as, but not limited to:
• Compliment
• Cooperate
• Encourage
• Participate
C. Identify effective group interaction strategies, such as, but not limited to:
• Building consensus
• Communicating effectively
• Establishing ground rules
• Listening to others
C. Explain and demonstrate conflict resolution skills:
• Constructive criticism
• Group dynamics
• Managing/leadership
• Mediation
• Negotiation
• Problem solving
C. Evaluate conflict resolution skills as they relate to the workplace:
• Constructive criticism
• Group dynamics
• Managing/leadership
• Mediation
• Negotiation
• Problem solving
D. Explain how money is used. D. Explain budgeting. D. Analyze budgets and pay statements, such as, but not limited to:
• Charitable contributions
• Expenses
• Gross pay
• Net pay
• Other income
• Savings
• Taxes
D. Develop a personal budget based on career choice, such as, but not limited to:
• Charitable contributions
• Fixed/variable expenses
• Gross pay
• Net pay
• Other income
• Savings
• Taxes
E. Discuss how time is used at both home and school. E. Develop a personal schedule based on activities and responsibilities at both home and school. E. Identify and apply time management strategies as they relate to both personal and work situations. E. Evaluate time management strategies and their application to both personal and work situations.
F. Identify the changes in family and friend’s roles at home, at school and in the community. F. Describe the impact of role changes at home, school, and at work, and how the role changes impact career advancement and retention. F. Identify characteristics of the changing workplace including Americans With Disabilities Act accommodations, and explain their impact on jobs and employment. F. Evaluate strategies for career retention and advancement in response to the changing global workplace.
G. Define and describe the importance of lifelong learning. G. Describe how personal interests and abilities impact lifelong learning. G. Identify formal and informal lifelong learning opportunities that support career retention and advancement. G. Evaluate the impact of lifelong learning on career retention and advancement.


13.4. Entrepreneurship
13.4.3. GRADE 3
13.4.5. GRADE 5
13.4.8. GRADE 8
13.4.11. GRADE 11
Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his
maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:
A. Define entrepreneurship. A. Identify the risks and rewards of entrepreneurship. A. Compare and contrast entrepreneurship to traditional employment, such as, but not limited to:
• Benefits
• Job security
• Operating costs
• Wages
A. Analyze entrepreneurship as it relates to personal career goals and corporate opportunities.
B. Describe the character traits of successful entrepreneurs, such as, but not limited to:
• Adaptability
• Creative thinking
• Ethical behavior
• Leadership
• Positive attitude
• Risk-taking
B. Discuss the entrepreneurial character traits of historical or contemporary entrepreneurs. B. Evaluate how entrepreneurial character traits influence career opportunities. B. Analyze entrepreneurship as it relates to personal character traits.
C. Describe age-appropriate entrepreneurial opportunities, such as, but not limited to:
• Bake sale
• Crafts
• Lemonade stand
• Pet care
C. Discuss the steps entrepreneurs take to bring their goods or services to market, such as, but not limited to:
• Marketing
• Production
• Research and development
• Selection of goods and  services
C. Identify and describe the basic components of a business plan, such as, but not limited to:
• Business idea
• Competitive analysis
• Daily operations
• Finances/budget
• Marketing
• Productive resources (human,  capital, natural)
• Sales forecasting
C. Develop a business plan for an entrepreneurial concept of personal interest and identify available resources, such as, but not limited to:
• Community based  organizations (that is  chambers of commerce,  trade/technical associations,  Industrial Resource Centers)
• Financial institutions
• School-based career centers
• Small Business  Administration services (that  is SCORE, Small Business  Development Centers,  Entrepreneurial Development  Centers)
• Venture capital

Academic Standards for Career Education and Work



XXXIX. GLOSSARY

Americans With Disabilities Act
(Pub. L. No. 101-336):
The Americans With Disabilities Act is a Federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination and for ensuring equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment, state and local government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation and requiring the establishment of TDD/telephone relay services.
Aptitudes: Capacity to learn and understand.
Associate degree: A postsecondary degree typically earned within a 2-year time frame.
Baccalaureate degree: A postsecondary degree, also known as a bachelor’s degree, typically earned within a 4-year time frame from a college or university.
Benefits: Something of value that an employee receives in addition to a wage or salary. Examples include health and life insurance, vacation leave, retirement plans, and the like.
Budget: A financial plan that summarizes anticipated income and expenditures over a period of time.
Business plan: A prepared document detailing the past, present and future of an organization.
Career and technical centers: Schools that educate secondary students and adults through academic instruction, job preparation and acquisition of occupational skills leading to credentials or employment, or both, in specific industries. The centers also provide opportunities for transition to postsecondary education and continuing education.
Career cluster: A grouping of related occupations, which share similar skill sets.
Career days: Special events that allow students to meet with employers, career development specialists, community-based organization representatives and postsecondary educators. Events are designed to encourage students to gain information about careers and job opportunities.
Career plan: A document developed by the student that identifies a series of educational studies and experiences to prepare them for postsecondary education or work, or both, in a selected career cluster or area.
Career portfolio: An ongoing, individualized collection of materials (electronic or hard copy) that documents a student’s educational performance, career exploration and employment experiences over time. While there is no standard format that a career portfolio must take, it typically includes a range of work, containing assignments by the teacher/counselor and selections by the student. It serves as a guide for the student to transition to postsecondary education or the workplace, or both.
Career retention and advancement: Career retention is the process of keeping a job. Career advancement is the process of performing the necessary requirements to progress in a career.
CareerLinks: A cooperative system that provides one-stop delivery of career services to job seekers, employers and other interested individuals.
Certificate/licensure: A document, issued by associations, employers, educational institutions, government, and the like, confirming that one has fulfilled the requirements and is able to perform to a specified level of proficiency within a career field.
Child labor laws: Legislation governing the employment of children under the age of 18.
Competitive analysis: A tool that allows a business to identify its competitors and evaluate their respective strengths and weaknesses.
Cooperative education: A structured method of instruction whereby students alternate or coordinate their high school studies with a job in a field related to their academic or career objectives.
Entrepreneurs: Individuals who engage in the process of organizing, managing and assuming the risk of a business or enterprise.
Entrepreneurship: The process of organizing, managing and assuming the risks of a business or enterprise.
Fair Labor Standards Act: A Federal law that defines overtime and wage requirements (26 U.S.C.A. § §  201—219).
Fixed/variable expenses: Fixed expenses are regular in their timing and amount, and include things such as rent, mortgage, car payment and insurance. Variable expenses are irregular in their timing and amount, and include such things as food, clothing, home and car maintenance, entertainment and gifts.
Global influences: Political and cultural changes, which impact the world and its economy.
Gross pay: The amount earned before deductions, such as taxes, insurance and retirement/pension plan.
Industrial resource centers: Nonprofit corporations, which provide assistance to improve the competitive position of small-to-medium sized manufacturers.
Internship: A work experience with an employer for a specified period of time to learn about a particular industry or occupation, which may or may not include financial compensation. The workplace activities may include special projects, a sample of tasks from different jobs or tasks from a single occupation.
Job shadowing: Typically as part of career exploration activities in late middle and early high school, a student follows an employee for 1 or more days to learn about a particular occupation or industry. Job shadowing is intended to help students explore a range of career objectives and to possibly select a career pathway.
Labor supply: The number of persons either working or unemployed and actively seeking work.
Marketing: The process or technique of promoting, selling and distributing a product or service.
Material Safety Data Sheets: Federally-mandated listings of all hazardous materials that will impact the health and safety of the workers and that are required to be posted in the workplace.
Mediation: Third-party intervention between conflicting parties to promote reconciliation, settlement or compromise.
Net pay: The amount remaining after deductions, such as taxes, insurance and retirement/pension plan.
Networking: The act of exchanging information, contacts and services.
Nontraditional careers: Fields of work for which individuals from one gender comprise less than 25% of the individuals employed in each occupation or field of work.
O*NET: Occupational Information Network—is a free public access online web-based system provided by the United States Department of Labor, which includes comprehensive up-to-date occupational information including skills, knowledge, abilities and tasks for more than 950 occupations.
Operating costs: The funds necessary to operate a business, not including the cost of goods sold. This is also referred to as overhead.
OSHA: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration—A National agency with representatives in each state who monitor health and safety issues in the workplace.
Professional associations: Organizations of people having common interests.
Professional degree: A title conferred on students by a college, university or professional school upon completion of a program of study.
Registered apprenticeship: A formal program registered with the United States Department of Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training and with the Pennsylvania Apprenticeship Council. This program must follow strict guidelines as to the types of training and amount of training time an apprentice receives and leads directly into occupations requiring the training for entry.
Resume: A summary of one’s personal qualifications, education/training and employment experience.
Salaries/benefits: Financial compensation paid regularly for services (See ‘‘benefits’’ for definition).
Sales forecasting: Predicting the number of services or units likely to be sold over a specified period of time.
School-based career centers: Specialized areas in schools equipped with resources and materials used to research postsecondary and occupational opportunities.
School-based enterprise: The production of goods or services as part of a school program.
SCORE: Service Corps of Retired Executives—A Small Business Administration Federally-sponsored program to assist small-to-medium sized companies.
Self inventories: Evaluation of an individual’s strengths, weaknesses and interests, as it relates to career planning.
Tech Prep: The name given to programs that offer at least 4 years of sequential course work at the secondary and postsecondary levels to prepare students for technical careers. The curricula are designed to build student competency in academic subjects, as well as to provide broad technical preparation in a career area.
Technical literacy: The ability of individuals to use existing and emerging technologies, equipment, language, materials and manuals to participate intelligently in performing tasks related to everyday life, school or job.
Time management strategies: Scheduling techniques used to effectively and efficiently direct or control activities.
Traditional careers: Fields of work for which individuals from one gender comprise more than 25% of the individuals employed in each occupation or field of work.
Unemployment: Measurement of the number of people who are not working and who are actively seeking work.
Venture capital: Public or private funds invested in a potentially profitable business enterprise despite risk of loss.
Vocational rehabilitation centers: Educational facilities that provide life skills and occupational training services for individuals with special needs.
Wages: Payments of money for labor or services according to contract and on an hourly, daily or piecework basis.
Web-based training: Instruction that is available online.
Work habits: Acquired behaviors that individuals regularly perform in completing tasks related to chores, school or job.
Working conditions: The environment in which an individual is employed.



APPENDIX A-1


Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects



Source

   The provisions of this Appendix A-1 renumbered from Appendix B adopted October 15, 2010, effective July 1, 2013, 40 Pa.B. 5903; correction published at 43 Pa.B. 4079, unless otherwise noted.

Table of Contents

 Introduction

 Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects K-5

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading

   Reading Standards for Literature K-5
Reading Standards for Informational Text K-5
Reading Standards: Foundational Skills K-5

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing

   Writing Standards K-5

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening

   Speaking and Listening Standards K-5

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language

   Language Standards K-5
Language Progressive Skills, by Grade

 Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading K-5

 Staying on Topic Within a Grade and Across Grades

 Standards for English Language Arts 6-12

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading

   Reading Standards for Literature 6-12
Reading Standards for Informational Text 6-12

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing

   Writing Standards 6-12

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening

   Speaking and Listening Standards 6-12

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language

   Language Standards 6-12
Language Progressive Skills, by Grade

 Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading 6-12

 Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading

   Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6-12
Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12

 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing

   Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12

Introduction

 The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (‘‘the Standards’’) are the culmination of an extended, broad-based effort to fulfill the charge issued by the states to create the next generation of K-12 standards in order to help ensure that all students are college and career ready in literacy no later than the end of high school.

 The present work, led by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and the National Governors Association (NGA), builds on the foundation laid by states in their decades-long work on crafting high-quality education standards. The Standards also draw on the most important international models as well as research and input from numerous sources, including state departments of education, scholars, assessment developers, professional organizations, educators from kindergarten through college, and parents, students, and other members of the public. In their design and content, refined through successive drafts and numerous rounds of feedback, the Standards represent a synthesis of the best elements of standards-related work to date and an important advance over that previous work.

 As specified by CCSSO and NGA, the Standards are (1) research and evidence based, (2) aligned with college and work expectations, (3) rigorous, and (4) internationally benchmarked. A particular standard was included in the document only when the best available evidence indicated that its mastery was essential for college and career readiness in a twenty-first-century, globally competitive society. The Standards are intended to be a living work: as new and better evidence emerges, the Standards will be revised accordingly.

 The Standards are an extension of a prior initiative led by CCSSO and NGA to develop College and Career Readiness (CCR) standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language as well as in mathematics. The CCR Reading, Writing, and Speaking and Listening Standards, released in draft form in September 2009, serve, in revised form, as the backbone for the present document. Grade-specific K-12 standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language translate the broad (and, for the earliest grades, seemingly distant) aims of the CCR standards into age- and attainment-appropriate terms.

 The Standards set requirements not only for English language arts (ELA) but also for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Just as students must learn to read, write, speak, listen, and use language effectively in a variety of content areas, so too must the Standards specify the literacy skills and understandings required for college and career readiness in multiple disciplines. Literacy standards for grade 6 and above are predicated on teachers of ELA, history/social studies, science, and technical subjects using their content area expertise to help students meet the particular challenges of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language in their respective fields. It is important to note that the 6-12 literacy standards in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are not meant to replace content standards in those areas but rather to supplement them. States may incorporate these standards into their standards for those subjects or adopt them as content area literacy standards.

 As a natural outgrowth of meeting the charge to define college and career readiness, the Standards also lay out a vision of what it means to be a literate person in the twenty-first century. Indeed, the skills and understandings students are expected to demonstrate have wide applicability outside the classroom or workplace. Students who meet the Standards readily undertake the close, attentive reading that is at the heart of understanding and enjoying complex works of literature. They habitually perform the critical reading necessary to pick carefully through the staggering amount of information available today in print and digitally. They actively seek the wide, deep, and thoughtful engagement with high-quality literary and informational texts that builds knowledge, enlarges experience, and broadens worldviews. They reflexively demonstrate the cogent reasoning and use of evidence that is essential to both private deliberation and responsible citizenship in a democratic republic. In short, students who meet the Standards develop the skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening that are the foundation for any creative and purposeful expression in language.

 June 2, 2010


Key Design Considerations

 CCR and grade-specific standards

 The CCR standards anchor the document and define general, cross-disciplinary literacy expectations that must be met for students to be prepared to enter college and workforce training programs ready to succeed. The K-12 grade-specific standards define end-of-year expectations and a cumulative progression designed to enable students to meet college and career readiness expectations no later than the end of high school. The CCR and high school (grades 9—12) standards work in tandem to define the college and career readiness line—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Hence, both should be considered when developing college and career readiness assessments.

 Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards, retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades, and work steadily toward meeting the more general expectations described by the CCR standards.

 Grade levels for K-8; grade bands for 9-10 and 11-12

 The Standards use individual grade levels in kindergarten through grade 8 to provide useful specificity; the Standards use two-year bands in grades 9-12 to allow schools, districts, and states flexibility in high school course design.

 A focus on results rather than means

 By emphasizing required achievements, the Standards leave room for teachers, curriculum developers, and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be addressed. Thus, the Standards do not mandate such things as a particular writing process or the full range of metacognitive strategies that students may need to monitor and direct their thinking and learning. Teachers are thus free to provide students with whatever tools and knowledge their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful for meeting the goals set out in the Standards.

