Subchapter E. PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS


Sec.


175.61.    Application of subchapter.
175.62.    Suspension.
175.63.    Steering.
175.64.    Braking systems.
175.65.    Tires and wheels.
175.66.    Lighting and electrical systems.
175.67.    Glazing.
175.68.    Mirrors.
175.69.    Windshield defrosters.
175.70.    Windshield washers.
175.71.    Windshield wipers.
175.72.    Fuel systems.
175.73.    Speedometers.
175.74.    Odometers.
175.75.    Exhaust systems.
175.76.    Horns and warning devices.
175.77.    Body.
175.78.    Chassis.
175.80.    Inspection procedure.
175.81.    [Reserved].
175.82.    [Reserved].
175.83.    [Reserved].

Cross References

   This subchapter cited in 67 Pa. Code §  175.202 (relating to conditions); 67 Pa. Code §  175.204 (relating to tires); and 67 Pa. Code §  175.209 (relating to chassis).

§ 175.61. Application of subchapter.

 Equipment standards set forth in this subchapter apply to passenger cars and light trucks driven on highways.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.61 adopted December 2, 1977, effective February 1, 1978, 7 Pa.B. 3499; amended October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (107997).

§ 175.62. Suspension.

 Every suspension component shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.62 adopted December 2, 1977, effective February 1, 1978, 7 Pa.B. 3499; amended July 14, 1978, effective August 1, 1978, 8 Pa.B. 2006; amended December 8, 1978, effective December 9, 1978, 8 Pa.B. 3495; amended October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (107997).

§ 175.63. Steering.

 (a)  Condition of steering components. The steering assembly and steering mechanism shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Steering wheel. The steering wheel, except if specially designed for handicapped drivers, shall be equivalent to original equipment in material strength and have a minimum outside diameter of 13 inches.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.63 adopted December 2, 1977, effective February 1, 1978, 7 Pa.B. 3499; amended July 14, 1978, effective August 1, 1978, 8 Pa.B. 2006; amended December 8, 1978, effective December 9, 1978, 8 Pa.B. 3495; amended July 31, 1981, effective August 1, 1981, 11 Pa.B. 2686; amended October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (107998).

§ 175.64. Braking systems.

 (a)  Condition of braking systems. Braking systems and components shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Service brakes. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with a service brake system. See 75 Pa.C.S. §  4502 (relating to general requirements for braking systems).

   (1)  The service brakes shall act on all wheels upon application and shall be capable of stopping a vehicle in not more than the maximum stopping distance prescribed in Table I (relating to brake performance), except on a vehicle being transported in driveaway-towaway operation.

   (2)  The brake lining and brake fluids shall be of a type approved by the vehicle manufacturer or shall meet the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards in Appendix A (relating to minimum requirements for motor vehicle brake lining—SAE J998).

   (3)  A passenger car manufactured or assembled after June 30, 1967, and designated as a 1968 or later model shall be equipped with a service brake system of a design that rupture or failure of either the front or rear brake system will not result in the complete loss of braking function. Braking function may be obtained by hydraulic or other means through a normal brake mechanism. In the event of a rupture or failure of an actuating force component, the unaffected brakes shall be capable of applying adequate braking force to vehicle.

   (4)  Metal from a shoe may not contact the brake drums or rotors.

   (5)  Brake lines shall be approved for use as brake lines.

 (c)  Parking brake system. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with a parking brake system. See 75 Pa.C.S. §  4502.

   (1)  A parking brake system shall be adequate to hold the vehicle on a surface free from ice or snow on a 20% grade with the vehicle in neutral.

   (2)  The parking brakes shall be separately actuated so that failure of any part of the service brake actuation system will not diminish the vehicle’s parking brake holding capability.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  175.64 amended under the Vehicle Code, 75 Pa.C.S. § §  4103, 4301, 4501, 4521 and 6103.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.64 adopted December 2, 1977, effective February 1, 1978, 7 Pa.B. 3499; amended October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended November 13, 1998, effective May 13, 1999, 28 Pa.B. 5670. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (221229) to (221230).

§ 175.65. Tires and wheels.

 (a)  Condition of tires and wheels. Tires and wheels shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Tire standards. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall have tires manufactured in conformance with standards in Chapter 159 (relating to new pneumatic tires). See 75 Pa.C.S. §  4525 (relating to tire equipment and traction surfaces). Tires with equivalent metric size designations may be used.

