Subchapter G. RAILINGS, TOEBOARDS, OPEN-SIDED FLOORS,
PLATFORMS AND RUNWAYS


GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.


47.221.    Definitions.
47.222.    Scope.
47.223.    Penalty.

RAILINGS FOR ALL INSTALLATIONS


47.231.    Installation.
47.232.    Construction.
47.233.    Pipe railings.
47.234.    Metal railings other than pipe.
47.235.    Wood railings.
47.236.    Stairway railings and handrailings.
47.237.    Exceptions.

TOEBOARDS FOR ALL INSTALLATIONS


47.241.    Installation.
47.242.    Construction.
47.243.    Exceptions.

RUNWAYS AND PLATFORMS FOR ALL INSTALLATIONS


47.251.    General requirements.
47.252.    Chain railings.
47.253.    Access to platforms.
47.254.    Exceptions.

RAILINGS FOR NEW INSTALLATIONS


47.261.    Post fastenings.
47.262.    Angle.
47.263.    Wood post fastenings.

OILING PLATFORMS—NEW INSTALLATIONS


47.271.    New platforms.

RAILINGS—EXISTING INSTALLATIONS


47.281.    Post fastenings.
47.282.    Wood posts.

TOEBOARDS—EXISTING INSTALLATIONS


47.291.    Exceptions.

OILING PLATFORMS—EXISTING INSTALLATIONS


47.301.    Platforms.

APPENDIX


Authority

   The provisions of this Subchapter G issued under act of May 18, 1937 (P. L. 654, No. 174) (43 P. S. § §  25-1—25-15), unless otherwise noted.

Source

   The provisions of this Subchapter G adopted February 10, 1926; amended through August 1, 1968, unless otherwise noted.

Cross References

   This Subchapter cited in 34 Pa. Code §  5.118 (relating to transportation, machinary, and platforms); 34 Pa. Code §  5.165 (relating to repairs); 34 Pa. Code §  5.181 (relating to general); 34 Pa. Code §  11.52 (relating to heating and passing rivets); 34 Pa. Code §  13.172 (relating to platforms); 34 Pa.Code §  29.148 (relating to oiling and cleaning); 34 Pa. Code §  29.171 (relating to all installations); This Subchapter cited in 34 Pa. Code §  39.22 (relating to yard and internal housekeeping); 34 Pa. Code §  39.33 (relating to construction); 34 Pa. Code §  45.32 (relating to floor openings); 34 Pa. Code §  47.89 (relating to tank processes); and 34 Pa. Code §  47.167 (relating to maintenance).

GENERAL PROVISIONS


§ 47.221. Definitions.

 The following words and terms, when used in this subchapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

   Balcony—A working platform projecting from a wall.

   Handrailing—A single pole, bar or pipe supported on brackets from a wall or partition.

   Oiling platform—A raised flooring constructed for the purpose of oiling machinery.

   Platform—A raised working floor or stage.

   Railing—A vertical barrier erected along the exposed edges of open-sided floors, working platforms, runways, balconies and openings in walls, floors and ground levels.

   Runway—A stationary incline or ramp provided as a means of ascent and descent from one level to another.

   Toeboard—A board or plank set on edge immediately under a railing at floor level.

§ 47.222. Scope.

 This Subchapter sets forth rules to safeguard the lives, limbs and health of workers in industries in which railings, toeboards, open-sided floors, platforms and runways are used, and places the responsibility of complying with these rules upon both employer and employe.

§ 47.223. Penalty.

 Any person who violates this subchapter or any regulations of the Department or who interferes with the Department or its duly authorized representative in the enforcement of these provisions or regulations shall be subject to summary proceedings before an alderman, magistrate, or district justice, and upon conviction shall be penalized under the provisions of section 15 of act of May 18, 1937 (P. L. 654, No. 174) (43 P. S. §  25-15).

RAILINGS FOR ALL INSTALLATIONS


§ 47.231. Installation.

 Railing shall be installed along the edges of every open-sided floor, working platform, runway or balcony which is 6 feet or more above floor or ground level and along the edges of all other platforms or openings in walls, floors or ground levels where the safety of persons is involved. Railings or handrailings shall be installed on all stairways 3 feet or more in height.

Cross References

   This section cited in 34 Pa. Code §  47.253 (relating to access to platforms).

§ 47.232. Construction.