 An integrated model of literacy

 Although the Standards are divided into Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language strands for conceptual clarity, the processes of communication are closely connected, as reflected throughout this document. For example, Writing standard 9 requires that students be able to write about what they read. Likewise, Speaking and Listening standard 4 sets the expectation that students will share findings from their research.

 Research and media skills blended into the Standards as a whole

 To be ready for college, workforce training, and life in a technological society, students need the ability to gather, comprehend, evaluate, synthesize, and report on information and ideas, to conduct original research in order to answer questions or solve problems, and to analyze and create a high volume and extensive range of print and nonprint texts in media forms old and new. The need to conduct research and to produce and consume media is embedded into every aspect of today’s curriculum. In like fashion, research and media skills and understandings are embedded throughout the Standards rather than treated in a separate section.

 Shared responsibility for students’ literacy development

 The Standards insist that instruction in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language be a shared responsibility within the school. The K-5 standards include expectations for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language applicable to a range of subjects, including but not limited to ELA. The grades 6-12 standards are divided into two sections, one for ELA and the other for history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. This division reflects the unique, time-honored place of ELA teachers in developing students’ literacy skills while at the same time recognizing that teachers in other areas must have a role in this development as well.

 Part of the motivation behind the interdisciplinary approach to literacy promulgated by the Standards is extensive research establishing the need for college and career ready students to be proficient in reading complex informational text independently in a variety of content areas. Most of the required reading in college and workforce training programs is informational in structure and challenging in content; postsecondary education programs typically provide students with both a higher volume of such reading than is generally required in K-12 schools and comparatively little scaffolding.

 The Standards are not alone in calling for a special emphasis on informational text. The 2009 reading framework of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) requires a high and increasing proportion of informational text on its assessment as students advance through the grades.

Distribution of Literary and Informational Passages by Grade in the 2009 NAEP Reading Framework



Grade Literary Informational
4 50% 50%
8 45% 55%
12 30% 70%

 Source: National Assessment Governing Board. (2008). Reading framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 The Standards aim to align instruction with this framework so that many more students than at present can meet the requirements of college and career readiness. In K-5, the Standards follow NAEP’s lead in balancing the reading of literature with the reading of informational texts, including texts in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. In accord with NAEP’s growing emphasis on informational texts in the higher grades, the Standards demand that a significant amount of reading of informational texts take place in and outside the ELA classroom. Fulfilling the Standards for 6-12 ELA requires much greater attention to a specific category of informational text—literary nonfiction—than has been traditional. Because the ELA classroom must focus on literature (stories, drama, and poetry) as well as literary nonfiction, a great deal of informational reading in grades 6-12 must take place in other classes if the NAEP assessment framework is to be matched instructionally.1 To measure students’ growth toward college and career readiness, assessments aligned with the Standards should adhere to the distribution of texts across grades cited in the NAEP framework.

 NAEP likewise outlines a distribution across the grades of the core purposes and types of student writing. The 2011 NAEP framework, like the Standards, cultivates the development of three mutually reinforcing writing capacities: writing to persuade, to explain, and to convey real or imagined experience. Evidence concerning the demands of college and career readiness gathered during development of the Standards concurs with NAEP’s shifting emphases: standards for grades 9-12 describe writing in all three forms, but, consistent with NAEP, the overwhelming focus of writing throughout high school should be on arguments and informative/explanatory texts.2

Distribution of Communicative Purposes by Grade in the 2011 NAEP Writing Framework



Grade To Persuade To Explain To Convey Experience
4 30% 35% 35%
8 35% 35% 30%
12 40% 40% 20%

 Source: National Assessment Governing Board. (2007). Writing framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress, pre-publication edition. Iowa City, IA: ACT, Inc.

 It follows that writing assessments aligned with the Standards should adhere to the distribution of writing purposes across grades outlined by NAEP.

 Focus and coherence in instruction and assessment

 While the Standards delineate specific expectations in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language, each standard need not be a separate focus for instruction and assessment. Often, several standards can be addressed by a single rich task. For example, when editing writing, students address Writing standard 5 (‘‘Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach’’) as well as Language standards 1-3 (which deal with conventions of standard English and knowledge of language). When drawing evidence from literary and informational texts per Writing standard 9, students are also demonstrating their comprehension skill in relation to specific standards in Reading. When discussing something they have read or written, students are also demonstrating their speaking and listening skills. The CCR anchor standards themselves provide another source of focus and coherence.

 The same ten CCR anchor standards for Reading apply to both literary and informational texts, including texts in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. The ten CCR anchor standards for Writing cover numerous text types and subject areas. This means that students can develop mutually reinforcing skills and exhibit mastery of standards for reading and writing across a range of texts and classrooms.

 What is not covered by the Standards

 The Standards should be recognized for what they are not as well as what they are. The most important intentional design limitations are as follows:

   1)  The Standards define what all students are expected to know and be able to do, not how teachers should teach. For instance, the use of play with young children is not specified by the Standards, but it is welcome as a valuable activity in its own right and as a way to help students meet the expectations in this document. Furthermore, while the Standards make references to some particular forms of content, including mythology, foundational U.S. documents, and Shakespeare, they do not—indeed, cannot—enumerate all or even most of the content that students should learn. The Standards must therefore be complemented by a well-developed, content-rich curriculum consistent with the expectations laid out in this document.

   2)  While the Standards focus on what is most essential, they do not describe all that can or should be taught. A great deal is left to the discretion of teachers and curiculum developers. The aim of the Standards is to articulate the fundamentals, not to set out an exhaustive list or a set of restrictions that limits what can be taught beyond what is specified herein.

   3)  The Standards do not define the nature of advanced work for students who meet the Standards prior to the end of high school. For those students, advanced work in such areas as literature, composition, language, and journalism should be available. This work should provide the next logical step up from the college and career readiness baseline established here.

   4)  The Standards set grade-specific standards but do not define the intervention methods or materials necessary to support students who are well below or well above grade-level expectations. No set of grade-specific standards can fully reflect the great variety in abilities, needs, learning rates, and achievement levels of students in any given classroom. However, the Standards do provide clear signposts along the way to the goal of college and career readiness for all students.

   5)  It is also beyond the scope of the Standards to define the full range of supports appropriate for English language learners and for students with special needs. At the same time, all students must have the opportunity to learn and meet the same high standards if they are to access the knowledge and skills necessary in their post-high school lives.

   Each grade will include students who are still acquiring English. For those students, it is possible to meet the standards in reading, writing, speaking, and listening without displaying native-like control of conventions and vocabulary.

   The Standards should also be read as allowing for the widest possible range of students to participate fully from the outset and as permitting appropriate accommodations to ensure maximum participation of students with special education needs. For example, for students with disabilities reading should allow for the use of Braille, screen-reader technology, or other assistive devices, while writing should include the use of a scribe, computer, or speech-to-text technology. In a similar vein, speaking and listening should be interpreted broadly to include sign language.

   6)  While the ELA and content area literacy components described herein are critical to college and career readiness, they do not define the whole of such readiness. Students require a wide-ranging, rigorous academic preparation and, particularly in the early grades, attention to such matters as social, emotional, and physical development and approaches to learning. Similarly, the Standards define literacy expectations in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects, but literacy standards in other areas, such as mathematics and health education, modeled on those in this document are strongly encouraged to facilitate a comprehensive, schoolwide literacy program.

Students Who are College and Career Ready in Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, and Language

 The descriptions that follow are not standards themselves but instead offer a portrait of students who meet the standards set out in this document. As students advance through the grades and master the standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language, they are able to exhibit with increasing fullness and regularity these capacities of the literate individual.

 • They demonstrate independence.

 Students can, without significant scaffolding, comprehend and evaluate complex texts across a range of types and disciplines, and they can construct effective arguments and convey intricate or multifaceted information. Likewise, students are able independently to discern a speaker’s key points, request clarification, and ask relevant questions. They build on others’ ideas, articulate their own ideas, and confirm they have been understood. Without prompting, they demonstrate command of standard English and acquire and use a wide-ranging vocabulary. More broadly, they become self-directed learners, effectively seeking out and using resources to assist them, including teachers, peers, and print and digital reference materials.

 • They build strong content knowledge.

 Students establish a base of knowledge across a wide range of subject matter by engaging with works of quality and substance. They become proficient in new areas through research and study. They read purposefully and listen attentively to gain both general knowledge and discipline-specific expertise. They refine and share their knowledge through writing and speaking.

 • They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline.

 Students adapt their communication in relation to audience, task, purpose, and discipline. They set and adjust purpose for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use as warranted by the task. They appreciate nuances, such as how the composition of an audience should affect tone when speaking and how the connotations of words affect meaning. They also know that different disciplines call for different types of evidence (e.g., documentary evidence in history, experimental evidence in science).

 • They comprehend as well as critique.

 Students are engaged and open-minded-but discerning-readers and listeners. They work diligently to understand precisely what an author or speaker is saying, but they also question an author’s or speaker’s assumptions and premises and assess the veracity of claims and the soundness of reasoning.

 • They value evidence.

 Students cite specific evidence when offering an oral or written interpretation of a text. They use relevant evidence when supporting their own points in writing and speaking, making their reasoning clear to the reader or listener, and they constructively evaluate others’ use of evidence.

 • They use technology and digital media strategically and capably.

 Students employ technology thoughtfully to enhance their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language use. They tailor their searches online to acquire useful information efficiently, and they integrate what they learn using technology with what they learn offline. They are familiar with the strengths and limitations of various technological tools and mediums and can select and use those best suited to their communication goals.

 • They come to understand other perspectives and cultures.

 Students appreciate that the twenty-first-century classroom and workplace are settings in which people from often widely divergent cultures and who represent diverse experiences and perspectives must learn and work together. Students actively seek to understand other perspectives and cultures through reading and listening, and they are able to communicate effectively with people of varied backgrounds. They evaluate other points of view critically and constructively. Through reading great classic and contemporary works of literature representative of a variety of periods, cultures, and worldviews, students can vicariously inhabit worlds and have experiences much different than their own.

How to Read This Document

 Overall Document Organization

 The Standards comprise three main sections: a comprehensive K-5 section and two content area-specific sections for grades 6-12, one for ELA and one for history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Three appendices accompany the main document.

 Each section is divided into strands. K-5 and 6-12 ELA have Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language strands; the 6-12 history/social studies, science, and technical subjects section focuses on Reading and Writing. Each strand is headed by a strand-specific set of College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards that is identical across all grades and content areas.

 Standards for each grade within K-8 and for grades 9-10 and 11-12 follow the CCR anchor standards in each strand. Each grade-specific standard (as these standards are collectively referred to) corresponds to the same-numbered CCR anchor standard. Put another way, each CCR anchor standard has an accompanying grade-specific standard translating the broader CCR statement into grade-appropriate end-of-year expectations.

 Individual CCR anchor standards can be identified by their strand, CCR status, and number (R.CCR.6, for example). Individual grade-specific standards can be identified by their strand, grade, and number (or number and letter, where applicable), so that RI.4.3, for example, stands for Reading, Informational Text, grade 4, standard 3 and W.5.1a stands for Writing, grade 5, standard 1a. Strand designations can be found in brackets alongside the full strand title.

   Who is responsible for which portion of the Standards?

 A single K-5 section lists standards for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language across the curriculum, reflecting the fact that most or all of the instruction students in these grades receive comes from one teacher. Grades 6-12 are covered in two content area-specific sections, the first for the English language arts teacher and the second for teachers of history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Each section uses the same CCR anchor standards but also includes grade-specific standards tuned to the literacy requirements of the particular discipline(s).

 Key Features of the Standards

 Reading: Text complexity and the growth of comprehension

 The Reading standards place equal emphasis on the sophistication of what students read and the skill with which they read. Standard 10 defines a grade-by-grade ‘‘staircase’’ of increasing text complexity that rises from beginning reading to the college and career readiness level. Whatever they are reading, students must also show a steadily growing ability to discern more from and make fuller use of text, including making an increasing number of connections among ideas and between texts, considering a wider range of textual evidence, and becoming more sensitive to inconsistencies, ambiguities, and poor reasoning in texts.

 Writing: Text types, responding to reading, and research

 The Standards acknowledge the fact that whereas some writing skills, such as the ability to plan, revise, edit, and publish, are applicable to many types of writing, other skills are more properly defined in terms of specific writing types: arguments, informative/explanatory texts, and narratives. Standard 9 stresses the importance of the writing-reading connection by requiring students to draw upon and write about evidence from literary and informational texts. Because of the centrality of writing to most forms of inquiry, research standards are prominently included in this strand, though skills important to research are infused throughout the document.

 Speaking and Listening: Flexible communication and collaboration

 Including but not limited to skills necessary for formal presentations, the Speaking and Listening standards require students to develop a range of broadly useful oral communication and interpersonal skills. Students must learn to work together, express and listen carefully to ideas, integrate information from oral, visual, quantitative, and media sources, evaluate what they hear, use media and visual displays strategically to help achieve communicative purposes, and adapt speech to context and task.

 Language: Conventions, effective use, and vocabulary

 The Language standards include the essential ‘‘rules’’ of standard written and spoken English, but they also approach language as a matter of craft and informed choice among alternatives. The vocabulary standards focus on understanding words and phrases, their relationships, and their nuances and on acquiring new vocabulary, particularly general academic and domain-specific words and phrases.

 Appendices A, B, and C

 Appendix A contains supplementary material on reading, writing, speaking and listening, and language as well as a glossary of key terms. Appendix B consists of text exemplars illustrating the complexity, quality, and range of reading appropriate for various grade levels with accompanying sample performance tasks. Appendix C includes annotated samples demonstrating at least adequate performance in student writing at various grade levels.

STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS &
LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES,
SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS


K-5


COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR
STANDARDS FOR READING

 The K-5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 Note on range and content of student reading

 To build a foundation for college and career readiness, students must read widely and deeply from among a broad range of high-quality, increasingly challenging literary and informational texts. Through extensive reading of stories, dramas, poems, and myths from diverse cultures and different time periods, students gain literary and cultural knowledge as well as familiarity with various text structures and elements. By reading texts in history/social studies, science, and other disciplines, students build a foundation of knowledge in these fields that will also give them the background to be better readers in all content areas. Students can only gain this foundation when the curriculum is intentionally and coherently structured to develop rich content knowledge within and across grades. Students also acquire the habits of reading independently and closely, which are essential to their future success.

 Key Ideas and Details

   1.  Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

   2.  Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

   3.  Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

 Craft and Structure

   4.  Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

   5.  Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

   6.  Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

   7.  Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.*

   8.  Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

   9.  Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

   10.  Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

 *Please see ‘‘Research to Build and Present Knowledge’’ in Writing and ‘‘Comprehension and Collaboration’’ in Speaking and Listening for additional standards relevant to gathering, assessing, and applying information from print and digital sources.