 (c)  Radial ply tires. A radial ply tire may not be used on the same axle with a bias or belted tire.

 (d)  Different types of tires. Tires of different types, such as one snow tire and one regular tire or bias, belted or radial tire, may not be used on the same axle except in an emergency.

 (e)  Nonpneumatic tires. A passenger car or light truck operated on highway may not be equipped with nonpneumatic tires except an antique vehicle with nonpneumatic tires if originally equipped by the manufacturer.

 (f)  Ice grips or studs. A tire may not be equipped with ice grips or tire studs or wear-resisting material which have projections exceeding 2/32 inch beyond the tread of the traction surface of the tire.

 (g)  Tires and rims. The axles of a vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with the number and type of tires and rims with a load rating equal to or higher than those offered by the manufacturer.

 (h)  Spacers. Spacers or similar devices thicker than 1/4 inch may not be installed to increase wheel track.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  175.65 amended under the Vehicle Code, 75 Pa.C.S. § §  4103, 4301, 4501, 4521 and 6103.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.65 adopted December 2, 1977, effective February 1, 1978, 7 Pa.B. 3499; amended October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; delayed February 1, 1983, effective February 1, 1983, 13 Pa.B. 708 except subsection (d), effectiveness of which has been indefinitely postponed until further notice, to the extent that this portion of the regulation prohibits placement of oversize tires that remain within the body line of vehicles and require the rejection of inspected vehicles equipped with these tires; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended November 13, 1998, effective May 13, 1999, 28 Pa.B. 5670. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (221230) to (221231).

§ 175.66.  Lighting and electrical systems.

 (a)  Condition of lamps and switches. Every required lamp or switch shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Lighting standards. A lamp shall comply with vehicle lighting equipment requirements of this title. See Tables II—IV; Chapter 153 and 75 Pa.C.S. §  4301.

 (c) Headlamp system. A vehicle specified under this subchapter which is driven on highway shall have a two- or four-headlamp system. See 75 Pa.C.S. §  4303(a) (relating to general lighting requirements).

   (1) Both lamps in the two-headlamp system shall be of Type II construction consisting of high beam and low beam. One lamp shall be located on each side of front of motor vehicle.

   (2)  In the four-headlamp system, two lamps shall be of Type II construction and two lamps shall be of Type I construction. Type I lamps consist of a high beam only. One of each type shall be located on each side of the front of the motor vehicle.

   (3)  The headlamp low beam minimum candlepower shall not be less than 7,500.

   (4)  The headlamp high beam minimum candlepower shall not be less than 10,000.

   (5)  A headlamp shall be aimed to comply with inspection procedure of this subchapter.

   (6)  A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with manual dimmer switch conveniently located for use by the driver while in normal operating position. An automatic dimming device may be used in addition to the manual switch.

   (7)  A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with a beam indicator, which shall be lighted whenever the high beam of light from the headlamp is in use and shall not otherwise be lighted. An indicator shall be located so that when lighted it is readily visible without glare to operator of vehicle.

 (d)  Total candlepower. The total candlepower for headlamps and auxiliary lamps shall not exceed 150,000.

 (e)  Other required lamps. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall have at least one red stop lamp on each side of rear of vehicle, which shall be illuminated immediately upon application of the service brake.

 (f)  Illumination except headlamps, fog lamps and auxiliary driving lamps. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with parking lamps, stop lamps, tail lamps, turn signal lamps and hazard warning lamps designed for that specific function, which under normal atmospheric conditions shall be capable of being seen and distinguished during nighttime operation at a distance of 500 feet. See 75 Pa.C.S. §  4303(b)—(d).

   (1)  Stop lamps, turn signals and hazard warning lamps shall be visible at distance of 100 feet during normal sunlight.

   (2)  Rear lamps shall be lighted whenever headlamps, fog lamps or auxiliary driving lamps are in operation.

   (3)  A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with hazard warning lamps unless the lamps were not included as original equipment.

   (4)  The turn signals shall have a frequency of flash between 60—120 flashes per minute.

 (g)  Condition and position of lamps. Lamps shall be properly fastened; direct light properly; be of a color not contrary to Tables II—IV; and not be so obstructed by a screen, bar, auxiliary equipment or a device as to obscure, change the color of or obstruct beam.

 (h)  Ornamental lamps. A lamp not enumerated in this section and not located as described in Tables III, IV and V of this chapter, is prohibited unless it is available as original equipment. An illuminated sign is prohibited except on taxicabs, ambulances and trucks. Flashing or revolving lights are not ornamental lamps. Provisions relating to flashing or revolving lights are in Chapters 15 and 173 (relating to authorized vehicles and special operating privileges; and flashing or revolving lights on emergency and authorized vehicles).

 (i)  [Reserved].

 (j)  Back-up lamps. Back-up lamps are not permitted to be lighted when the vehicle is in forward motion. Back-up lamps shall turn off automatically when the vehicle goes forward. If the lamps do not turn off automatically, a dash indicator that lights or creates audible warning is required.

 (k) Registration plate lamp. If the vehicle was originally so equipped, the registration plate lamp shall emit white light and make the registration plate visible from distance of 50 feet to the rear of the vehicle.

 (l)  Auxiliary driving lamps and fog lamps. Auxiliary driving lamps and fog lamps may be installed on a passenger vehicle or light truck if the lamps comply with the following:

   (1)  Auxiliary driving lamps may not be substituted for headlamps. Auxiliary driving lamps may only be used with high headlamp beams.

   (2)  Fog lamps may not be substituted for headlamps.

   (3)  Auxiliary driving lamps and fog lamps shall be mounted on the front, spaced at least 20 inches apart from center to center and at height not more than 42 inches above level surface upon which the vehicle stands nor lower than the lowest chassis part. Rear fog lamps, if originally installed or offered as optional equipment, are acceptable.

   (4)  Auxiliary driving lamps and fog lamps shall be aimed when the vehicle and lamp assembly are in the straight ahead position with the beam not above horizontal centerline of lamp at 25 feet.

   (5)  A vehicle specified under this subchapter may have only one pair of approved auxiliary driving lamps and fog lamps.

   (6)  Auxiliary driving lamps and fog lamps may not be placed in front of a required lamp.

   (7)  Auxiliary driving lamps may not be used on snowplows as a substitute for headlamps obscured by blade. A substitute for headlamps used on the vehicle shall be complete, approved headlamps having both high and low beams.

   (8)  Snowplow lamps shall be installed as follows:

     (i)   These lamps shall be wired through a double throw switch so that both sets of lights will not operate at same time.

     (ii)   Snowplow lamps shall be aimed so that the high intensity beam does not project to the left of the extreme left side of the vehicle nor higher than the center of the lamp at a distance of 25 feet in front of the vehicle. In no case shall the high intensity portion of a beam be higher than 42 inches above the level upon which the vehicle stands at a distance of 75 feet ahead. Lamps shall be spaced at a distance of not less than 20 inches apart and shall be symmetrically located on each side of the vehicle centerline.

   (9)  In accordance with 75 Pa.C.S. §  4303(f) (relating to general lighting requirements), roof or roll bar mounted off-road lights may be installed if they are not used on a highway or trafficway and are covered with an opaque covering at all times while operating on the highway or trafficway. Vehicles equipped with roof or roll bar mounted off-road lights shall have a switch that indicates to the driver, through the use of a pilot light, that the lights are on when so switched.

   (10)  White or clear cargo lamps are permitted if available as original equipment or installed in a manner which expressly illuminates the cargo area of a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck or bus.

   (11)  Guidance laser systems used during highway maintenance operations, such as line painting and snow plowing, are authorized if they comply with 21 CFR 1040.10 (relating to laser products) for Class IIIa laser products and Occupational Health and Safety Administration Standard 1926.54 and are installed and operated in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements. Guidance laser systems may not emit red or blue light visible to other motorists.

 (m)  Antique vehicle lighting exemption. An antique vehicle, if operated exclusively between the hours of sunrise to sunset and not during periods of reduced visibility or insufficient illumination, is exempt from requirements of this section except requirements pertaining to stop lamps.

 (n)  Battery fastening. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with a system specifically designed for the secure fastening of the battery.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  175.66 amended under the Vehicle Code, 75 Pa.C.S. § §  4103, 4301, 4501, 4521 and 6103.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.66 adopted December 2, 1977, effective February 1, 1978, 7 Pa.B. 3499; amended October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended November 13, 1998, effective May 13, 1999, 28 Pa.B. 5670; amended October 25, 2013, effective October 26, 2013, 43 Pa.B. 6349. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (250341) to (250342) and (261437) to (261438).

Notes of Decisions

   Position of Lamps

   The facts sufficed to give the police officer reasonable suspicion that the motorist’s vehicle violated the Motor Vehicle Code’s directive that all vehicles must conform to the Department of Transportation’s regulations, which limit to 4 inches the distance a headlight may deviate from center, where the evidence established, among other damage, that the motorist’s headlights were askew approximately 6 inches, a deviation first noticed by the officer from about a football field’s length away and confirmed when he slowly drove by the motorist at close range. Commonwealth v. Hynes, 730 A.2d 960 (Pa. Super. 1999).

§ 175.67. Glazing.

 (a)  Condition of glazing. Glazing shall meet the requirements of Chapter 161 (relating to glazing materials). See 75 Pa.C.S. §  4526 (relating to safety glass).

 (b)  Safety glazing. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with safety glazing in all windshields, windows and wings. The requirements of this subsection do not apply to a vehicle manufactured or assembled before January 1, 1934, if the original glazing is not cracked or discolored.

 (c)  Stickers. Stickers shall be located as follows:

   (1)  Truck weight classification sticker—trucks only—shall be affixed to lower left hand corner of the windshield to the immediate right of the certificate of inspection.

   (2)  The following stickers are authorized to be affixed to windshield or windows, as indicated:

     (i)   Out-of-State inspection stickers, tax stamps, road use permits or other government-related permits—municipalities and states—may be placed at the lower left or right-hand corner of the windshield.

     (ii)   A Delaware River Port Authority Bridge Travel Permit may be affixed to the left rear window. This permit is 2-1/4 inches by 4-1/4 inches and is an automatic triggering device for passing vehicles through toll gates on a bridge.

     (iii)   The suggested manufacturer’s retail price sheet may be affixed to a new vehicle of a dealer. These labels are permitted only on the lower portion of a side window, as far to the rear of a vehicle as possible. When the vehicle is sold, this label shall be removed.

 (d)  Obstructions. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall have glazing free from obstructions as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

   (1)  With the exception of materials in paragraph (4), signs, posters or other materials whose design prevents a driver from seeing through the material may not be placed on the windshield, a side wing, a side window or rear window so as to obstruct, obscure or impair the driver’s clear view of the highway or an intersecting highway. Under FMVSS No. 205, these restrictions do not apply to the rear side windows, rear wings or rear window of trucks or multipurpose passenger vehicles.

   (2)  With the exception of materials in paragraph (4), signs, posters or other materials whose design prevents a driver from seeing through the material may not be placed on a rear side window, rear wing or rear window of a passenger car which either covers more than 20% of the exposed portion of the windows or wings, or extends more than 3 1/2 inches above the lowest exposed portion of the windows or wings.

   (3)  This subsection also applies to glass etchings, except those used for vehicle identification.

   (4)  A sun screening device or other material which does not permit a person to see or view the inside of the vehicle is prohibited, unless otherwise permitted by FMVSS No. 205, or a certificate of exemption has been issued in compliance with §  175.265 (relating to exemption provisions). See Table X for specific requirements for vehicles subject to this subchapter. Passenger car requirements relating to the rear window are delineated by vehicle model year in Table X.

   (5)  Vehicles specified under this subchapter may not have an obstruction forward of the windshield which extends more than 2 inches upward into the horizontally projected vision area of the windshield with the exception of windshield wiper components.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  175.67 amended under the Vehicle Code, 75 Pa.C.S. § §  4103, 4301, 4501, 4521, 4524 and 6103.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.67 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended September 27, 1996, effective September 28, 1996, 26 Pa.B. 4640; amended November 13, 1998, effective May 13, 1999, 28 Pa.B. 5670. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (221234) to (221235).

Notes of Decisions

   The safety standard in §  175.67(d)(4) cannot be incorporated into the language of 75 Pa.C.S. §  4524(e)(1) for two reasons. First, §  175.67(d)(4) does not apply to §  4524(e)(1) because §  175.67(d)(4) requires a vehicle’s windows to have a light transmittance of 70% or greater, while §  4524(e)(1) state that a person must only be able to see through a vehicle’s windows. Second, §  175.67(d)(4) does not apply to §  4524(e)(1) because §  4524(e)(1) does not reference §  175.67(d)(4). