§ 175.80. Inspection procedure.
(a) External inspection. An external inspection shall be performed as follows:
(1) Verify ownership, legality and proof of financial responsibility. For the purpose of this subchapter, ownership and legality shall be proven by a vehicle registration card, certificate of title or manufacturers statement of origin. Reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) When vehicle ownership and legality are demonstrated by presentation of certificate of title or manufacturers statement of origin:
(A) The VIN is not in agreement with the vehicle registration card, title or manufacturers statement of origin. Exception: If only one digit is incorrect or two digits are transposed, and the owner provides evidence that the appropriate department form has been completed to correct the error or transposition.
(B) The VIN plate is not securely fastened or is defaced, misplaced or missing.
(ii) When vehicle ownership and legality are demonstrated by presentation of vehicle registration card:
(A) The license plate is not in agreement with the numbers on the vehicle registration card. Exception: If only one digit is incorrect or two digits are transposed, and the owner provides evidence that the appropriate Department form has been completed to correct an error or transposition.
(B) The license plate is hanging loosely from its mounting bracket.
(C) The license plate is obscured so that the numbers cannot be identified.
(D) The license plate lamp, if originally so equipped, does not illuminate the license plate.
(iii) Acceptable proof of financial responsibility is not provided. For the purpose of this chapter, financial responsibility shall be proven by one of the following documents:
(A) A valid financial responsibility identification card issued in accordance with 31 Pa. Code (relating to insurance).
(B) The declaration page of a valid insurance policy.
(C) A valid self-insurance identification card.
(D) A valid binder of insurance issued by an insurance company licensed to sell motor vehicle liability insurance in this Commonwealth.
(E) A valid insurance policy issued by an insurance company licensed to sell motor vehicle liability insurance in this Commonwealth.
(2) Check glazing.
(i) Reject if any of the following apply:
(A) Approved safety glazing is not used in every windshield, window and wing.
(B) A sign, poster or other material whose design prevents a driver from seeing through the material, obstructs, obscures or impairs the drivers clear view of the highway or an intersecting highway. Under FMVSS No. 205, this restriction does not apply to the rear side windows, rear wings or rear window of trucks or multi-purpose passenger vehicles.
(C) A sign, poster or other material, whose design prevents a driver from seeing through the material, extends more than 3 1/2 inches from the lowest exposed portion of the rear window, rear side windows or rear wings of a passenger car.
(D) A vehicle displays a sticker other than those prescribed under § 175.67(c) (relating to glazing), or displays a parking sticker in a location described in § 175.67(d).
(E) Glass is shattered or broken or has exposed sharp edges.
(F) The windshield is removed.
(G) There are defects in an acute area of the windshieldcenter of the critical area on the drivers side of the vehicle directly in the drivers normal line of vision, 8 1/2 inches wide and 5 1/2 inches highor discolorations or hazardous cracks to the front, right, left or rear of the driver which would interfere with the drivers vision.
(H) Glass etchings, except those used for vehicle identification, are on the windshield or front side windows.
(I) Glass etchings extend more than 3 1/2 inches from the lowest exposed portion of rear window, rear side windows or rear wings.
(ii) This paragraph does not prohibit the use of a product or material along the top edge of a windshield as long as the product or material is transparent and does not encroach upon the AS-1 portion of the windshield as provided by FMVSS No. 205, and the product or material is not more than 3 inches from the top of the windshield.
(3) Check the windshield wiper system and reject if any of the following apply:
(i) The wipers do not operate as specified by manufacturer, or 45 cycles per minute if not specified.
(ii) The wiper blades are torn or smear or streak windshield after five cycles.
(iii) There is only one wiper where two are required.
(iv) The wipers do not return to the rest position.
(v) The windshield washers, if originally so equipped, do not operate.
(4) Check the door operation, including the tailgate, and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The doors, except a tailgate on a pick-up truck, are not on the vehicle if originally fitted by the manufacturer.
(ii) The doors, including the tailgate, do not open and close securely, unless the vehicle has been manufactured or modified to the extent that there is no roof or side.