 (a)  Railings shall be not less than 42 inches in height from floor or ground level to the top of the top railing and shall be provided with an intermediate railing the center of which shall be midway between the floor or ground level of the space guarded and the top of the top railing. Railings shall be constructed in a permanent and substantial manner of wood, pipe, metal shapes or metal bars. Reference should be made to Plates 1, 2 and 3 of the Appendix to this Subchapter. One or more sides may be hinged or supported in sockets if a rigidity equal to that of fixed installation is obtained. Railings shall be smooth and free from large or loose knots, protruding nails, bolts, splinters, fins, slivers and cracks. All sharp corners shall be rounded and smoothed. The ends of railings shall not overhang the terminal posts unless such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard.

 (b)  Posts or uprights shall be spaced not more than 8 feet center to center. Reference should be made to Plates 1, 2, 3 and 5 of the Appendix.

 (c)  Railings made of wood, metal shapes or metal bars shall be placed on that side of the posts or uprights which afford the greatest support and protection. Reference should be made to Plate 3-B,C of the Appendix.

Cross References

   This section cited in 34 Pa. Code §  47.234 (relating to metal railings other than pipe); 34 Pa. Code §  47.235 (relating to wood railings); and 34 Pa. Code §  47.253 (relating to access to platforms).

§ 47.233. Pipe railings.

 (a)  Top rails. Pipe railings shall be not less than 1 1/4 inches inside diameter if of iron and not less than 1 1/2 inches outside diameter if of brass tubing. Reference should be made to Plate 1 of the Appendix.

 (b)  Midrails. The middle railing shall be of a diameter not less than the minimum requirement for the top railing.

 (c)  Posts. The posts or uprights for pipe railings shall be of a diameter not less than the minimum requirement for the top railing. Specially formed metal or cast posts other than pipe are acceptable if they are equal in strength to a pipe post of the above diameter. Reference should be made to Plate 5 of the Appendix. Posts which are an integral part of the under or over structure are acceptable if they meet the spacing and strength requirements specified in this section.

 (d)  Sockets. Removable pipe railings having the posts supported by sockets are acceptable if the sockets are of a depth not less than 1/3 of the height of the railing and if all sockets are lined with pipe of a diameter large enough to permit ease of insertion and withdrawal of the posts without permitting sidesway. Reference should be made to Plate 1-B of the Appendix. When pipe posts are supported by U-bolts fastened in the structural frame, the length of post so supported shall be equal to 1/3 of the height of the railing.

 (e)  Special fastenings. Metal posts or uprights of other types used in connection with pipe railings shall be secured to the floor or structural frame in such manner as to achieve a rigidity equal to the requirements of existing and new post fastenings. Reference should be made to Plate 5-B of the Appendix.

Cross References

   This section cited in 34 Pa. Code §  47.235 (relating to wood railings); 34 Pa. Code §  47.234 (relating to metal railings other than pipe); and 34 Pa. Code §  47.235 (relating to wood railings).

§ 47.234. Metal railings other than pipe.

 (a)  Angle. Metal railings other than pipe shall be of a section at least equal in strength to that of 1 1/2 by 1 1/2 by 3/16 inch angles. Reference should be made to Plate 2 of the Appendix.

 (b)  Midrails. The middle railings shall be of a section at least equal in strength to the minimum requirement for top railings.

 (c)  Posts. The posts or uprights shall be of a section at least equal in strength to the minimum requirements for railings. Posts which are an integral part of the under or over structure are acceptable if they meet the spacing requirements of §  47.232 (relating to construction) and strength requirements of §  47.233 (relating to pipe railings).

Cross References

   This section cited in 34 Pa. Code §  47.235 (relating to wood railings).

§ 47.235. Wood railings.

 (a)  Top rails. Wood railings shall be not less than 2 inches by 4 inches finished size. Reference should be made to Plate 3-B of the Appendix of this Subchapter.

 (b)  Alternate type. A top railing of 1 inch by 4 inches finished size is acceptable if another board of not less than 1 inch by 4 inches finished size is securely fastened to the sides of the posts and to the top railing at approximately right angles to the top railing. Reference should be made to Plate 3-C of the Appendix.

 (c)  Midrails. Middle railings shall be not less than 1 inch by 4 inches finished size.

 (d)  Posts. Wood posts or uprights shall be at least equal in section to 2 inches by 4 inches finished size. Specially formed metal or cast posts, used in connection with wood railings, are acceptable if they meet the rigidity and strength requirements specified for these posts in § §  47.233—47.234 (relating to pipe railings; metal railings other than pipe). Wood posts which are an integral part of the under or over structure are acceptable if they meet the spacing and strength requirements specified in § §  47.232—47.233 (relating to construction; pipe railings.) Reference should be made to Plate 3 of the Appendix.

§ 47.236. Stairway railings and handrailings.

 (a)  Railings for stairways shall be not less than 36 inches in height from the middle of the tread to the top of the railing. The closed sides of stairways shall have only a handrailing. The open sides of stairways shall have a top and middle railing with toeboard. No toeboards shall be installed on stairways when there is no danger of objects falling on persons working below. Reference should be made to Plate 6-A,B of the Appendix.

 (b)  Railings for stairways shall conform in all other respects to the specifications for railings. On the closed sides of stairways, handrailings shall be supported by wall brackets which shall be spaced not more than four feet apart.

§ 47.237.  Exceptions.

 (a)  Opening covers. If it is impractical to use railings, floor and ground level openings shall be guarded by covers. This exception applies only if, when the covers are removed, the openings are guarded with standard removable railings. The covers shall be of sufficient strength to withstand the heaviest load to which the surrounding area may be subjected to the usual course of operations.

 (b)  Balustrades. Balustrades may be installed in lieu of standard railings if the posts of the balustrades meet the height, spacing and fastening requirements specified for railings and if the space between the top railing and the floor is filled in so as to afford protection equal to that supplied by a middle rail and toeboard. Balustrades 36 inches in height from the middle of the tread may be installed on stairways.

 (c)  Panels. When the panels between posts and top rail and floor are fitted with substantial expanded metal, wire mesh or solid material, the middle railing may be omitted.

 (d)  Omission. The middle railing is not required on platforms used only for lumber storage.

 (e)  Height. In connection with festooners, drying rooms and other operations which require the operator to frequently reach across the railings provided, the Department may accept railings not less than 36 inches high if they conform to all other requirements.

 (f)  Chains. In the case of pits and other floor or ground level openings, such as pouring pits in foundries, and runways and platforms where the nature of the operations requires that railings be frequently removed, chains of equal strength may be used in place of standard railings. Such chains shall be taut when in place. When chains are used, the spacing, strength and fastening specifications for posts shall be the same as for standard rails. The use of rope or wire cable in place of chains is prohibited.

 (g)  Omission. Railings are not required around pits and other openings when they are so constructed that the top of the pit or opening is 42 or more inches above floor or ground level.

TOEBOARDS FOR ALL INSTALLATIONS


§ 47.241. Installation.

 A toeboard shall be installed under the railing along the edges of each working platform, runway or balcony which is 6 or more feet above floor level and along the edges of all other platforms and openings in walls floors and ground levels when the safety of persons is involved.

Cross References

   This section cited in 34 Pa. Code §  47.291 (relating to exceptions).

§ 47.242. Construction.

 (a)  Toeboards shall be constructed in a permanent and substantial manner of metal, wood or other material that is equivalent in strength. Perforations up to 1/2 inch is permitted. Toeboards shall be smooth and free from protruding nails, bolts, splinters, fins and slivers.

 (b)  Wood toeboards shall be at least equal in cross section to 1 inch by 6 inches finished size. Sheet metal toeboards shall be at least 1/8 inch by 6 inches. When other material is used, the strength shall be equal to the requirement for sheet metal. Reference should be made to Plates 1,2,3, and 5 of the Appendix.

 (c)  Toeboards shall fit tightly to the floor and fastened by straps or angles secured by bolts or rivets. If possible the toeboard shall be fastened to the post or upright of the railing. Reference should be made to Plates 1-A,C; 2-A,B,C; 3-A,C; 5-A of the Appendix.

Cross References

   This section cited in 34 Pa. Code §  47.291 (relating to exceptions).

§ 47.243. Exceptions.

 Toeboards are not required on the following:

   (1)  On platforms used only for lumber storage.

   (2)  In connection with chain railings.

   (3)  On oiling platforms.

   (4)  On stairways where there is no danger of objects falling on persons working below.

RUNWAYS AND PLATFORMS FOR ALL INSTALLATIONS


§ 47.251. General requirements.

 Runways and platforms, except those erected for a specific temporary purpose, shall be constructed in a permanent and substantial manner. Runways or platforms 6 or more feet above floor or ground level shall have all open sides guarded with standard railings and toeboards. Runways or platforms constructed over conveyors used for the movement of materials, regardless of height, shall have all sides guarded with standard railings and toeboards.

§ 47.252. Chain railings.

 On runways and platforms where frequent removal of railings is necessary in the course of usual operations, chains of equal strength may be used in place of standard railings. The chains shall be taut when in place. Toeboards are not required in spaces guarded by chains.

§ 47.253. Access to platforms.

 Safe means shall be provided for reaching all elevated platforms. Platforms of permanent construction which are in general use shall have a permanent runway or stairway equipped with either a stationary ladder or handrailings in § §  47.231—47.232 (relating to installation; construction).

§ 47.254. Exceptions.

 (a)  The requirements for elevated runways and platforms shall not apply to the following:

   (1)  Small platforms for motors or other similar equipment unless there is standing room of at least 18 inches in width on the platform beside the equipment.

   (2)  Shelves used for the storage of material on which persons have no occasion to stand.

   (3)  Platforms used for loading and unloading freight.

   (4)  Runways used in filling tank cars when equipped with standard railing on one side.

   (5)  Platforms used for pouring molten metal.

 (b)  Toeboards and intermediate rails are not required on platforms used only for storing lumber.

RAILINGS FOR NEW INSTALLATIONS


§ 47.261. Post fastenings.

 Pipe posts shall be fastened to the floor or structual frame by pipe flanges secured by rivets, tap bolts, or through-bolts with plates or washers in the case of steel construction or through-bolts with plates or washers in the case of wood construction. When fastened to wood, the bolts shall be so arranged that no two bolt holes are in line with the grain of the wood. Each flange shall be secured by not less than four rivets or bolts of sufficient diameter to insure a permanent rigid anchorage. Other approved methods of securing pipe flanges to concrete floors may be used. Reference should be made to Plate 1-C, D, E and Plate 4 of the Appendix.

Cross References

   This section cited in 34 Pa. Code §  47.281 (relating to post fastenings).

§ 47.262. Angle.

 The posts or uprights shall be fastened to the floor or structural frame by rivets, tap bolts or through-bolts with plates or washers in the case of steel construction or by through-bolts with plates or washers in the case of wood construction or by angle post sockets. When fastened to wood, the bolts shall be so arranged that no two bolt holes are in line with the grain of the wood. If angle post sockets are used, the throat of the socket shall have a depth of not less than four inches, the post shall be fastened to the socket by at least two bolts, and the socket shall be riveted to the floor or structural frame in the case of steel construction or through-bolted to the floor with plates or washers in the case of wood construction. The socket shall be secured to the floor or structural frame by at least four bolts or rivets. Reference should be made to Plate 2-B, C, D of the Appendix.

§ 47.263.  Wood post fastenings.

 Wood posts shall be fastened to the floor or structural frame by straps, angles or brackets. Straps, angles and brackets shall be secured to the posts and to the floor by through-bolts with plates or washers. If wood posts are fastened directly to the structural frame, they shall be secured by through-bolts with plates or washers. No two bolt holes shall be in line with the grain of the wood.

Cross References

   This section cited in 34 Pa. Code §  47.282 (relating to wood posts).

OILING PLATFORMS—NEW INSTALLATIONS


§ 47.271. New platforms.

 Oiling platforms shall be constructed in a permanent and substantial manner at least 18 inches in width with a standard railing along one side. Toeboards are not required on oiling platforms.

RAILINGS—EXISTING INSTALLATIONS


§ 47.281. Post fastenings.

 (a)  Existing installations having the flanges secured by lag or ordinary wood screws or other means are acceptable if safety is assured and if major repairs or replacements are made the specifications for new installations are followed.

 (b)  Existing installations having the posts secured by means other than those specified in §  47.261 (relating to post fastenings) are acceptable if safety is assured, and if repairs or replacements are made the specifications for new installations shall be followed.

§ 47.282. Wood posts.

 (a)  Existing installations having the posts secured by means other than those specified in §  47.263 (relating to wood post fastenings) are acceptable if safety is assured and if repairs or replacements are made to meet the specifications for new installations.

 (b)  All types of existing installations having posts which are not secured in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter may be required by the Department to have such posts substantially stay braced.

TOEBOARDS—EXISTING INSTALLATIONS


§ 47.291. Exceptions.

 (a)  Toeboards of not less than three inches in height may be accepted by the Department if they conform to the requirements of § §  47.241—47.242 (relating to installation; construction).

 (b)  Toeboards of not less than 7/8 inch in thickness may be accepted by the Department if they conform to the requirements of § §  47.241—47.242.

OILING PLATFORMS—EXISTING INSTALLATIONS


§ 47.301. Platforms.

 Oiling platforms not less than 12 inches in width may be accepted by the Department if they are of permanent and substantial construction with a standard railing along one side.

APPENDIX


Appendix Plate 1

Appendix Plate 2

Appendix Plate 3

Appendix Plate 4

Appendix Plate 5

Appendix Plate 6



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