 Reading Standards for Literature K-5[RL]

 The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details. 2. Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson. 2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. 3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details. 3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
Craft and Structure
4. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. 4. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses. 4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
5. Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems). 5. Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types. 5. Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
6. With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story. 6. Identify who is
telling the story at various points in a text.
6. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts). 7. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events. 7. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature)
9. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories. 9. Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories. 9. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. 10. With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

   Reading Standards for Literature K-5[RL]

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. 1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. 1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. 2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. 3. Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions). 3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).
Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language. 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean). 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.
5. Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections. 5. Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text. 5. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. 6. Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. 6. Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting). 7. Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text. 7. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).
8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature)
9. Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series). 9. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures. 9. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

 Reading Standards for Informational Text K-5[RI]

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
2. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. 2. Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. 2. Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
3. With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. 3. Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. 3. Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.
Craft and Structure
4. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. 4. Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text. 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
5. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. 5. Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text. 5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
6. Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text. 6. Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text. 6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts). 7. Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas. 7. Explain how specific images (e.g.,
a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
8. With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. 8. Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. 8. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
9. With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). 9. Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures). 9. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. 10. With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1. 10. By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

 Reading Standards for Informational Text K-5[RI]

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. 1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. 1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. 2. Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. 2. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
3. Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. 3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. 3. Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.
Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area. 4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area. 4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. 5. Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. 5. Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, compar- ison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text. 6. Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided. 6. Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). 7. Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. 7. Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrat- ing the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.
8. Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). 8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. 8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).
9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. 9. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. 9. Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 10. By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

 Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K-5)[RF]

 These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

 Note: In kindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students:
Print Concepts
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
d. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
a. Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).
Phonological Awareness
2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
a. Recognize and produce rhyming words.
b. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
c. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
d. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words.* (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
e. Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.
2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
a. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
b. Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
c. Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
d. Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).

 *Words, syllables, or phonemes written in /slashes/ refer to their pronunciation or phonology. Thus, /CVC/ is a word with three phonemes regardless of the number of letters in the spelling of the word.

 Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K-5)[RF]

 Note: In kindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary sound or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.
b. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
c. Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
c. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
d. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
e. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
f. Read words with inflectional endings.
g. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
a. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
b. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
c. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.
d. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
e. Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
f. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
Fluency
4. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding. 4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

 Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K-5)[RF]

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Phonics and Word Recognition
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
a. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes.
b. Decode words with common Latin suffixes.
c. Decode multisyllable words.
d. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
Fluency
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
4. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR
STANDARDS FOR WRITING

 The K-5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 Note on range and content of student writing

 To build a foundation for college and career readiness, students need to learn to use writing as a way of offering and supporting opinions, demonstrating understanding of the subjects they are studying, and conveying real and imagined experiences and events. They learn to appreciate that a key purpose of writing is to communicate clearly to an external, sometimes unfamiliar audience, and they begin to adapt the form and content of their writing to accomplish a particular task and purpose. They develop the capacity to build knowledge on a subject through research projects and to respond analytically to literary and informational sources. To meet these goals, students must devote significant time and effort to writing, producing numerous pieces over short and extended time frames throughout the year.

 Text Types and Purposes*

 1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

 Production and Distribution of Writing

 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

 5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

 Research to Build and Present Knowledge

 7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

 8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 Range of Writing

 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 *These broad types of writing include many subgenres. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types.

 Writing Standards K-5[W]

 The following standards for K-5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Text Types and Purposes
1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is . . .). 1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure. 1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. 2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. 2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened. 3. Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure. 3. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.
Production and Distribution of Writing
4. (Begins in grade 3) 4. (Begins in grade 3) 4. (Begins in grade 3)
5. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed. 5. With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed. 5. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
6. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. 6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. 6. With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). 7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of ‘‘how-to’’ books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). 7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. 8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. 8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
9. (Begins in grade 4) 9. (Begins in grade 4) 9. (Begins in grade 4)
Range of Writing
10. (Begins in grade 3) 10. (Begins in grade 3) 10. (Begins in grade 3)

 Writing Standards K-5[W]

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Text Types and Purposes
1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
a. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
b. Provide reasons that support the opinion.
c. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
d. Provide a concluding statement or section.
1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
b. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
c. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
a. Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
c. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
d. Provide a concluding statement or section.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
a. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
c. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
a. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
b. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
c. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
d. Provide a sense of closure.
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
c. Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
Production and Distribution of Writing
4. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.) 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.) 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)
5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 3 on page 29.) 5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 4 on page 29.) 5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 5 on page 29.)
6. With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. 6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. 6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. 7. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. 7. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
8. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. 8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. 8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
9. (Begins in grade 4) 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., ‘‘Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].’’).
b. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., ‘‘Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text’’).
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., ‘‘Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]’’).
b. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., ‘‘Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]’’).
Range of Writing
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR
STANDARDS FOR SPEAKING AND LISTENING

 The K-5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 Note on range and content of student speaking and listening

 To build a foundation for college and career readiness, students must have ample opportunities to take part in a variety of rich, structured conversations—as part of a whole class, in small groups, and with a partner. Being productive members of these conversations requires that students contribute accurate, relevant information; respond to and develop what others have said; make comparisons and contrasts; and analyze and synthesize a multitude of ideas in various domains.

 New technologies have broadened and expanded the role that speaking and listening play in acquiring and sharing knowledge and have tightened their link to other forms of communication. Digital texts confront students with the potential for continually updated content and dynamically changing combinations of words, graphics, images, hyperlinks, and embedded video and audio.

 Comprehension and Collaboration

   1.  Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

   2.  Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

   3.  Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

 Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

   4.  Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

   5.  Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.

   6.  Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

 Speaking and Listening Standards K-5[SL]

 The following standards for K-5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Comprehension and Collaboration
1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
b. Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
b. Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
c. Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
b. Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
c. Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.
2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood. 2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. 2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood. 3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood. 3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
4. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail. 4. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly. 4. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail. 5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. 5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
6. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly. 6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 1 Language standards 1and 3 on page 26 for specific expectations.) 6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1and 3 on page 26 for specific expectations.)

 Speaking and Listening Standards K-5[SL]

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Comprehension and Collaboration
1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
c. Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
d. Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
c. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
d. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.
2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 2. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 2. Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. 3. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. 3. Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. 4. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. 4. Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details. 5. Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. 5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 26 for specific expectations.) 6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 28 for specific expectations.) 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 5 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 28 for specific expectations.)

COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR
STANDARDS FOR LANGUAGE

 The K-5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 Note on range and content of student language use

 To build a foundation for college and career readiness in language, students must gain control over many conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics as well as learn other ways to use language to convey meaning effectively. They must also be able to determine or clarify the meaning of grade-appropriate words encountered through listening, reading, and media use; come to appreciate that words have nonliteral meanings, shadings of meaning, and relationships to other words; and expand their vocabulary in the course of studying content. The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions, effective language use, and vocabulary are unimportant to reading, writing, speaking, and listening; indeed, they are inseparable from such contexts.

 Conventions of Standard English

   1.  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

   2.  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

 Knowledge of Language

   3.  Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

   4.  Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

   5.  Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

   6.  Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.

 Language Standards K-5[L]

 The following standards for grades K-5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). See the table on page 31 for a complete list and Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Conventions of Standard English
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
b. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
d. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
e. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
f. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
b. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
c. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
d. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their; anyone, everything).
e. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
f. Use frequently occurring adjectives.
g. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
h. Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
b. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
c. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
d. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
e. Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
f. Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
i. Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
j. Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
b. Recognize and name end punctuation.
c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
d. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Capitalize dates and names of people.
b. Use end punctuation for sentences.
c. Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
d. Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
e. Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
b. Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
c. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
d. Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage [rarr ] badge; boy [rarr ] boil).
e. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
Knowledge of Language
3. (Begins in grade 2) 3. (Begins in grade 2) 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Compare formal and informal uses of English.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
a. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
b. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
c. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
c. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
d. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
e. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
b. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
b. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
b. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).
d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings. d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts. 6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because). 6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

 Language Standards K-5[L]

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Conventions of Standard English
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
b. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
c. Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
d. Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
e. Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.*
g. Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
h. Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
i. Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
d. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
e. Form and use prepositional phrases.
f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.*
g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).*
b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.*
e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
b. Use commas in addresses.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Use correct capitalization.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.*
c. Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
d. Form and use possessives.
e. Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
f. Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
g. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
d. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
b. Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
c. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
d. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
e. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
Knowledge of Language
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Choose words and phrases for effect.*
b. Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English.
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*
b. Choose punctuation for effect.*
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
c. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion). b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat).
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
c. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion).
d. Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a. Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).
b. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful).
c. Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard, wondered).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
c. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
c. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.
6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them). 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).

Language Progressive Skills, by Grade

 The following skills, marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1-3, are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking.

Grade(s)
Standard
3 4 5 6 7 8 9-10 11-12
L.3.1f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement. X X X X X X X X
L.3.3a. Choose words and phrases for effect. X X X X X X X X
L.4.1f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. X X X X X X X
L.4.1g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to/too/two; there/their). X X X X X X X
L.4.3a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.* X X X
L.4.3b. Choose punctuation for effect. X X X X X X X
L.5.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. X X X X X X
L.5.2a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.[dagger] X X X X
L.6.1c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person. X X X X X
L.6.1d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents). X X X X X
L.6.1e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language. X X X X X
L.6.2a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements. X X X X X
L.6.3a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.[Dagger] X X X X
L.6.3b. Maintain consistency in style and tone. X X X X X
L.7.1c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers. X X X X
L.7.3a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy. X X X X
L.8.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood. X X X
L.9-10.1a. Use parallel structure. X X

 * Subsumed by L.7.3a

 [dagger] Subsumed by L.9—10.1a

 [Dagger] Subsumed by L.11—12.3a

Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading K-5


Measuring Text Complexity: Three Factors

 Qualitative evaluation of the text: Levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands

 Quantitative evaluation of the text: Readability measures and other scores of text complexity

 Matching reader to text and task: Reader variables (such as motivation, knowledge, and experiences) and task variables (such as purpose and the complexity generated by the task assigned and the questions posed)

 Note: More detailed information on text complexity and how it is measured is contained in Appendix A.

Range of Text Types for K-5

 Students in K-5 apply the Reading standards to the following range of text types, with texts selected from a broad range of cultures and periods.

Literature
Informational Text
Stories
Dramas
Poetry
Literary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts
Includes children’s adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction, and myth Includes staged dialogue and brief familiar scenes Includes nursery rhymes and the subgenres of the narrative poem, limerick, and free verse poem Includes biographies and autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics

Texts Illustrating the Complexity, Quality, and Range of Student Reading K-5

Literature: Stories, Drama, Poetry Informational Texts: Literary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts
K1 Over in the Meadow by John Langstaff (traditional) (c1800)* • A Boy, a Dog, and a Frog by Mercer Mayer (1967) • A Story, A Story by Gail E. Haley (1970)* • Pancakes for Breakfast by Tomie DePaola (1978) • Kitten’s First Full Moon by Kevin Henkes (2004)* My Five Senses by Aliki (1962)** • Truck by Donald Crews (1980) • I Read Signs by Tana Hoban (1987) • What Do You Do With a Tail Like This? by Steve Jenkins and Robin Page (2003)* • Amazing Whales! by Sarah L. Thomson (2005)*
11 • ‘‘Mix a Pancake’’ by Christina G. Rossetti (1893)** • Mr. Popper’s Penguins by Richard Atwater (1938)* • Little Bear by Else Holmelund Minarik, illustrated by Maurice Sendak (1957)** • Frog and Toad Together by Arnold Lobel (1971)** • Hi! Fly Guy by Tedd Arnold (2006) A Tree Is a Plant by Clyde Robert Bulla, illustrated by Stacey Schuett (1960)** • Starfish by Edith Thacher Hurd (1962) • Follow the Water from Brook to Ocean by Arthur Dorros (1991)** • From Seed to Pumpkin by Wendy Pfeffer, illustrated by James Graham Hale (2004)* • How People Learned to Fly by Fran Hodgkins and True Kelley (2007)*
2-3 • ‘‘Who Has Seen the Wind?’’ by Christina G. Rossetti (1893) • Charlotte’s Web by E. B. White (1952)* • Sarah, Plain and Tall by Patricia MacLachlan (1985) • Tops and Bottoms by Janet Stevens (1995) • Poppleton in Winter by Cynthia Rylant, illustrated by Mark Teague (2001) A Medieval Feast by Aliki (1983) • From Seed to Plant by Gail Gibbons (1991) • The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles (1995)* • A Drop of Water: A Book of Science and Wonder by Walter Wick (1997) • Moonshot: The Flight of Apollo 11 by Brian Floca (2009)
4-5 Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (1865) • ‘‘Casey at the Bat’’ by Ernest Lawrence Thayer (1888) • The Black Stallion by Walter Farley (1941) • ‘‘Zlateh the Goat’’ by Isaac Bashevis Singer (1984) • Where the Mountain Meets the Moon by Grace Lin (2009) Discovering Mars: The Amazing Story of the Red Planet by Melvin Berger (1992) • Hurricanes: Earth’s Mightiest Storms by Patricia Lauber (1996) • A History of US by Joy Hakim (2005) • Horses by Seymour Simon (2006) • Quest for the Tree Kangaroo: An Expedition to the Cloud Forest of New Guinea by Sy Montgomery (2006)

 Note: Given space limitations, the illustrative texts listed above are meant only to show individual titles that are representative of a wide range of topics and genres.

 (See Appendix B for excerpts of these and other texts illustrative of K-5 text complexity, quality, and range.) At a curricular or instructional level, within and across grade levels, texts need to be selected around topics or themes that generate knowledge and allow students to study those topics or themes in depth. On the next page is an example of progressions of texts building knowledge across grade levels.

 1 Children at the kindergarten and grade 1 levels should be expected to read texts independently that have been specifically written to correlate to their reading level and their word knowledge. Many of the titles listed above are meant to supplement carefully structured independent reading with books to read along with a teacher or that are read aloud to students to build knowledge and cultivate a joy in reading.

Staying on Topic Within a Grade and Across Grades:
How to Build Knowledge Systematically in English Language Arts K-5

 Building knowledge systematically in English language arts is like giving children various pieces of a puzzle in each grade that, over time, will form one big picture. At a curricular or instructional level, texts—within and across grade levels—need to be selected around topics or themes that systematically develop the knowledge base of students. Within a grade level, there should be an adequate number of titles on a single topic that would allow children to study that topic for a sustained period. The knowledge children have learned about particular topics in early grade levels should then be expanded and developed in subsequent grade levels to ensure an increasingly deeper understanding of these topics. Children in the upper elementary grades will generally be expected to read these texts independently and reflect on them in writing. However, children in the early grades (particularly K-2) should participate in rich, structured conversations with an adult in response to the written texts that are read aloud, orally comparing and contrasting as well as analyzing and synthesizing, in the manner called for by the Standards.

 Preparation for reading complex informational texts should begin at the very earliest elementary school grades. What follows is one example that uses domain-specific nonfiction titles across grade levels to illustrate how curriculum designers and classroom teachers can infuse the English language arts block with rich, age-appropriate content knowledge and vocabulary in history/social studies, science, and the arts. Having students listen to informational read-alouds in the early grades helps lay the necessary foundation for students’ reading and understanding of increasingly complex texts on their own in subsequent grades.

Exemplar Texts on a Topic Across Grades K
1
2-3
4-5
 The Human Body
Students can begin learning about the human body starting in kindergarten and then review and extend their learning during each subsequent grade.
The five senses and associated body parts
• 
My Five Senses by Aliki (1989)
• Hearing by Maria Rius (1985)
• Sight by Maria Rius (1985)
• Smell by Maria Rius (1985)
• Taste by Maria Rius (1985)
• Touch by Maria Rius (1985)
Taking care of your body: Overview (hygiene, diet, exercise, rest)
• My Amazing Body: A First Look at Health & Fitness by Pat Thomas (2001)
• Get Up and Go! by Nancy Carlson (2008)
• Go Wash Up by Doering Tourville (2008)
• Sleep by Paul Showers (1997)
• Fuel the Body by Doering Tourville (2008)
Introduction to the systems of the human body and associated body parts
• 
Under Your Skin: Your Amazing Body by Mick Manning (2007)
• Me and My Amazing Body by Joan Sweeney (1999)
• The Human Body by Gallimard Jeunesse (2007)
• The Busy Body Book by Lizzy Rockwell (2008)
• First Encyclopedia of the Human Body by Fiona Chandler (2004)
Taking care of your body: Germs, diseases, and preventing illness
• Germs Make Me Sick by Marilyn Berger (1995)
• Tiny Life on Your Body by Christine Taylor-Butler (2005)
• Germ Stories by Arthur Kornberg (2007)
• All About Scabs by GenichiroYagu (1998)
Digestive and excretory systems
• 
What Happens to a Hamburger by Paul Showers (1985)
• The Digestive System by Christine Taylor-Butler (2008)
• The Digestive System by Rebecca L. Johnson (2006)
• The Digestive System by Kristin Petrie (2007)
Taking care of your body: Healthy eating and nutrition
• Good Enough to Eat by Lizzy Rockwell (1999)
• Showdown at the Food Pyramid by Rex Barron (2004) Muscular, skeletal, and nervous systems
• The Mighty Muscular and Skeletal Systems Crabtree Publishing (2009)
• Muscles by Seymour Simon (1998)
• Bones by Seymour Simon (1998)
• The Astounding Nervous System Crabtree Publishing (2009)
• The Nervous System by Joelle Riley (2004)
Circulatory system
• 
The Heart by Seymour Simon (2006)
• The Heart and Circulation by Carol Ballard (2005)
• The Circulatory System by Kristin Petrie (2007)
• The Amazing Circulatory System by John Burstein (2009) Respiratory system
• The Lungs by Seymour Simon (2007)
• The Respiratory System by Susan Glass (2004)
• The Respiratory System by Kristin Petrie (2007)
• The Remarkable Respiratory System by John Burstein (2009) Endocrine system
• The Endocrine System by Rebecca Olien (2006)
• The Exciting Endocrine System by John Burstein (2009)

STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS


6-12


COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR
STANDARDS FOR READING

 The grades 6-12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

   Note on range and content of student reading

 To become college and career ready, students must grapple with works of exceptional craft and thought whose range extends across genres, cultures, and centuries. Such works offer profound insights into the human condition and serve as models for students’ own thinking and writing. Along with high-quality contemporary works, these texts should be chosen from among seminal U.S. documents, the classics of American literature, and the timeless dramas of Shakespeare. Through wide and deep reading of literature and literary nonfiction of steadily increasing sophistication, students gain a reservoir of literary and cultural knowledge, references, and images; the ability to evaluate intricate arguments; and the capacity to surmount the challenges posed by complex texts.

 Key Ideas and Details

   1.  Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

   2.  Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

   3.  Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

 Craft and Structure

   4.  Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

   5.  Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

   6.  Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

   7.  Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.*

   8.  Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

   9.  Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

   10.  Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

 *Please see ‘‘Research to Build Knowledge’’ in Writing and ‘‘Comprehension and Collaboration’’ in Speaking and Listening for additional standards relevant to gathering, assessing, and applying information from print and digital sources.

 Reading Standards for Literature 6-12[RL]

 The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. 2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. 2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
3. Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution. 3. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot). 3. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.
Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
5. Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot. 5. Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning. 5. Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.
6. Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text. 6. Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text. 6. Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they ‘‘see’’ and ‘‘hear’’ when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch. 7. Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film). 7. Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.
8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature)
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
9. Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics. 9. Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history. 9. Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

 Reading Standards for Literature 6-12[RL]

 The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9-10 students: Grades 11-12 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. 2. Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
3. Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. 3. Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone). 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
5. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise. 5. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.
6. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature. 6. Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s ‘‘Mus[eacute]e des Beaux Arts’’ and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus). 7. Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)
8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature)
9. Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare). 9. Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
10. By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11—CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11—CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

 Reading Standards for Informational Text 6-12[RI]

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
2. Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. 2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. 2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
3. Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes). 3. Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events). 3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).
Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings. 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
5. Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas. 5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. 5. Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text. 6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. 6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. 7. Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). 7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. 8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
9. Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person). 9. Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts. 9. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

 Reading Standards for Informational Text 6-12[RI]

 The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations-the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9-10 students: Grades 11-12 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. 2. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
3. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them. 3. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper). 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
5. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter). 5. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose. 6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account. 7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. 8. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).
9. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s ‘‘Letter from Birmingham Jail’’), including how they address related themes and concepts. 9. Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
10. By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR
STANDARDS FOR WRITING

 The grades 6-12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 Note on range and content of student writing

 For students, writing is a key means of asserting and defending claims, showing what they know about a subject, and conveying what they have experienced, imagined, thought, and felt. To be college- and career- ready writers, students must take task, purpose, and audience into careful consideration, choosing words, information, structures, and formats deliberately. They need to know how to combine elements of different kinds of writing—for example, to use narrative strategies within argument and explanation within narrative—to produce complex and nuanced writing. They need to be able to use technology strategically when creating, refining, and collaborating on writing. They have to become adept at gathering information, evaluating sources, and citing material accurately, reporting findings from their research and analysis of sources in a clear and cogent manner. They must have the flexibility, concentration, and fluency to produce high-quality first-draft text under a tight deadline as well as the capacity to revisit and make improvements to a piece of writing over multiple drafts when circumstances encourage or require it.

 Text Types and Purposes*

   1.  Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

   2.  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

   3.  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

 Production and Distribution of Writing

   4.  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

   5.  Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

   6.  Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

 Research to Build and Present Knowledge

   7.  Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

   8.  Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

   9.  Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 Range of Writing

   10.  Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 *These broad types of writing include many subgenres. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types.

 Writing Standards 6-12[W]

 The following standards for grades 6-12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Text Types and Purposes
1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
a. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.
b. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
Production and Distribution of Writing
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.) 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.) 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)
5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 6 on page 53.) 5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 7 on page 53.) 5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 8 on page 53.)
6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources. 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate. 7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation. 7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. 8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., ‘‘Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics’’).
b. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., ‘‘Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not’’).
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., ‘‘Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history’’).
b. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. ‘‘Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims’’).
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., ‘‘Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new’’).
b. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., ‘‘Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced’’).
Range of Writing
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 Writing Standards 6-12[W]

 The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9-10 students: Grades 11-12 students:
Text Types and Purposes
1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
a. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
a. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
a. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
d. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
a. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
d. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
Production and Distribution of Writing
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.) 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)
5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 9-10 on page 55.) 5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 11-12 on page 55.)
6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., ‘‘Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]’’).
b. Apply grades 9-10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., ‘‘Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning’’).
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grades 11-12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., ‘‘Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics’’).
b. Apply grades 11-12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., ‘‘Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]’’).
Range of Writing
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR STANDARDS
FOR SPEAKING AND LISTENING

 The grades 6-12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 Note on range and content of student speaking and listening

 To become college and career ready, students must have ample opportunities to take part in a variety of rich, structured conversations—as part of a whole class, in small groups, and with a partner—built around important content in various domains. They must be able to contribute appropriately to these conversations, to make comparisons and contrasts, and to analyze and synthesize a multitude of ideas in accordance with the standards of evidence appropriate to a particular discipline. Whatever their intended major or profession, high school graduates will depend heavily on their ability to listen attentively to others so that they are able to build on others’ meritorious ideas while expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

 New technologies have broadened and expanded the role that speaking and listening play in acquiring and sharing knowledge and have tightened their link to other forms of communication. The Internet has accelerated the speed at which connections between speaking, listening, reading, and writing can be made, requiring that students be ready to use these modalities nearly simultaneously. Technology itself is changing quickly, creating a new urgency for students to be adaptable in response to change.

 Comprehension and Collaboration

   1.  Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

   2.  Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

   3.  Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

 Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

   4.  Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

   5.  Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.

   6.  Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

 Speaking and Listening Standards 6-12[SL]

 The following standards for grades 6-12 offer a focus for instruction in each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Comprehension and Collaboration
1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
b. Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
c. Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
d. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.
b. Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
c. Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
d. Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.
b. Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
c. Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
d. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.
2. Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study. 2. Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study. 2. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. 3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
4. Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information. 5. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. 5. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.
6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 53 for specific expectations.) 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 53 for specific expectations.) 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 53 for specific expectations.)

 Speaking and Listening Standards 6-12[SL]

 The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9-10 students: Grades 11-12 students:
Comprehension and Collaboration
1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
b. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
b. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented. d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source. 2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.
3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. 3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task. 4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.
5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. 5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9-10 Language standards 1 and 3 on pages 54 for specific expectations.) 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 11-12 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 54 for specific expectations.)

COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR
STANDARDS FOR LANGUAGE

 The grades 6-12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 Note on range and content of student language use

 To be college and career ready in language, students must have firm control over the conventions of standard English. At the same time, they must come to appreciate that language is as at least as much a matter of craft as of rules and be able to choose words, syntax, and punctuation to express themselves and achieve particular functions and rhetorical effects. They must also have extensive vocabularies, built through reading and study, enabling them to comprehend complex texts and engage in purposeful writing about and conversations around content. They need to become skilled in determining or clarifying the meaning of words and phrases they encounter, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies to aid them. They must learn to see an individual word as part of a network of other words—words, for example, that have similar denotations but different connotations. The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions, effective language use, and vocabulary are unimportant to reading, writing, speaking, and listening; indeed, they are inseparable from such contexts.

 Conventions of Standard English

   1.  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

   2.  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

 Knowledge of Language

   3.  Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

   4.  Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

   5.  Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

   6.  Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

 Language Standards 6-12[L]

 The following standards for grades 6-12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). See the table on page 57 for a complete listing and Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication.

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Conventions of Standard English
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
b. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.*
d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).*
e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.*
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
b. Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.*
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
b. Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
c. Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.*
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.*
b. Spell correctly.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
b. Spell correctly.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
b. Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
c. Spell correctly.
Knowledge of Language
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.*
b. Maintain consistency in style and tone.*
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.*
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel).
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
b. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.
c. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.
b. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words.
c. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.
b. Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
c. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).
6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

 Language Standards 6-12[L]

 The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9-10 students: Grades 11-12 students:
Conventions of Standard English
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Use parallel structure.*
b. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
b. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
b. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
c. Spell correctly.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Observe hyphenation conventions.
b. Spell correctly.
Knowledge of Language
3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
a. Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
a. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11-12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
6. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. 6. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Language Progressive Skills, by Grade

 The following skills, marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1-3, are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking.

Grade(s)
Standard
3 4 5 6 7 8 9-10 11-12
L.3.1f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement. X X X X X X X X
L.3.3a. Choose words and phrases for effect. X X X X X X X X
L.4.1f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. X X X X X X X
L.4.1g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to/too/two; there/their). X X X X X X X
L.4.3a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.* X X X
L.4.3b. Choose punctuation for effect. X X X X X X X
L.5.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. X X X X X X
L.5.2a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.[dagger] X X X X
L.6.1c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person. X X X X X
L.6.1d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents). X X X X X
L.6.1e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language. X X X X X
L.6.2a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements. X X X X X
L.6.3a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.[Dagger] X X X X
L.6.3b. Maintain consistency in style and tone. X X X X XX
L.7.1c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers. X X X X
L.7.3a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy. X X X X
L.8.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood. X X X
L.9-10.1a. Use parallel structure. X X

 * Subsumed by L.7.3a

 [dagger] Subsumed by L.9—10.1a

 [Dagger] Subsumed by L.11—12.3a

Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading 6-12


Measuring Text Complexity: Three Factors

Measuring Text Complexity: 3 Factors

 Qualitative evaluation of the text: Levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands

 Quantitative evaluation of the text: Readability measures and other scores of text complexity

 Matching reader to text and task: Reader variables (such as motivation, knowledge, and experiences) and task variables (such as purpose and the complexity generated by the task assigned and the questions posed)

 Note: More detailed information on text complexity and how it is measured is contained in Appendix A.

Range of Text Types for 6-12

 Students in grades 6-12 apply the Reading standards to the following range of text types, with texts selected from a broad range of cultures and periods.

Literature
Informational Text
Stories Drama Poetry Literary Nonfiction
Includes the subgenres of adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, myths, science fiction, realistic fiction, allegories, parodies, satire, and graphic novels Includes one-act and multi-act plays, both in written form and on film Includes the subgenres of narrative poems, lyrical poems, free verse poems, sonnets, odes, ballads, and epics Includes the subgenres of exposition, argument, and functional text in the form of personal essays, speeches, opinion pieces, essays about art or literature, biographies, memoirs, journalism, and historical, scientific, technical, or economic accounts (including digital sources) written for a broad audience

Texts Illustrating the Complexity, Quality, and Range of Student Reading 6-12

Literature: Stories, Dramas, Poetry Informational Texts: Literary Nonfiction
6-8 • Little Women by Louisa May Alcott (1869) • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain (1876) • ‘‘The Road Not Taken’’ by Robert Frost (1915) • The Dark Is Rising by Susan Cooper (1973) • Dragonwings by Laurence Yep (1975) • Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by Mildred Taylor (1976) • ‘‘Letter on Thomas Jefferson’’ by John Adams (1776) • Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave by Frederick Douglass (1845) • ‘‘Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat: Address to Parliament on May 13th, 1940’’ by Winston Churchill (1940) • Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad by Ann Petry (1955) • Travels with Charley: In Search of America by John Steinbeck (1962)
9-10 • The Tragedy of Macbeth by William Shakespeare (1592) • ‘‘Ozymandias’’ by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1817) • ‘‘The Raven’’ by Edgar Allen Poe (1845) • ‘‘The Gift of the Magi’’ by O. Henry (1906) • The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck (1939) • Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury (1953) • The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara (1975) • ‘‘Speech to the Second Virginia Convention’’ by Patrick Henry (1775) • ‘‘Farewell Address’’ by George Washington (1796) • ‘‘Gettysburg Address’’ by Abraham Lincoln (1863) • ‘‘State of the Union Address’’ by Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1941) • ‘‘Letter from Birmingham Jail’’ by Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964) • ‘‘Hope, Despair and Memory’’ by Elie Wiesel (1997)
11-CCR • ‘‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’’ by John Keats (1820) • Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bront[eacute] (1848) • ‘‘Because I Could Not Stop for Death’’ by Emily Dickinson (1890) • The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald (1925) • Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston (1937) • A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry (1959) • The Namesake by Jhumpa Lahiri (2003) • Common Sense by Thomas Paine (1776) • Walden by Henry David Thoreau (1854) • ‘‘Society and Solitude’’ by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1857) • ‘‘The Fallacy of Success’’ by G. K. Chesterton (1909) • Black Boy by Richard Wright (1945) • ‘‘Politics and the English Language’’ by George Orwell (1946) • ‘‘Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry’’ by Rudolfo Anaya (1995)

 Note: Given space limitations, the illustrative texts listed above are meant only to show individual titles that are representative of a range of topics and genres. (See Appendix B for excerpts of these and other texts illustrative of grades 6-12 text complexity, quality, and range.) At a curricular or instructional level, within and across grade levels, texts need to be selected around topics or themes that generate knowledge and allow students to study those topics or themes in depth.

STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS 6-12


COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR STANDARDS FOR READING

 The grades 6-12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade span. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 Note on range and content of student reading

 Reading is critical to building knowledge in history/social studies as well as in science and technical subjects. College and career ready reading in these fields requires an appreciation of the norms and conventions of each discipline, such as the kinds of evidence used in history and science; an understanding of domain-specific words and phrases; an attention to precise details; and the capacity to evaluate intricate arguments, synthesize complex information, and follow detailed descriptions of events and concepts. In history/social studies, for example, students need to be able to analyze, evaluate, and differentiate primary and secondary sources. When reading scientific and technical texts, students need to be able to gain knowledge from challenging texts that often make extensive use of elaborate diagrams and data to convey information and illustrate concepts. Students must be able to read complex informational texts in these fields with independence and confidence because the vast majority of reading in college and workforce training programs will be sophisticated nonfiction. It is important to note that these Reading standards are meant to complement the specific content demands of the disciplines, not replace them.

 Key Ideas and Details

   1.  Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

   2.  Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

   3.  Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

 Craft and Structure

   4.  Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

   5.  Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

   6.  Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

   7.  Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.*

   8.  Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

   9.  Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

   10.  Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

 *Please see ‘‘Research to Build and Present Knowledge’’ in Writing for additional standards relevant to gathering, assessing, and applying information from print and digital sources.

 Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6-12[RH]

 The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K-5 reading in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K-5 Reading standards. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 6-8 students: Grades 9-10 students: Grades 11-12 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. 1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information. 1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.
2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. 2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text. 2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.
3. Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered). 3. Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them. 3. Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.
Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies. 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
5. Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally). 5. Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis. 5. Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole.
6. Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). 6. Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts. 6. Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. 7. Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text. 7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
8. Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text. 8. Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims. 8. Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.
9. Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. 9. Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources. 9. Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 10. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 10. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

 Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12
[RST]


Grades 6-8 students: Grades 9-10 students: Grades 11-12 students:
Key Ideas and Details
1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. 1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions. 1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
2. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. 2. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text. 2. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.
3. Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. 3. Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text. 3. Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.
Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics. 4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics. 4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic. 5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy). 5. Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
6. Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text. 6. Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address. 6. Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). 7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. 7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
8. Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text. 8. Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. 8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. 9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts. 9. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 10. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 10. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS ANCHOR
STANDARDS FOR WRITING

 The grades 6-12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade span. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

 Note on range and content of student writing

 For students, writing is a key means of asserting and defending claims, showing what they know about a subject, and conveying what they have experienced, imagined, thought, and felt. To be college and career ready writers, students must take task, purpose, and audience into careful consideration, choosing words, information, structures, and formats deliberately. They need to be able to use technology strategically when creating, refining, and collaborating on writing. They have to become adept at gathering information, evaluating sources, and citing material accurately, reporting findings from their research and analysis of sources in a clear and cogent manner. They must have the flexibility, concentration, and fluency to produce high-quality first-draft text under a tight deadline and the capacity to revisit and make improvements to a piece of writing over multiple drafts when circumstances encourage or require it. To meet these goals, students must devote significant time and effort to writing, producing numerous pieces over short and long time frames throughout the year.

 Text Types and Purposes*

   1.  Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

   2.  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

   3.  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.

 Production and Distribution of Writing

   4.  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

   5.  Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

   6.  Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

 Research to Build and Present Knowledge

   7.  Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

   8.  Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

   9.  Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 Range of Writing

   10.  Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 *These broad types of writing include many subgenres. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types.

 Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12[WHST]

 The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K-5 writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K-5 Writing standards. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 6-8 students: Grades 9-10 students: Grades 11-12 students:
Text Types and Purposes
1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
a. Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
c. Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
a. Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
c. Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
d. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
3. (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement) 3. (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement) 3. (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)

 Note: Students’ narrative skills continue to grow in these grades. The Standards require that students be able to incorporate narrative elements effectively into arguments and informative/explanatory texts. In history/social studies, students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of individuals or events of historical import. In science and technical subjects, students must be able to write precise enough descriptions of the step-by-step procedures they use in their investigations or technical work that others can replicate them and (possibly) reach the same results.

 Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-12[WHST]

Grades 6-8 students: Grades 9-10 students: Grades 11-12 students:
Production and Distribution of Writing
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. 5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. 5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently. 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Range of Writing
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

   1. The percentages on the table reflect the sum of student reading, not just reading in ELA settings. Teachers of senior English classes, for example, are not required to devote 70 percent of reading to informational texts. Rather, 70 percent of student reading across the grade should be informational.

   2. As with reading, the percentages in the table reflect the sum of student writing, not just writing in ELA settings.

Common Core State Standards for Mathematics


Contents

   Introduction
Standards for Mathematical Practice
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
High School—Introduction
High School—Number and Quantity
High School—Algebra
High School—Functions
High School—Modeling
High School—Geometry
High School—Statistics and Probability
Glossary

Introduction

 Toward greater focus and coherence

 Mathematics experiences in early childhood settings should concentrate on (1) number (which includes whole number, operations, and relations) and (2) geometry, spatial relations, and measurement, with more mathematics learning time devoted to number than to other topics. Mathematical process goals should be integrated in these content areas.

   Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood, National Research Council, 2009

 The composite standards [of Hong Kong, Korea and Singapore] have a number of features that can inform an international benchmarking process for the development of K-6 mathematics standards in the U.S. First, the composite standards concentrate the early learning of mathematics on the number, measurement, and geometry strands with less emphasis on data analysis and little exposure to algebra. The Hong Kong standards for grades 1—3 devote approximately half the targeted time to numbers and almost all the time remaining to geometry and measurement.

   Ginsburg, Leinwand and Decker, 2009

 Because the mathematics concepts in [U.S.] textbooks are often weak, the presentation becomes more mechanical than is ideal. We looked at both traditional and non-traditional textbooks used in the US and found this conceptual weakness in both.

   Ginsburg et al., 2005

 There are many ways to organize curricula. The challenge, now rarely met, is to avoid those that distort mathematics and turn off students.

   Steen, 2007

 For over a decade, research studies of mathematics education in high-performing countries have pointed to the conclusion that the mathematics curriculum in the United States must become substantially more focused and coherent in order to improve mathematics achievement in this country. To deliver on the promise of common standards, the standards must address the problem of a curriculum that is ‘‘a mile wide and an inch deep.’’ These Standards are a substantial answer to that challenge.

 It is important to recognize that ‘‘fewer standards’’ are no substitute for focused standards. Achieving ‘‘fewer standards’’ would be easy to do by resorting to broad, general statements. Instead, these Standards aim for clarity and specificity.

 Assessing the coherence of a set of standards is more difficult than assessing their focus. William Schmidt and Richard Houang (2002) have said that content standards and curricula are coherent if they are:

    articulated over time as a sequence of topics and performances that are logical and reflect, where appropriate, the sequential or hierarchical nature of the disciplinary content from which the subject matter derives. That is, what and how students are taught should reflect not only the topics that fall within a certain academic discipline, but also the key ideas that determine how knowledge is organized and generated within that discipline. This implies that to be coherent, a set of content standards must evolve from particulars (e.g., the meaning and operations of whole numbers, including simple math facts and routine computational procedures associated with whole numbers and fractions) to deeper structures inherent in the discipline. These deeper structures then serve as a means for connecting the particulars (such as an understanding of the rational number system and its properties). (emphasis added)

 These Standards endeavor to follow such a design, not only by stressing conceptual understanding of key ideas, but also by continually returning to organizing principles such as place value or the properties of operations to structure those ideas.

 In addition, the ‘‘sequence of topics and performances’’ that is outlined in a body of mathematics standards must also respect what is known about how students learn. As Confrey (2007) points out, developing ‘‘sequenced obstacles and challenges for students . . . absent the insights about meaning that derive from careful study of learning, would be unfortunate and unwise.’’ In recognition of this, the development of these Standards began with research-based learning progressions detailing what is known today about how students’ mathematical knowledge, skill, and understanding develop over time.

   Understanding mathematics

 These Standards define what students should understand and be able to do in their study of mathematics. Asking a student to understand something means asking a teacher to assess whether the student has understood it. But what does mathematical understanding look like? One hallmark of mathematical understanding is the ability to justify, in a way appropriate to the student’s mathematical maturity, why a particular mathematical statement is true or where a mathematical rule comes from. There is a world of difference between a student who can summon a mnemonic device to expand a product such as (a + b)(x + y) and a student who can explain where the mnemonic comes from. The student who can explain the rule understands the mathematics, and may have a better chance to succeed at a less familiar task such as expanding (a + b + c)(x + y). Mathematical understanding and procedural skill are equally important, and both are assessable using mathematical tasks of sufficient richness.

 The Standards set grade-specific standards but do not define the intervention methods or materials necessary to support students who are well below or well above grade-level expectations. It is also beyond the scope of the Standards to define the full range of supports appropriate for English language learners and for students with special needs. At the same time, all students must have the opportunity to learn and meet the same high standards if they are to access the knowledge and skills necessary in their post-school lives. The Standards should be read as allowing for the widest possible range of students to participate fully from the outset, along with appropriate accommodations to ensure maximum participaton of students with special education needs. For example, for students with disabilities reading should allow for use of Braille, screen reader technology, or other assistive devices, while writing should include the use of a scribe, computer, or speech-to-text technology. In a similar vein, speaking and listening should be interpreted broadly to include sign language. No set of grade-specific standards can fully reflect the great variety in abilities, needs, learning rates, and achievement levels of students in any given classroom. However, the Standards do provide clear signposts along the way to the goal of college and career readiness for all students.

 The Standards begin on page 5 with eight Standards for Mathematical Practice.

How to read the grade level standards

 Standards define what students should understand and be able to do.

 Clusters are groups of related standards. Note that standards from different clusters may sometimes be closely related, because mathematics is a connected subject.

 Domains are larger groups of related standards. Standards from different domains may sometimes be closely related.

 

How to Read Grade Level Standards

 These Standards do not dictate curriculum or teaching methods. For example, just because topic A appears before topic B in the standards for a given grade, it does not necessarily mean that topic A must be taught before topic B. A teacher might prefer to teach topic B before topic A, or might choose to highlight connections by teaching topic A and topic B at the same time. Or, a teacher might prefer to teach a topic of his or her own choosing that leads, as a byproduct, to students reaching the standards for topics A and B.

 What students can learn at any particular grade level depends upon what they have learned before. Ideally then, each standard in this document might have been phrased in the form, ‘‘Students who already know . . . should next come to learn. . . .’’ But at present this approach is unrealistic—not least because existing education research cannot specify all such learning pathways. Of necessity therefore, grade placements for specific topics have been made on the basis of state and international comparisons and the collective experience and collective professional judgment of educators, researchers and mathematicians. One promise of common state standards is that over time they will allow research on learning progressions to inform and improve the design of standards to a much greater extent than is possible today. Learning opportunities will continue to vary across schools and school systems, and educators should make every effort to meet the needs of individual students based on their current understanding.

 These Standards are not intended to be new names for old ways of doing business. They are a call to take the next step. It is time for states to work together to build on lessons learned from two decades of standards based reforms. It is time to recognize that standards are not just promises to our children, but promises we intend to keep.

MATHEMATICS—STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE

 The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important ‘‘processes and proficiencies’’ with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately), and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).

 1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

 Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, ‘‘Does this make sense?’’ They can understand the ap-proaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.

 2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

 Mathematically proficient students make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

 3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

 Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.

 4 Model with mathematics.

 Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model if it has not served its purpose.

 5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

 Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts.

 6 Attend to precision.

 Mathematically proficient studentts try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions.

 7 Look for and make use of structure.

 Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 x 8 equals the well remembered 7 x 5 + 7 x 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 x 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 - 3(x - y)2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y.

 8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

 Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y - 2)/(x - 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x - 1)(x + 1), (x - 1)(x2 + x + 1), and (x - 1)(x3 + x2 + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results.

Connecting the Standards for Mathematical Practice to the
Standards for Mathematical Content

 The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe ways in which developing student practitioners of the discipline of mathematics increasingly ought to engage with the subject matter as they grow in mathematical maturity and expertise throughout the elementary, middle and high school years. Designers of curricula, assessments, and professional development should all attend to the need to connect the mathematical practices to mathematical content in mathematics instruction.

 The Standards for Mathematical Content are a balanced combination of procedure and understanding. Expectations that begin with the word ‘‘understand’’ are often especially good opportunities to connect the practices to the content. Students who lack understanding of a topic may rely on procedures too heavily. Without a flexible base from which to work, they may be less likely to consider analogous problems, represent problems coherently, justify conclusions, apply the mathematics to practical situations, use technology mindfully to work with the mathematics, explain the mathematics accurately to other students, step back for an overview, or deviate from a known procedure to find a shortcut. In short, a lack of understanding effectively prevents a student from engaging in the mathematical practices.

 In this respect, those content standards which set an expectation of understanding are potential ‘‘points of intersection’’ between the Standards for Mathematical Content and the Standards for Mathematical Practice. These points of intersection are intended to be weighted toward central and generative concepts in the school mathematics curriculum that most merit the time, resources, innovative energies, and focus necessary to qualitatively improve the curriculum, instruction, assessment, professional development, and student achievement in mathematics.

MATHEMATICS—KINDERGARTEN

 In Kindergarten, instructional time should focus on two critical areas: (1) representing, relating, and operating on whole numbers, initially with sets of objects; (2) describing shapes and space. More learning time in Kindergarten should be devoted to number than to other topics.

   (1)  Students use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set; counting out a given number of objects; comparing sets or numerals; and modeling simple joining and separating situations with sets of objects, or eventually with equations such as 5 + 2 = 7 and 7 - 2 = 5. (Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in Kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.) Students choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the cardinalities of small sets of objects, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number of objects in combined sets, or counting the number of objects that remain in a set after some are taken away.

   (2)  Students describe their physical world using geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and vocabulary. They identify, name, and describe basic two-dimensional shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons, presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes and orientations), as well as three-dimensional shapes such as cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. They use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes.

Grade K Overview



Counting and Cardinality • Know number names and the count sequence.
• Count to tell the number of objects.
• Compare numbers.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices
Operations and Algebraic Thinking• Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.
Number and Operations in
Base Ten
• Work with numbers 11—19 to gain foundations for place value.
Measurement and Date• Describe and compare measurable attributes.
• Classify objects and count the number of objects in categories.
Geometry• Identify and describe shapes.
• Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.

Counting and Cardinality K.CC

 Know number names and the count sequence.

   1.  Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

   2.  Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).

   3.  Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0—20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

 Count to tell the number of objects.

   4.  Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

     a.   When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.

     b.   Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

     c.   Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

   5.  Count to answer ‘‘how many?’’ questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1—20, count out that many objects.

 Compare numbers.

   6.  Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.1

   7.  Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.

Operations and Algebraic ThinkingK.OA

 Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.

   1.  Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings2, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

   2.  Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

   3.  Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

   4.  For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

   5.  Fluently add and subtract within 5.

Number and Operations in Base TenK.NBT

 Work with numbers 11—19 to gain foundations for place value.

   1.  Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

Measurement and Data K.MD

 Describe and compare measurable attributes.

   1.  Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.

   2.  Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has ‘‘more of’’/‘‘less of’’ the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.

 Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category.

   3.  Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.3

GeometryK.G

 Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).

   1.  Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.

   2.  Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.

   3.  Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, ‘‘flat’’) or three-dimensional (‘‘solid’’).

 Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.

   4.  Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/‘‘corners’’) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).

   5.  Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

   6.  Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, ‘‘Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?’’

MATHEMATICS—GRADE 1

 In Grade 1, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of addition, subtraction, and strategies for addition and subtraction within 20; (2) developing understanding of whole number relationships and place value, including grouping in tens and ones; (3) developing understanding of linear measurement and measuring lengths as iterating length units; and (4) reasoning about attributes of, and composing and decomposing geometric shapes.

   (1)  Students develop strategies for adding and subtracting whole numbers based on their prior work with small numbers. They use a variety of models, including discrete objects and length-based models (e.g., cubes connected to form lengths), to model add-to, take-from, put-together, take-apart, and compare situations to develop meaning for the operations of addition and subtraction, and to develop strategies to solve arithmetic problems with these operations. Students understand connections between counting and addition and subtraction (e.g., adding two is the same as counting on two). They use properties of addition to add whole numbers and to create and use increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties (e.g., ‘‘making tens’’) to solve addition and subtraction problems within 20. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, children build their understanding of the relationship between addition and subtraction.

   (2)  Students develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to add within 100 and subtract multiples of 10. They compare whole numbers (at least to 100) to develop understanding of and solve problems involving their relative sizes. They think of whole numbers between 10 and 100 in terms of tens and ones (especially recognizing the numbers 11 to 19 as composed of a ten and some ones). Through activities that build number sense, they understand the order of the counting numbers and their relative magnitudes.

   (3)  Students develop an understanding of the meaning and processes of measurement, including underlying concepts such as iterating (the mental activity of building up the length of an object with equal-sized units) and the transitivity principle for indirect measurement.4

   (4)  Students compose and decompose plane or solid figures (e.g., put two triangles together to make a quadrilateral) and build understanding of part-whole relationships as well as the properties of the original and composite shapes. As they combine shapes, they recognize them from different perspectives and orientations, describe their geometric attributes, and determine how they are alike and different, to develop the background for measurement and for initial understandings of properties such as congruence and symmetry.

Grade 1 Overview



Operations and Algebraic Thinking• Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.
• Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
• Add and subtract within 20.
• Work with addition and subtraction equations.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices
Number and Operations In
Base Ten
• Extend the counting sequence.
• Understand place value.
• Use place value under- standing and properties of operations to add and subtract.
Measurement and Data• Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.
• Tell and write time.
• Represent and interpret data.
Geometry• Reason with shapes and their attributes.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking1.OA

 Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.

   1.  Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.5

   2.  Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

   Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

   3.  Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.6 Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.)

   4.  Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 - 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.

 Add and subtract within 20.

   5.  Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).

   6.  Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use mental strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

 Work with addition and subtraction equations.

   7.  Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 - 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.

   8.  Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = ( - 3, 6 + 6 = ( .

Number and Operations in Base Ten1.NBT

 Extend the counting sequence.

 1. Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.

 Understand place value.

   2.  Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:

     a.   10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones—called a ‘‘ten.’’

     b.   The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

     c.   The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).

   3.  Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols ›, =, and ‹.

 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.

   4.  Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.

   5.  Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.

   6.  Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10—90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10—90 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Measurement and Data1.MD

 Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.

   1.  Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.

   2.  Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.

 Tell and write time.

   3.  Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks.

 Represent and interpret data.

   4.  Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

Geometry1.G

 Reason with shapes and their attributes.

   1.  Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes that possess defining attributes.

   2.  Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.7

   3.  Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares.

MATHEMATICS—GRADE 2

 In Grade 2, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) extending understanding of base-ten notation; (2) building fluency with addition and subtraction; (3) using standard units of measure; and (4) describing and analyzing shapes.

   (1)  Students extend their understanding of the base-ten system. This includes ideas of counting in fives, tens, and multiples of hundreds, tens, and ones, as well as number relationships involving these units, including comparing. Students understand multi-digit numbers (up to 1000) written in base-ten notation, recognizing that the digits in each place represent amounts of thousands, hundreds, tens, or ones (e.g., 853 is 8 hundreds + 5 tens + 3 ones).

   (2)  Students use their understanding of addition to develop fluency with addition and subtraction within 100. They solve problems within 1000 by applying their understanding of models for addition and subtraction, and they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute sums and differences of whole numbers in base-ten notation, using their understandingof place value and the properties of operations. They select and accurately apply methods that are appropriate for the context and the numbers involved to mentally calculate sums and differences for numbers with only tens or only hundreds.

   (3)  Students recognize the need for standard units of measure (centimeter and inch) and they use rulers and other measurement tools with the understanding that linear measure involves an iteration of units. They recognize that the smaller the unit, the more iterations they need to cover a given length.

   (4)  Students describe and analyze shapes by examining their sides and angles. Students investigate, describe, and reason about decomposing and combining shapes to make other shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two- and three-dimensional shapes, students develop a foundation for understanding area, volume, congruence, similarity, and symmetry in later grades.

Grade 2 Overview



Operations and Algebraic Thinking • Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.
• Add and subtract within 20.
• Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices
Number and Operations in Base Ten• Understand place value.
• Use place value under- standing and properties of operations to add and subtract.
Measurement and Date • Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.
• Relate addition and subtraction to length.
• Work with time and money.
• Represent and interpret data.
Geometry• Reason with shapes and their attributes.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking 2.OA

 Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.

   1.  Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.8

 Add and subtract within 20.

   2.  Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies.9 By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers.

 Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.

   3.  Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.

   4.  Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.

Number and Operations in Base Ten 2.NBT

 Understand place value.

   1.  Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases:

     a.   100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens—called a ‘‘hundred.’’

     b.   The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones).

   2.  Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s.

   3.  Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.

   4.  Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using ›, =, and ‹ symbols to record the results of comparisons.

 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.

   5.  Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

   6.  Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.

   7.  Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds.

   8.  Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100—900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100—900.

   9.  Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.10

Measurement and Data 2.MD

 Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.

   1.  Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

   2.  Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen.

   3.  Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters.

   4.  Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit.

 Relate addition and subtraction to length.

   5.  Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

   6.  Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, . . . , and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.

 Work with time and money.

   7.  Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m.

   8.  Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have?

 Represent and interpret data.

   9.  Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.

   10.  Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems11 using information presented in a bar graph.

Geometry 2.G

 Reason with shapes and their attributes.

   1.  Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.12 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.

   2.  Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares and count to find the total number of them.

   3.  Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape.

MATHEMATICS—GRADE 3

 In Grade 3, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of multiplication and division and strategies for multiplication and division within 100; (2) developing understanding of fractions, especially unit fractions (fractions with numerator 1); (3) developing understanding of the structure of rectangular arrays and of area; and (4) describing and analyzing two-dimensional shapes.

   (1)  Students develop an understanding of the meanings of multiplication and division of whole numbers through activities and problems involving equal-sized groups, arrays, and area models; multiplication is finding an unknown product, and division is finding an unknown factor in these situations. For equal-sized group situations, division can require finding the unknown number of groups or the unknown group size. Students use properties of operations to calculate products of whole numbers, using increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties to solve multiplication and division problems involving single-digit factors. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, students learn the relationship between multiplication and division.

   (2)  Students develop an understanding of fractions, beginning with unit fractions. Students view fractions in general as being built out of unit fractions, and they use fractions along with visual fraction models to represent parts of a whole. Students understand that the size of a fractional part is relative to the size of the whole. For example, 1/2 of the paint in a small bucket could be less paint than 1/3 of the paint in a larger bucket, but 1/3 of a ribbon is longer than 1/5 of the same ribbon because when the ribbon is divided into 3 equal parts, the parts are longer than when the ribbon is divided into 5 equal parts. Students are able to use fractions to represent numbers equal to, less than, and greater than one. They solve problems that involve comparing fractions by using visual fraction models and strategies based on noticing equal numerators or denominators.

   (3)  Students recognize area as an attribute of two-dimensional regions. They measure the area of a shape by finding the total number of same-size units of area required to cover the shape without gaps or overlaps, a square with sides of unit length being the standard unit for measuring area. Students understand that rectangular arrays can be decomposed into identical rows or into identical columns. By decomposing rectangles into rectangular arrays of squares, students connect area to multiplication, and justify using multiplication to determine the area of a rectangle.

   (4)  Students describe, analyze, and compare properties of two-dimensional shapes. They compare and classify shapes by their sides and angles, and connect these with definitions of shapes. Students also relate their fraction work to geometry by expressing the area of part of a shape as a unit fraction of the whole.

Grade 3 Overview



Operations and Algebraic Thinking • Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.
• Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.
• Multiply and divide within 100.
• Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices
Number and Operations in
Base Ten
• Use place value under- standing and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
Number and Operations—Fractions • Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.


Measurement and Data • Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.
• Represent and interpret data.
• Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.
• Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures.
Geometry • Reason with shapes and their attributes.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking 3.OA

 Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.

   1.  Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 x 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 x 7.

   2.  Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8.

   3.  Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.13

   4.  Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 x ? = 48, 5 = ( ÷ 3, 6 x 6 = ?.

 Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.

   5.  Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide.14 Examples: If 6 x 4 = 24 is known, then 4 x 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 x 5 x 2 can be found by 3 x 5 = 15, then 15 x 2 = 30, or by 5 x 2 = 10, then 3 x 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 x 5 = 40 and 8 x 2 = 16, one can find 8 x 7 as 8 x (5 + 2) = (8 x 5) + (8 x 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.)

   6.  Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8.

 Multiply and divide within 100.

   7.  Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 x 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

 Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.

   8.  Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.15

   9.  Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.

Number and Operations in Base Ten 3.NBT

 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.16

   1.  Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.

   2.  Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

   3.  Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (e.g., 9 x 80, 5 x 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.

Number and Operations—Fractions17 3.NF

 Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.

   1.  Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.

   2.  Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.

     a.   Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.

     b.   Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.

   3.  Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.

     a.   Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.

     b.   Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3. Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

     c.   Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram.

     d.   Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols ›, =, or ‹, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

Measurement and Data 3.MD

 Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.

   1.  Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.

   2.  Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l).18 Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.19

 Represent and interpret data.

   3.  Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step ‘‘how many more’’ and ‘‘how many less’’ problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.

   4.  Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units—whole numbers, halves, or quarters.

 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.

   5.  Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement.

     a.   A square with side length 1 unit, called ‘‘a unit square,’’ is said to have ‘‘one square unit’’ of area, and can be used to measure area.

     b.   A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.

   6.  Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).

   7.  Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

     a.   Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.

     b.   Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.

     c.   Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a x b and a x c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.

     d.   Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

 Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures.

   8.  Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.

Geometry 3.G

 Reason with shapes and their attributes.

   1.  Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories.

   2.  Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape.

MATHEMATICS—GRADE 4

 In Grade 4, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing understanding and fluency with multi-digit multiplication, and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends; (2) developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers; (3) understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry.

   (1)  Students generalize their understanding of place value to 1,000,000, understanding the relative sizes of numbers in each place. They apply their understanding of models for multiplication (equal-sized groups, arrays, area models), place value, and properties of operations, in particular the distributive property, as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute products of multi-digit whole numbers. Depending on the numbers and the context, they select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate or mentally calculate products. They develop fluency with efficient procedures for multiplying whole numbers; understand and explain why the procedures work based on place value and properties of operations; and use them to solve problems. Students apply their understanding of models for division, place value, properties of operations, and the relationship of division to multiplication as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable procedures to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends. They select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate and mentally calculate quotients, and interpret remainders based upon the context.

   (2)  Students develop understanding of fraction equivalence and operations with fractions. They recognize that two different fractions can be equal (e.g., 15/9 = 5/3), and they develop methods for generating and recognizing equivalent fractions. Students extend previous understandings about how fractions are built from unit fractions, composing fractions from unit fractions, decomposing fractions into unit fractions, and using the meaning of fractions and the meaning of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

   (3)  Students describe, analyze, compare, and classify two-dimensional shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two-dimensional shapes, students deepen their understanding of properties of two-dimensional objects and the use of them to solve problems involving symmetry.

Grade Level Overview



Operations and Algebraic Thinking • Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.
• Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.
• Generate and analyze patterns.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Mathematical Practices
Number and Operations in
Base Ten
• Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.
• Use place value under- standing and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Number and Operations—
Fractions
• Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.
• Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.
• Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.
Measurement and Date• Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.
• Represent and interpret data.
• Geometric measurement: Understand concepts of angle and measure angles.
Geometry• Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking 4.OA

 Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

   1.  Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

   2.  Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.20

   3.  Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

 Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.

   4.  Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1—100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1—100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1—100 is prime or composite.

 Generate and analyze patterns.

   5.  Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule ‘‘Add 3’’ and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

Number and Operations in Base Ten21 4.NBT

 Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.

   1.  Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division.

   2.  Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using ›, =, and ‹ symbols to record the results of comparisons.

   3.  Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.

 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

   4.  Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

   5.  Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

   6.  Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

Number and Operations—Fractions22 4.NF

 Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.

   1.  Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n x a)/(n x b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

   2.  Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols ›, =, or ‹, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

 Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

   3.  Understand a fraction a/b with a › 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.

     a.   Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.

     b.   Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.

     c.   Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

     d.   Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

   4.  Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

     a.   Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 x (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 x (1/4).

     b.   Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 x (2/5) as 6 x (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n x (a/b) = (n x a)/b.)

     c.   Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

 Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.

   5.  Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.23 For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.

   6.  Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram.

   7.  Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols ›, =, or ‹, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.

Measurement and Data 4.MD

 Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

   1.  Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), . . .

   2.  Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

   3.  Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

 Represent and interpret data.

   4.  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.

 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.

   5.  Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:

     a.   An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a ‘‘one-degree angle,’’ and can be used to measure angles.

     b.   An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.

   6.  Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.

   7.  Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.

Geometry 4.G

 Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

   1.  Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

   2.  Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.

   3.  Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

MATHEMATICS—GRADE 5

 In Grade 5, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing fluency with addition and subtraction of fractions, and developing understanding of the multiplication of fractions and of division of fractions in limited cases (unit fractions divided by whole numbers and whole numbers divided by unit fractions); (2) extending division to 2-digit divisors, integrating decimal fractions into the place value system and developing understanding of operations with decimals to hundredths, and developing fluency with whole number and decimal operations; and (3) developing understanding of volume.

   (1)  Students apply their understanding of fractions and fraction models to represent the addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators as equivalent calculations with like denominators. They develop fluency in calculating sums and differences of fractions, and make reasonable estimates of them. Students also use the meaning of fractions, of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions make sense. (Note: this is limited to the case of dividing unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.)

   (2)  Students develop understanding of why division procedures work based on the meaning of base-ten numerals and properties of operations. They finalize fluency with multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They apply their understandings of models for decimals, decimal notation, and properties of operations to add and subtract decimals to hundredths. They develop fluency in these computations, and make reasonable estimates of their results. Students use the relationship between decimals and fractions, as well as the relationship between finite decimals and whole numbers (i.e., a finite decimal multiplied by an appropriate power of 10 is a whole number), to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing finite decimals make sense. They compute products and quotients of decimals to hundredths efficiently and accurately.

   (3)  Students recognize volume as an attribute of three-dimensional space. They understand that volume can be measured by finding the total number of same-size units of volume required to fill the space without gaps or overlaps. They understand that a 1-unit by 1-unit by 1-unit cube is the standard unit for measuring volume. They select appropriate units, strategies, and tools for solving problems that involve estimating and measuring volume. They decompose three-dimensional shapes and find volumes of right rectangular prisms by viewing them as decomposed into layers of arrays of cubes. They measure necessary attributes of shapes in order to determine volumes to solve real world and mathematical problems.

Grade 5 Overview



Operations and Algebraic Thinking • Write and interpret numerical expressions.
• Analyze patterns and relationships.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Mathematical Practices


Number and Operations in
Base Ten
• Understand the place value
• Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
Number and Operations—
Fractions
• Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.
• Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
system.
Measurement and Data • Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.
• Represent and interpret data.
• Geometric measurement: Understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.
Geometry • Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real world and mathematical problems.
• Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking 5.OA

 Write and interpret numerical expressions.

   1.  Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.

   2.  Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation ‘‘add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2’’ as 2 x (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 x (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.

 Analyze patterns and relationships.

   3.  Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule ‘‘Add 3’’ and the starting number 0, and given the rule ‘‘Add 6’’ and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.

Number and Operations in Base Ten 5.NBT

 Understand the place value system.

   1.  Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.

   2.  Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use whole-number exponents to denote powers of 10.

   3.  Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.

     a.   Read and write decimals to thousandths using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 x 100 + 4 x 10 + 7 x 1 + 3 x (1/10) + 9 x (1/100) + 2 x (1/1000).

     b.   Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using ›, =, and ‹ symbols to record the results of comparisons.

   4.  Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place.

 Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.

   5.  Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

   6.  Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

   7.  Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Number and Operations—Fractions 5.NF

 Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.

   1.  Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.)

   2.  Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally and assess the reasonableness of answers. For example, recognize an incorrect result 2/5 + 1/2 = 3/7, by observing that 3/7 ‹ 1/2.

 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.

   3.  Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50-pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

   4.  Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.

     a.   Interpret the product (a/b) x q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a x q ÷ b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) x 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) x (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) x (c/d) = ac/bd.)

     b.   Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas.

   5.  Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by:

     a.   Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication.

     b.   Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (nxa)/(nxb) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1.

   6.  Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

   7.  Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.24

     a.   Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) x 4 = 1/3.

     b.   Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 x (1/5) = 4.

     c.   Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3-cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins?

Measurement and Data 5.MD

 Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.

   1.  Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems.

 Represent and interpret data.

   2.  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.

 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.

   3.  Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.

     a.   A cube with side length 1 unit, called a ‘‘unit cube,’’ is said to have ‘‘one cubic unit’’ of volume, and can be used to measure volume.

     b.   A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units.

   4.  Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units.

   5.  Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume.

     a.   Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication.

     b.   Apply the formulas V = l x w x h and V = b x h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole-number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems.

     c.   Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

Geometry 5.G

 Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

   1.  Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate).

   2.  Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.

 Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties.

   3.  Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two-dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.

   4.  Classify two-dimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties.

MATHEMATICS—GRADE 6

 In Grade 6, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) connecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems; (2) completing understanding of division of fractions and extending the notion of number to the system of rational numbers, which includes negative numbers; (3) writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations; and (4) developing understanding of statistical thinking.

   (1)  Students use reasoning about multiplication and division to solve ratio and rate problems about quantities. By viewing equivalent ratios and rates as deriving from, and extending, pairs of rows (or columns) in the multiplication table, and by analyzing simple drawings that indicate the relative size of quantities, students connect their understanding of multiplication and division with ratios and rates. Thus students expand the scope of problems for which they can use multiplication and division to solve problems, and they connect ratios and fractions. Students solve a wide variety of problems involving ratios and rates.

   (2)  Students use the meaning of fractions, the meanings of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for dividing fractions make sense. Students use these operations to solve problems. Students extend their previous understandings of number and the ordering of numbers to the full system of rational numbers, which includes negative rational numbers, and in particular negative integers. They reason about the order and absolute value of rational numbers and about the location of points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane.

   (3)  Students understand the use of variables in mathematical expressions. They write expressions and equations that correspond to given situations, evaluate expressions, and use expressions and formulas to solve problems. Students understand that expressions in different forms can be equivalent, and they use the properties of operations to rewrite expressions in equivalent forms. Students know that the solutions of an equation are the values of the variables that make the equation true. Students use properties of operations and the idea of maintaining the equality of both sides of an equation to solve simple one-step equations. Students construct and analyze tables, such as tables of quantities that are in equivalent ratios, and they use equations (such as 3x = y) to describe relationships between quantities.

   (4)  Building on and reinforcing their understanding of number, students begin to develop their ability to think statistically. Students recognize that a data distribution may not have a definite center and that different ways to measure center yield different values. The median measures center in the sense that it is roughly the middle value. The mean measures center in the sense that it is the value that each data point would take on if the total of the data values were redistributed equally, and also in the sense that it is a balance point. Students recognize that a measure of variability (interquartile range or mean absolute deviation) can also be useful for summarizing data because two very different sets of data can have the same mean and median yet be distinguished by their variability. Students learn to describe and summarize numerical data sets, identifying clusters, peaks, gaps, and symmetry, considering the context in which the data were collected.

 Students in Grade 6 also build on their work with area in elementary school by reasoning about relationships among shapes to determine area, surface area, and volume. They find areas of right triangles, other triangles, and special quadrilaterals by decomposing these shapes, rearranging or removing pieces, and relating the shapes to rectangles. Using these methods, students discuss, develop, and justify formulas for areas of triangles and parallelograms. Students find areas of polygons and surface areas of prisms and pyramids by decomposing them into pieces whose area they can determine. They reason about right rectangular prisms with fractional side lengths to extend formulas for the volume of a right rectangular prism to fractional side lengths. They prepare for work on scale drawings and constructions in Grade 7 by drawing polygons in the coordinate plane.

Grade 6 Overview



Ratios and Proportional Relationships • Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems. 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices
The Number System • Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.
• Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.
• Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.


Expressions and Equations • Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.
• Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.
• Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.
Geometry • Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.
Statistics and Probability • Develop understanding of statistical variability.
• Summarize and describe distributions.

Ratios and Proportional Relationships 6.RP

 Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.

   1.  Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, ‘‘The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.’’ ‘‘For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.’’

   2.  Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b µ' 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, ‘‘This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar.’’ ‘‘We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger.’’25

   3.  Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.

     a.   Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole-number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios.

     b.   Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed?

     c.   Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent.

     d.   Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.

The Number System 6.NS

 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.

   1.  Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi?

 Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.

   2.  Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm.

   3.  Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.

   4.  Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1-100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2).

 Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.

   5.  Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.

   6.  Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.

     a.   Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., -(-3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite.

     b.   Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes.

     c.   Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane.

   7.  Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers.

     a.   Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a number line diagram. For example, interpret -3 › -7 as a statement that -3 is located to the right of -7 on a number line oriented from left to right.

     b.   Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in real-world contexts. For example, write -3 °C › -7 °C to express the fact that -3 °C is warmer than -7 °C.

     c.   Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real-world situation. For example, for an account balance of -30 dollars, write -30 = 30 to describe the size of the debt in dollars.

     d.   Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order. For example, recognize that an account balance less than -30 dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars.

   8.  Solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate.

Expressions and Equations 6.EE

 Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.

   1.  Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.

   2.  Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

     a.   Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation ‘‘Subtract y from 5’’ as 5 - y.

     b.   Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2 (8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms.

     c.   Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s3 and A = 6 s2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2.

   3.  Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3 (2 + x) to produce the equivalent expression 6 + 3x; apply the distributive property to the expression 24x + 18y to produce the equivalent expression 6 (4x + 3y); apply properties of operations to y + y + y to produce the equivalent expression 3y.

   4.  Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for.

   Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.

   5.  Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true.

   6.  Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.

   7.  Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.

   8.  Write an inequality of the form xc or x ‹ c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x › c or x ‹ c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams.

 Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.

   9.  Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time.

Geometry 6.G

 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.

   1.  Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

   2.  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

   3.  Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

   4.  Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Statistics and Probability 6.SP

 Develop understanding of statistical variability.

   1.  Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, ‘‘How old am I?’’ is not a statistical question, but ‘‘How old are the students in my school?’’ is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages.

   2.  Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.

   3.  Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.

 Summarize and describe distributions.

   4.  Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.

   5.  Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:

     a.   Reporting the number of observations.

     b.   Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement.

     c.   Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.

     d.   Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered.

MATHEMATICS—GRADE 7

 In Grade 7, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships; (2) developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations; (3) solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and working with two- and three-dimensional shapes to solve problems involving area, surface area, and volume; and (4) drawing inferences about populations based on samples.

   (1)  Students extend their understanding of ratios and develop understanding of proportionality to solve single- and multi-step problems. Students use their understanding of ratios and proportionality to solve a wide variety of percent problems, including those involving discounts, interest, taxes, tips, and percent increase or decrease. Students solve problems about scale drawings by relating corresponding lengths between the objects or by using the fact that relationships of lengths within an object are preserved in similar objects. Students graph proportional relationships and understand the unit rate informally as a measure of the steepness of the related line, called the slope. They distinguish proportional relationships from other relationships.

   (2)  Students develop a unified understanding of number, recognizing fractions, decimals (that have a finite or a repeating decimal representation), and percents as different representations of rational numbers. Students extend addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to all rational numbers, maintaining the properties of operations and the relationships between addition and subtraction, and multiplication and division. By applying these properties, and by viewing negative numbers in terms of everyday contexts (e.g., amounts owed or temperatures below zero), students explain and interpret the rules for adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing with negative numbers. They use the arithmetic of rational numbers as they formulate expressions and equations in one variable and use these equations to solve problems.

   (3)  Students continue their work with area from Grade 6, solving problems involving the area and circumference of a circle and surface area of three-dimensional objects. In preparation for work on congruence and similarity in Grade 8 they reason about relationships among two-dimensional figures using scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and they gain familiarity with the relationships between angles formed by intersecting lines. Students work with three-dimensional figures, relating them to two-dimensional figures by examining cross-sections. They solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes and right prisms.

   (4)  Students build on their previous work with single data distributions to compare two data distributions and address questions about differences between populations. They begin informal work with random sampling to generate data sets and learn about the importance of representative samples for drawing inferences.

Grade 7 Overview



Ratios and Proportional Relationships • Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices
The Number System • Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.
Expressions and Equations • Use properties of operations to generate equivlent expressions.
• Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.
Geometry • Draw, construct and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them.
• Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume.
Statistics and Probability • Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.
• Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations.
• Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.

Ratios and Proportional Relationships 7.RP

 Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

   1.  Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction 1/2/1/4 miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour.

   2.  Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

     a.   Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.

     b.   Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.

     c.   Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost t is proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn.

     d.   Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r is the unit rate.

   3.  Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error.

The Number System 7.NS

 Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.

   1.  Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram.

     a.   Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged.

     b.   Understand p + q as the number located a distance q from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.

     c.   Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p - q = p + (-q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real-world contexts.

     d.   Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers.

   2.  Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.

     a.   Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (-1)(-1) = 1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.

     b.   Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non-zero divisor) is a rational number. If p and q are integers, then -(p/q) = (-p)/q = p/(-q). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.

     c.   Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers.

     d.   Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.

   3.  Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers.26

Expressions and Equations 7.EE

 Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.

   1.  Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients.

   2.  Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that ‘‘increase by 5%’’ is the same as ‘‘multiply by 1.05.’’

 Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

   3.  Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation.

   4.  Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

     a.   Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r and p(x + q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width?

     b.   Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px + qr or px + qr, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example: As a salesperson, you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least $100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the solutions.

Geometry 7.G

 Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them.

   1.  Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, such as computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.

   2.  Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle.

   3.  Describe the two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three-dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids.

 Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume.

   4.  Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle.

   5.  Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi-step problem to write and use them to solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure.

   6.  Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms.

Statistics and Probability 7.SP

 Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.

   1.  Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences.

   2.  Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be.

 Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations.

   3.  Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable.

   4.  Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventh-grade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourth-grade science book.

 Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.

   5.  Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event.

   6.  Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times.

   7.  Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy.

     a.   Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.

     b.   Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land open-end down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies?

   8.  Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation.

     a.   Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.

     b.   Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., ‘‘rolling double sixes’’), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.

     c.   Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood?

MATHEMATICS—GRADE 8

 In Grade 8, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) formulating and reasoning about expressions and equations, including modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation, and solving linear equations and systems of linear equations; (2) grasping the concept of a function and using functions to describe quantitative relationships; (3) analyzing two- and three-dimensional space and figures using distance, angle, similarity, and congruence, and understanding and applying the Pythagorean Theorem.

   (1)  Students use linear equations and systems of linear equations to represent, analyze, and solve a variety of problems. Students recognize equations for proportions (y/x = m or y = mx) as special linear equations (y = mx + b), understanding that the constant of proportionality (m) is the slope, and the graphs are lines through the origin. They understand that the slope (m) of a line is a constant rate of change, so that if the input or x-coordinate changes by an amount A, the output or y-coordinate changes by the amount m[odot ]1A. Students also use a linear equation to describe the association between two quantities in bivariate data (such as arm span vs. height for students in a classroom). At this grade, fitting the model, and assessing its fit to the data are done informally. Interpreting the model in the context of the data requires students to express a relationship between the two quantities in question and to interpret components of the relationship (such as slope and y-intercept) in terms of the situation.

 Students strategically choose and efficiently implement procedures to solve linear equations in one variable, understanding that when they use the properties of equality and the concept of logical equivalence, they maintain the solutions of the original equation. Students solve systems of two linear equations in two variables and relate the systems to pairs of lines in the plane; these intersect, are parallel, or are the same line. Students use linear equations, systems of linear equations, linear functions, and their understanding of slope of a line to analyze situations and solve problems.

   (2)  Students grasp the concept of a function as a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. They understand that functions describe situations where one quantity determines another. They can translate among representations and partial representations of functions (noting that tabular and graphical representations may be partial representations), and they describe how aspects of the function are reflected in the different representations.

   (3)  Students use ideas about distance and angles, how they behave under translations, rotations, reflections, and dilations, and ideas about congruence and similarity to describe and analyze two-dimensional figures and to solve problems. Students show that the sum of the angles in a triangle is the angle formed by a straight line, and that various configurations of lines give rise to similar triangles because of the angles created when a transversal cuts parallel lines. Students understand the statement of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse, and can explain why the Pythagorean Theorem holds, for example, by decomposing a square in two different ways. They apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find distances between points on the coordinate plane, to find lengths, and to analyze polygons. Students complete their work on volume by solving problems involving cones, cylinders, and spheres.

Grade 8 Overview



The Number System • Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices
Expressions and Equations • Work with radicals and integer exponents.
• Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
• Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
Functions • Define, evaluate, and compare functions.
• Use functions to model relationships between quantities.


Geometry • Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.
• Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.
• Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones and spheres.
Statistics and Probability • Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.

The Number System 8.NS

 Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.

   1.  Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.

   2.  Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., [pgr ]2). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of 2, show that 2 is between 1and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations.

Expressions and Equations 8.EE

 Work with radicals and integer exponents.

   1.  Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 x 3-5 = 3-3 = 1/33 = 1/27.

 2. Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x2 = p and x3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that 2 is irrational.

   3.  Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 x 108 and the population of the world as 7 x 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.

   4.  Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

 Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.

   5.  Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

   6.  Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

 Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

   7.  Solve linear equations in one variable.

     a.   Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

     b.   Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

   8.  Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

     a.   Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

     b.   Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.

     c.   Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

Functions 8.F

 Define, evaluate, and compare functions.

   1.  Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.27

   2.  Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.

   3.  Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.

 Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

   4.  Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

   5.  Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

Geometry 8.G

 Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.

   1.  Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations:

     a.   Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length.

     b.   Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.

     c.   Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.

   2.  Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.

   3.  Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates.

   4.  Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them.

   5.  Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so.

 Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.

   6.  Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse.

   7.  Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.

   8.  Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system.

 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.

   9.  Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

Statistics and Probability 8.SP

 Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.

   1.  Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

   2.  Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.

   3.  Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height.

   4.  Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores?

MATHEMATICS STANDARDS FOR HIGH SCHOOL

 The high school standards specify the mathematics that all students should study in order to be college and career ready. Additional mathematics that students should learn in order to take advanced courses such as calculus, advanced statistics, or discrete mathematics is indicated by (+), as in this example:

 (+) Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers).

 All standards without a (+) symbol should be in the common mathematics curriculum for all college and career ready students. Standards with a (+) symbol may also appear in courses intended for all students.

 The high school standards are listed in conceptual categories:

 • Number and Quantity

 • Algebra

 • Functions

 • Modeling

 • Geometry

 • Statistics and Probability.

 Conceptual categories portray a coherent view of high school mathematics; a student’s work with functions, for example, crosses a number of traditional course boundaries, potentially up through and including calculus.

 Modeling is best interpreted not as a collection of isolated topics but in relation to other standards. Making mathematical models is a Standard for Mathematical Practice, and specific modeling standards appear throughout the high school standards indicated by a star symbol (*). The star symbol sometimes appears on the heading for a group of standards; in that case, it should be understood to apply to all standards in that group.

MATHEMATICS—HIGH SCHOOL—NUMBER AND QUANTITY

 Numbers and Number Systems. During the years from kindergarten to eighth grade, students must repeatedly extend their conception of number. At first, ‘‘number’’ means ‘‘counting number’’: 1, 2, 3. . . . Soon after that, 0 is used to represent ‘‘none’’ and the whole numbers are formed by the counting numbers together with zero. The next extension is fractions. At first, fractions are barely numbers and tied strongly to pictorial representations. Yet by the time students understand division of fractions, they have a strong concept of fractions as numbers and have connected them, via their decimal representations, with the base-ten system used to represent the whole numbers. During middle school, fractions are augmented by negative fractions to form the rational numbers. In Grade 8, students extend this system once more, augmenting the rational numbers with the irrational numbers to form the real numbers. In high school, students will be exposed to yet another extension of number, when the real numbers are augmented by the imaginary numbers to form the complex numbers.

 With each extension of number, the meanings of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are extended. In each new number system—integers, rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers—the four operations stay the same in two important ways: They have the commutative, associative, and distributive properties and their new meanings are consistent with their previous meanings.

 Extending the properties of whole-number exponents leads to new and productive notation. For example, properties of whole-number exponents suggest that (51/3)3 should be 5(1/3).3 = 51 = 5 and that 51/3 should be the cube root of 5.

 Calculators, spreadsheets, and computer algebra systems can provide ways for students to become better acquainted with these new number systems and their notation. They can be used to generate data for numerical experiments, to help understand the workings of matrix, vector, and complex number algebra, and to experiment with non-integer exponents.

 Quantities. In real world problems, the answers are usually not numbers but quantities: numbers with units, which involves measurement. In their work in measurement up through Grade 8, students primarily measure commonly used attributes such as length, area, and volume. In high school, students encounter a wider variety of units in modeling, e.g., acceleration, currency conversions, derived quantities such as person-hours and heating degree days, social science rates such as per-capita income, and rates in everyday life such as points scored per game or batting averages. They also encounter novel situations in which they themselves must conceive the attributes of interest. For example, to find a good measure of overall highway safety, they might propose measures such as fatalities per year, fatalities per year per driver, or fatalities per vehicle-mile traveled. Such a conceptual process is sometimes called quantification. Quantification is important for science, as when surface area suddenly ‘‘stands out’’ as an important variable in evaporation. Quantification is also important for companies, which must conceptualize relevant attributes and create or choose suitable measures for them.

Number and Quantity Overview



The Real Number System





Quantities




The Complex Number System












Vector and Matrix Quantities
• Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.
• Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.


• Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.

• Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers.
• Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane.
• Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and equations.

• Represent and model with vector quantities.
• Perform operations on vectors. Perform operations on matrices and use matrices in applications.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices

The Real Number System N-RN

 Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.

   1.  Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 51/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (51/3)3 = 5(1/3)3 to hold, so (51/3)3 must equal 5.

   2.  Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents.

 Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.

   3.  Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers are rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.

Quantities* N-Q

 Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.

   1.  Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.

   2.  Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.

   3.  Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.

The Complex Number System N-CN

 Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers.

   1.  Know there is a complex number i such that i2 = -1, and every complex number has the form a + bi with a and b real.

   2.  Use the relation i2 = -1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers.

   3.  (+) Find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find moduli and quotients of complex numbers.

 Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane.

   4.  (+) Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number.

   5.  (+) Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation. For example, (-1 + 3 i)3 = 8 because (-1 + 3 i) has modulus 2 and argument 120°.

   6.  (+) Calculate the distance between numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of the difference, and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints.

 Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and equations.

   7.  Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions.

   8.  (+) Extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers. For example, rewrite x2 + 4 as (x + 2i)(x - 2i).

   9.  (+) Know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; show that it is true for quadratic polynomials.

Vector and Matrix Quantities N-VM

 Represent and model with vector quantities.

   1.  (+) Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, v, v, v).

   2.  (+) Find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point.

   3.  (+) Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors.

 Perform operations on vectors.

   4.  (+) Add and subtract vectors.

     a.   Add vectors end-to-end, component-wise, and by the parallelogram rule. Understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes.

     b.   Given two vectors in magnitude and direction form, determine the magnitude and direction of their sum.

     c.   Understand vector subtraction v - w as v + (-w), where -w is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction component-wise.

   5.  (+) Multiply a vector by a scalar.

     a.   Represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; perform scalar multiplication component-wise, e.g., as c(vx, vy) = (cvx, cvy).

     b.   Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using c = cv. Compute the direction of cv knowing that when cv µ' 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c › 0) or against v (for c ‹ 0).

 Perform operations on matrices and use matrices in applications.

   6.  (+) Use matrices to represent and manipulate data, e.g., to represent payoffs or incidence relationships in a network.

   7.  (+) Multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices, e.g., as when all of the payoffs in a game are doubled.

   8.  (+) Add, subtract, and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions.

   9.  (+) Understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties.

   10.  (+) Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse.

   11.  (+) Multiply a vector (regarded as a matrix with one column) by a matrix of suitable dimensions to produce another vector. Work with matrices as transformations of vectors.

   12.  (+) Work with 2 x 2 matrices as transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area.

MATHEMATICS—HIGH SCHOOL—ALGEBRA

 Expressions. An expression is a record of a computation with numbers, symbols that represent numbers, arithmetic operations, exponentiation, and, at more advanced levels, the operation of evaluating a function. Conventions about the use of parentheses and the order of operations assure that each expression is unambiguous. Creating an expression that describes a computation involving a general quantity requires the ability to express the computation in general terms, abstracting from specific instances.

 

   Reading an expression with comprehension involves analysis of its underlying structure. This may suggest a different but equivalent way of writing the expression that exhibits some different aspect of its meaning. For example, p + 0.05p can be interpreted as the addition of a 5% tax to a price p. Rewriting p + 0.05p as 1.05p shows that adding a tax is the same as multiplying the price by a constant factor.

 Algebraic manipulations are governed by the properties of operations and exponents, and the conventions of algebraic notation. At times, an expression is the result of applying operations to simpler expressions. For example, p + 0.05p is the sum of the simpler expressions p and 0.05p. Viewing an expression as the result of operation on simpler expressions can sometimes clarify its underlying structure.

 A spreadsheet or a computer algebra system (CAS) can be used to experiment with algebraic expressions, perform complicated algebraic manipulations, and understand how algebraic manipulations behave.

 Equations and inequalities. An equation is a statement of equality between two expressions, often viewed as a question asking for which values of the variables the expressions on either side are in fact equal. These values are the solutions to the equation. An identity, in contrast, is true for all values of the variables; identities are often developed by rewriting an expression in an equivalent form.

 The solutions of an equation in one variable form a set of numbers; the solutions of an equation in two variables form a set of ordered pairs of numbers, which can be plotted in the coordinate plane. Two or more equations and/or inequalities form a system. A solution for such a system must satisfy every equation and inequality in the system.

 An equation can often be solved by successively deducing from it one or more simpler equations. For example, one can add the same constant to both sides without changing the solutions, but squaring both sides might lead to extraneous solutions. Strategic competence in solving includes looking ahead for productive manipulations and anticipating the nature and number of solutions.

 Some equations have no solutions in a given number system, but have a solution in a larger system. For example, the solution of x + 1 = 0 is an integer, not a whole number; the solution of 2x + 1 = 0 is a rational number, not an integer; the solutions of x2 - 2 = 0 are real numbers, not rational numbers; and the solutions of x2 + 2 = 0 are complex numbers, not real numbers.

 The same solution techniques used to solve equations can be used to rearrange formulas. For example, the formula for the area of a trapezoid, A = ((b1+b2)/2)h, can be solved for h using the same deductive process.

 Inequalities can be solved by reasoning about the properties of inequality. Many, but not all, of the properties of equality continue to hold for inequalities and can be useful in solving them.

 Connections to Functions and Modeling. Expressions can define functions, and equivalent expressions define the same function. Asking when two functions have the same value for the same input leads to an equation; graphing the two functions allows for finding approximate solutions of the equation. Converting a verbal description to an equation, inequality, or system of these is an essential skill in modeling.

Algebra Overview



Seeing Structure in Expressions





Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions










Creating Equations


Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities
• Interpret the structure of expressions.
• Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems.

• Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials.
• Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials.
• Use polynomial identities to solve problems.
• Rewrite rational expressions.
• Create equations that describe numbers or relationships.
• Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.
• Solve equations and inequalities in one variable.
• Solve systems of equations. Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices

Seeing Structure in Expressions A-SSE

 Interpret the structure of expressions.

   1.  Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.*

     a.   Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.

     b.   Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P. 

   2.  Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 - y4 as (x2)2 - (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 - y2)(x2 + y2).

 Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems.

   3.  Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.*

     a.   Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines.

     b.   Complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines.

     c.   Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15t can be rewritten as (1.151/12)12t µF 1.01212t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%.

   4.  Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems. For example, calculate mortgage payments.*

Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions A-APR

 Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials.

   1.  Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.

 Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials.

   2.  Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x - a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x - a) is a factor of p(x).

   3.  Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial.

 Use polynomial identities to solve problems.

   4.  Prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships. For example, the polynomial identity (x2 + y2)2 = (x2 - y2)2 + (2xy)2 can be used to generate Pythagorean triples.

   5.  (+) Know and apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (x + y)n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined for example by Pascal’s Triangle.28

 Rewrite rational expressions.

   6.  Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system.

   7.  (+) Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions.

Creating Equations* A-CED

 Create equations that describe numbers or relationships.

   1.  Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions.

   2.  Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.

   3.  Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or non-viable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods.

   4.  Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R.

Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities A-REI

 Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning.

   1.  Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.

   2.  Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise.

 Solve equations and inequalities in one variable.

   3.  Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters.

   4.  Solve quadratic equations in one variable.

     a.   Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x - p)2 = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form.

     b.   Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b.

 Solve systems of equations.

   5.  Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions.

   6.  Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables.

   7.  Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. For example, find the points of intersection between the line y = -3x and the circle x2 + y2 = 3.

   8.  (+) Represent a system of linear equations as a single matrix equation in a vector variable.

   9.  (+) Find the inverse of a matrix if it exists and use it to solve systems of linear equations (using technology for matrices of dimension 3 x 3 or greater).

 Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically.

   10.  Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line).

   11.  Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.*

   12.  Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes.

MATHEMATICS—HIGH SCHOOL—FUNCTIONS

 

   Functions describe situations where one quantity determines another. For example, the return on $10,000 invested at an annualized percentage rate of 4.25% is a function of the length of time the money is invested. Because we continually make theories about dependencies between quantities in nature and society, functions are important tools in the construction of mathematical models.

 In school mathematics, functions usually have numerical inputs and outputs and are often defined by an algebraic expression. For example, the time in hours it takes for a car to drive 100 miles is a function of the car’s speed in miles per hour, v; the rule T(v) = 100/v expresses this relationship algebraically and defines a function whose name is T.

 The set of inputs to a function is called its domain. We often infer the domain to be all inputs for which the expression defining a function has a value, or for which the function makes sense in a given context.

 A function can be described in various ways, such as by a graph (e.g., the trace of a seismograph); by a verbal rule, as in, ‘‘I’ll give you a state, you give me the capital city;’’ by an algebraic expression like f(x) = a + bx; or by a recursive rule. The graph of a function is often a useful way of visualizing the relationship of the function models, and manipulating a mathematical expression for a function can throw light on the function’s properties.

 Functions presented as expressions can model many important phenomena. Two important families of functions characterized by laws of growth are linear functions, which grow at a constant rate, and exponential functions, which grow at a constant percent rate. Linear functions with a constant term of zero describe proportional relationships.

 A graphing utility or a computer algebra system can be used to experiment with properties of these functions and their graphs and to build computational models of functions, including recursively defined functions.

 Connections to Expressions, Equations, Modeling, and Coordinates. Determining an output value for a particular input involves evaluating an expression; finding inputs that yield a given output involves solving an equation. Questions about when two functions have the same value for the same input lead to equations, whose solutions can be visualized from the intersection of their graphs. Because functions describe relationships between quantities, they are frequently used in modeling. Sometimes functions are defined by a recursive process, which can be displayed effectively using a spreadsheet or other technology.

Functions Overview



Interpreting Functions












Building Functions





Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models






Trigonometric Functions
• Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.
• Interpret func-tions that arise in applications in terms of the context.
• Analyze functions using different representations.
• Build a function that models a re-lationship between two quantities.
• Build new functions from existing functions.
• Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems.
• Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situation they model.
• Extend the domain of trigono-metric functions using the unit circle.
• Model periodic phenomena with trigonometric func-ions. Prove and apply trigonometricidentities.
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematical Practices

Interpreting Functions F-IF

 Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.

   1.  Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).

   2.  Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context.

   3.  Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n ›= 1.

 Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context.

   4.  For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.*

   5.  Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.*

   6.  Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.*

 Analyze functions using different representations.

   7.  Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.*

     a.   Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.

     b.   Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions.

     c.   Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.

     d.   (+) Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.

     e.   Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.

   8.  Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.

     a.   Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context.

     b.   Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)t, y = (0.97)y, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10, and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay.

   9.  Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum.

Building Functions F-BF

 Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities.

   1.  Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.*

     a.   Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. 

     b.   Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model.

     c.   (+) Compose functions. For example, if T(y) is the temperature in the atmosphere as a function of height, and h(t) is the height of a weather balloon as a function of time, then T(h(t)) is the temperature at the location of the weather balloon as a function of time.

   2.  Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.*

 Build new functions from existing functions.

   3.  Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.

   4.  Find inverse functions.

     a.   Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) =2 x3 or f(x) = (x+1)/(x-1) for x µ' 1.

     b.   (+) Verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another.

     c.   (+) Read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse.

     d.   (+) Produce an invertible function from a non-invertible function by restricting the domain.

   5.  (+) Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents.

Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models* F-LQE

 Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems.

   1.  Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions.

     a.   Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals.

     b.   Recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another.

     c.   Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another.

   2.  Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).

   3.  Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function.

   4.  For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to a bct = d where a, c, and d are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate the logarithm using technology.

 Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situation they model.

   5.  Interpret the parameters in a linear, quadratic, or exponential function in terms of a context.

Trigonometric Functions F-TF

 Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle.

   1.  Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle.

   2.  Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle.

   3.  (+) Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for [pgr ]/3, [pgr ]/4 and [pgr ]/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for [pgr ]-x, [pgr ]+x, and 2[pgr ]-x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number.

   4.  (+) Use the unit circle to explain symmetry (odd and even) an