(5) Check outside mirrors and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The mirror is cracked, broken or discolored.
(ii) The mirror will not hold adjustment.
(iii) A vehicle does not have rearview mirrors as originally equipped by the manufacturer.
(iv) Outside rearview mirrors, with a minimum reflective surface as described in § 175.68 (relating to mirrors), are not installed on both sides of the vehicle if a certificate of exemption for a sun screening device or other material has been issued by the Department. See § 175.264 (relating to mirrors). A vehicle for which a certificate of exemption has been issued for medical reasons may be equipped with only a left outside rearview mirror, unless originally equipped with an outside rearview mirror on both sides of the vehicle.
(v) The mirrors, if originally so equipped, are missing.
(6) Check fenders, hood and trunk lid and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) A fenderfront or rearhas been removed.
(ii) The fenders are not of a type and size used as original equipment.
(iii) The hood does not cover the entire motor compartment or cannot be fully closed.
(iv) The trunk lid is not present or does not close securely.
(v) The fender flares exceed 3 inches in width.
(7) Check the flooring and floor beds and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) They are not in a condition to support the occupants and cargo.
(ii) The floor pan is rusted through so as to cause hazard to occupants or to permit exhaust gases to enter passenger compartment.
(iii) A truck is not equipped with rear wheel shieldsmud flapsas required under 75 Pa.C.S. § 4533 (relating to rear wheel shields).
(8) Check the bumpers and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The bumper, if required as original equipment, is not on the vehicle.
(ii) The bumpers are not firmly attached to the frame or chassis.
(iii) Some part of the main horizontal bumper bar, exclusive of bumper guards, on passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles and light trucks does not fall within 16 inches aboveground level or exceeds the following limits:
Maximum Height Vehicle Class Front Bumper (or Frame Rear Bumper (or Frame if any of the conditions in if any of the conditions in subparagraph (iv) apply) subparagraph (iv) apply) Passenger cars 22 inches 22 inches Trucks and multipurpose passenger
5,000 lbs. or less GVWR 24 inches 26 inches 5,001 lbs.7,000 lbs. GVWR 27 inches 29 inches 7,001 lbs.9,000 lbs. GVWR 28 inches 30 inches 9,001 lbs.11,000 lbs. GVWR 30 inches 30 inches
(iv) The front and rear height measurements shall be made to the bottom edge of the foremost portion of the frame rail, or to the original mounting brackets, whichever is lower, if one of the following apply:
(A) The bumper height, relative to the frame rail, has been altered.
(B) The vehicle was not originally equipped with a front or rear bumper.
(C) A supplemental bumper has been added.
(D) The manufacturers specified bumper has been replaced with a bumper not identical to the manufacturers specified bumper.
(v) A broken or torn portion is protruding so as to create hazard.
(vi) The bumpers extend beyond body line or are longer than originally equipped, whichever is greater.
(9) Check the lamps and lenses and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) An exterior bulb or sealed beam, if originally equipped or installed, fails to light properly, except ornamental lights.
(ii) The turn signal lamps do not flash between 60120 flashes per minute.
(iii) The turn signal lamps do not properly indicate right or left or hold in position when so switched or do not self-cancel if originally designed to do so.
(iv) The back-up lamps do not turn off automatically when the vehicle goes forward, there is no indicator on dash that lights or there is no audible warning signal.
(v) The lamp shows a color contrary to the lighting chart.
(vi) The lamp or filament indicated at the switch position does not light when the correct switch indicates the lamp should be on.
(vii) The lamp has a missing or broken lens.
(viii) A required lamp is missing.
(ix) The auxiliary equipment is placed on, in or in front of a lamp.
(x) The fog lamps operate with the high beams of the headlamps or are substituted for the low beams.
(xi) The auxiliary driving lamps operate with the low beam of standard headlamp system or alone.
(xii) The headlamps are out of adjustment as follows:
(A) Mechanical aimer:
(I) The horizontal aim is more than 4 inches to the left or right.
(II) The vertical aim is higher or lower than 4 inches from center.
(B) Screen or photo electric type tester. See Charts 13 (relating to headlight aiming screen distance and marking identification; high beam inspection limits; and low beam inspection limits).
(I) Turn the lamps on high beam and reject if the center of the beam is horizontally more than 4 inches to the right or left of straight ahead or if center of light beam is vertically more than 4 inches above or below horizontal line.
(II) Turn the lamps on low beam and reject if the upper edge of the beam is more than 4 inches above or below horizontal center line of headlamp or if inner edge of beam is more than 4 inches to the right or left of the vertical line.
(10) Check for protruding metal and reject if torn metal, glass or other loose or dislocated parts protrude from a surface of the vehicle so as to create a hazard.
(11) Check the fuel tank cap and reject if the fuel tank filler cap is missing.
(12) Check the shock absorbers and reject if the vehicle continues free rocking motion greater than three cycles after release, indicating loss of the shock absorber function.
(b) Internal inspection. An internal inspection shall be performed as follows:
(1) Check steering column and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) Freeplay exceeds the following allowances:
Wheel diameter Freeplay 16 inches or less 2 inches 18 inches 2 1/4 inches 20 inches 2 1/2 inches 22 inches 2 3/4 inches
(ii) The gear box is loose on the frame.
(iii) The energy-absorbing column is defective.
(iv) The steering wheel, except if specially designed for handicapped drivers, is not circular or equivalent in strength to original equipment or has an outside diameter less than 13 inches.
(v) The front wheels cannot be turned to the full right or left position without binding or interference.
(vi) The flexible steering couplerrag jointis badly misalignedtwisted or out of alignment between attaching collars.
(vii) The number of turns of the steering wheel from a straight ahead tire position to the right stop is not equal to the number of turns to the left stop within a tolerance of 1/4 turn.
(2) Check the high beam and turn signal indicator lamps and reject if the indicator lamps are not working.
(3) Check the horn and reject if any of the following apply:
(i) There is no horn or other acceptable audible warning device.
(ii) The horn or other warning device is not audible under normal conditions for distances of not less than 200 feet.
(iii) The vehicle is equipped with a siren, bell, whistle or device emitting harsh or unreasonably loud sound, except for emergency vehicles and vehicles equipped with an anti-theft device.
(4) Check the brake pedal and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The brake pedal travel exceeds 80% of the total available travel unless originally designed to do so.
(ii) The brake pedal fades while the vehicle is stopped unless originally designed to do so.
(iii) There is excessive friction in pedal linkage or components, pedal levers are misaligned or improperly positioned or the pedal pad is missing.
(iv) A brake warning lamp or other device indicates a malfunction of the braking systems unless the vehicle is equipped with an antilock braking system (ABS) which is designed to revert to standard braking operation and no driveability deficiency or loss of braking performance is present.
(5) Check the parking brake operation and reject if the pedal or lever reaches its limit of travel before parking brakes are set.
(6) Check the seat and safety belts, if originally equipped, and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The drivers seat or back rest is not firmly attached.
(ii) The metal spring protrudes from drivers seat.
(iii) The seat-adjusting mechanism slips out of set position.
(iv) There is no safety belt for each seating location, if the vehicle was originally so equipped, or if seats have been added.
(v) The safety belt webbing is frayed.
(vi) The belt buckles do not operate properly.
(vii) The belt anchorages are broken.
(viii) A passive seat belt restraint system is inoperative.
(7) Check inside the mirror and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The mirror is cracked, broken or discolored.
(ii) The mirror will not hold adjustment.
(iii) An object or material is hung from or blocking inside mirror.
(iv) The mirror, if originally so equipped, is missing.
(8) Check front windshield defroster system, if so equipped, and reject if defroster fan does not function.
(c) Under the hood inspection. An under the hood inspection shall be performed as follows:
(1) Check the hood and reject if any of the following apply:
(i) The latch does not hold securely in the fully closed position.
(ii) The latch release mechanism or its parts are broken, missing or so poorly adjusted that the hood cannot be closed properly.
(iii) The double latch mechanism is not operating as originally equipped.
(2) Check the motor mounts, either here or during the beneath vehicle inspection, and reject if the motor mounts are broken, cracked or missing.
(3) Check the fuel systems and controls and reject if any of the following apply:
(i) There is liquid fuel leakage at any point in system.
(ii) A part of fuel line is not securely fastened.
(iii) A fuel tank or line was not specifically designed or manufactured as fuel tank or line.
(iv) A fuel line is in contact with high temperature surfaces or moving parts.
(v) A fuel tank or line intrudes into a driver, passenger or cargo compartment except if the vehicle was originally so designed. If the vehicle is equipped with an alternate fuel system, see Subchapter M (relating to alternate fuel systems and controls).
(vi) The throttle does not return to the idle position when the actuating force is removed.
(vii) The firewall has any holes or cracks which would permit fumes to enter driver and passenger compartments.
(4) Check the exhaust system and reject if there is exhaust leak.
(5) Check the brake system and reject if any of the following apply:
(i) The master cylinder leaks.
(ii) The power brake lines or hydraulic hoses or lines leak or are disconnected, flattened or restricted.
(iii) The hydraulic booster for the power brake system is leaking or inoperative or has excessively worn belts that would prevent proper operation of the pump.
(6) Check the battery and reject if the battery is not securely fastened with a device specifically designed for that function.
(d) Visual inspection of emission control system. Vehicles registered in counties where there is not an emission inspection program under Chapter 177 (relating to emission inspection program), shall be checked visually for the presence of emission control components. These components may be original vehicle equipment or an equivalent aftermarket replacement component meeting the same standards. In addition to the exceptions under § 175.4 (relating to vehicles required to be inspected), this subsection does not apply to vehicles registered as collectible or classic motor vehicles as defined in 75 Pa.C.S. § 102 (relating to definitions).
(1) The visual inspection shall be performed through direct observation or through indirect observation, using a mirror or other visual aid.
(2) Provided that the make and model year of the vehicle would have originally been equipped with the device, reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The catalytic converter has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.
(ii) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.
(iii) Positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valve has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.
(iv) Fuel inlet restrictor has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.
(v) Air pump has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.
(vi) Evaporative control system components have been removed, disconnected or are the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.
(e) Beneath the vehicle inspection. A beneath the vehicle inspection shall be performed as follows:
(1) Inspect the tires and wheels and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) A tire has two adjacent treads with less than 2/32-inch tread remaining at any pointless than 4/32-inch tread on the front tires of the vehicles having a gross weight in excess of 10,000 pounds.
(ii) A tire is worn so that the tread wear indicators contact the road in any two adjacent grooves.
(iii) A part of ply or cord is exposed.
(iv) A tire has been repaired with a blow-out patch or boot.
(v) There is a bump, bulge or separation.
(vi) A tire is marked not for highway use, for racing purposes only or unsafe for highway use, or has a similar designation.
(vii) There are other conditions or markings reasonably believed to render the tire unsafe for highway use.
(viii) A tire has been regrooved or recut below the original tread design depth except special taxicab tires which are identified as having extra undertread rubber.
(ix) A tires tread extends beyond the outer edge of the wheel housing inclusive of fender flares.
(x) The tires used on the same axle are not the same size or type of constructionbias, belted, radial or snow.
(xi) The wheel nuts or bolts are missing, loose or have improper thread engagement.
(xii) The stud or bolt holes are worn out of round.
(xiii) Part of the wheel is bent, cracked, welded or damaged so as to affect safe operation of vehicle.
(xiv) The rear wheel does not track front wheel in straight ahead position as originally designed.
(xv) The wheel base on one side differs from the wheel base on the other side by more than 1 inch, unless the vehicles design specifications indicate different left and right wheel base dimensions.
(xvi) Studded tires are in use after April 15 and before November 1.
(xvii) Retreads are on the front axle of a taxi.
(xviii) The diameter of duals is not within 3/8-inch of each other.
(xix) An axle has missing tires or rims.
(xx) A tire makes contact with the body or chassis.
(xxi) Spacers over 1/4 inch in thickness are used to increase wheel track.
(2) Inspect the steering system and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) Steering gear box is loose on frame.
(ii) Measured movement at the front or rear of a tire is greater than 1/4-inch. Eliminate all wheel bearing movement by applying the service brake; then, with the vehicle raised and wheels in the straight ahead position, grasp the front and rear of the tire and attempt to move the assembly right and left without moving the steering gear. Measure the movement.
(iii) The linkage components are not secured with cotter pins or other suitable devices.
(iv) The steering stops allow the tire to rub on the frame or chassis parts.
(v) The front wheels are incapable of being turned to the right and left steering stops without binding or interference.
(3) Inspect the suspension system and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The ball joint movement is in excess of the manufacturers specifications.
(ii) The shock absorbers are missing.
(iii) The shock absorbers mounting bolts or mounts are broken.
(iv) The shock absorbers have severe leakagenot slight dampness.
(v) The sway or stabilizer bar is missing or broken.
(vi) The coil spring or main leaf spring is broken if originally equipped.
(vii) The spring attaching part is loose, badly worn, broken or missing.
(viii) Spring shackle kits or blocks are used to lower the suspension of the front of the vehicle.
(ix) Spring shackle kits are more than 2 inches over original equipment.
(x) Blocks are used on front axle to raise the vehicle.
(xi) Blocks used on rear axle exceed 5 inches over original equipment.
(4) Inspect the floor and reject if any of the following apply:
(i) The floor bed or inner panels have openings which would allow exhaust gases to enter either the occupant compartment or trunk.
(ii) The floor bed is not sufficient to hold the weight of the driver, passengers and cargo.
(5) Inspect the vehicle frame and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The vehicle frame is not in solid condition.
(ii) The repairs are made with tape, tar paper or cloth, or are made in another temporary manner.
(iii) The frame components are missing, cracked, rotted or broken or are in deteriorated or dangerous condition.
(iv) Body mounts do not hold as required.
(v) A body mount is broken, cracked, deteriorated or missing.
(vi) The difference in the body floor and the top of the frame rail exceeds 4 inches.
(6) Inspect exhaust system and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The vehicle has no muffler or muffler has external repair.
(ii) There are loose or leaking joints.
(iii) There are holes, cracks or leaking seams in exhaust system.
(iv) There is a muffler cutout or similar device.
(v) Part of the exhaust system passes through the occupant compartment.
(vi) The elements are not securely fastened with proper clamps and hangers.
(vii) The exposed exhaust system does not have adequate heat shield or protective system.
(viii) The exhaust does not discharge to the outside edge of the vehicle body, including a truck bed, or as originally designed.
(7) Inspect the braking system. Remove at least one front and one opposite rear wheel and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(i) The hydraulic hoses or tubing leaks; is flattened, restricted, insecurely fastened or improperly retained; or has exposed cords.
(ii) The wheel cylinder leaks, has missing parts, is improperly retained or is not functioning.
(iii) The caliper leaks, has missing parts, is improperly retained or is not functioning.
(iv) The lining is broken; not firmly attached to shoe; or contaminated with oil, grease or another substance that would affect proper brake operation.
(v) There is mechanical damage other than wear.
(vi) The inside diameter of the drum is greater than maximum diameter stamped on drum or greater than .090 inch over original drum diameter for unmarked drums.
(vii) The disc thickness is less than minimum stamped on assembly or less than manufacturers specifications.
(viii) The bonded linings are less than 2/32 inch at the thinnest point.
(ix) The riveted linings are less than 1/32 inch above rivet head at thinnest point.
(x) The drums or rotors are scored deeper than .015 inch.
(8) Inspect the fuel system and reject if any of the following apply:
(i) There is fuel leakage.
(ii) Part of the system is not securely fastened.
(iii) The system is not properly routed.
(f) Road test. Perform road test and reject if one or more of the following apply:
(1) The parking brake fails to exhibit normal resistance when an attempt is made to move the vehicle both forward and backward from a stopped position.
(2) The automatic transmission will not hold in the park position.
(3) The vehicle is not capable of stopping within the maximum stopping distance prescribed in Table I (relating to brake performance) or swerves so that any part leaves the 12-foot lane.
(4) There is a malfunction of the braking or steering mechanism, particular shimmy, wander, pull or another questionable operating behavior that affects safe operation of the vehicle.
(5) The speedometer does not operate.
(6) The odometer does not operate, except on a motor vehicle at least 25 years old.
(7) The vehicle cannot be driven both forward and backward.
The provisions of this § 175.80 amended under Vehicle Code,
The provisions of this § 175.80 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; delayed February 11, 1983, 13 Pa.B. 708 except subsection (d)(1)(ix), effectiveness of which has been indefinitely postponed until further notice, to the extent that these portions of the regulations prohibit placement of oversize tires that remain within the body line of vehicles and require the rejection of inspected vehicles equipped with these tires; amended December 30, 1983, effective December 31, 1983, 13 Pa.B. 4023; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended February 18, 1994, effective February 19, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 962; amended September 27, 1996, effective September 28, 1996, 26 Pa.B. 4640; amended November 13, 1998, effective May 13, 1999, 28 Pa.B. 5670. The effective date of the following provisions are postponed indefinitely: subsection (a)(5)(v) and (8)(iii) and (iv); and subsection (b)(7)(iv); amended November 26, 2003, effective November 29, 2003, 33 Pa.B. 5823. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (255491) to (255492), (250355) to (250362) and (261439).
Notes of Decisions
The testimony of two licensed inspection mechanics on reinspection of a vehicle that at least one of a vehicles shock absorbers was broken and that the condition existed at the time of the original inspection was substantial evidence upon which revocation of a certificate could be based. Kot v. Department of Transportation, 562 A.2d 1019 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1989); appeal denied 575 A.2d 117 (Pa. 1990).
Department acted properly in suspending certifications of inspection station and of inspection mechanic where mechanic accepted an affidavit of lost or stolen registration in lieu of the registration card or title which under 75 Pa.C.S. § 4727(a) and subsection (a), must be examined. Smith v. Department of Transportation, 502 A.2d 791 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1986).
A mechanics actions in driving vehicles without a valid drivers license during an inspection is within the scope of his employment because subsection (e) of this section requires a road test to be performed with every inspection. Department of Transportation v. Stahl, 460 A.2d 1223 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1983).
The facts sufficed to give the police officer reasonable suspicion that the motorists car violated the Motor Vehicle Codes directive that all vehicles must conform to the Department of Transportations regulations, which limit to 4 inches the distance a headlight may deviate from center, where the evidence established, among other things, the motorists headlights were askew approximately six inches, a deviation first noticed by the officer from about a football fields length away and confirmed when he slowly drove by the motorist at close range. Commonwealth v. Hynes, 730 A.2d 960 (Pa. Super. 1999).
This section cited in 52 Pa. Code § 1017.5 (relating to basic vehicle standards); 52 Pa. Code § 1055.4 (relating to basic vehicle standards); 67 Pa. Code § 175.62 (relating to suspension); 67 Pa. Code § 175.63 (relating to steering); 67 Pa. Code § 175.64 (relating to braking systems); 67 Pa. Code § 175.65 (relating to tires and wheels); 67 Pa. Code § 175.66 (relating to lighting and electrical systems); 67 Pa. Code § 175.67 (relating to glazing); 67 Pa. Code § 175.68 (relating to mirrors); 67 Pa. Code § 175.71 (relating to windshield wipers); 67 Pa. Code § 175.72 (relating to fuel systems); 67 Pa. Code § 175.75 (relating to exhaust systems); 67 Pa. Code § 175.76 (relating to horns and warning devices); 67 Pa. Code § 175.77 (relating to body); 67 Pa. Code § 175.78 (relating to chassis); 67 Pa. Code § 175.203 (relating to braking systems); 67 Pa. Code § 175.206 (relating to glazing); 67 Pa. Code § 175.207 (relating to mirrors); and 67 Pa. Code § 175.208 (relating to body).
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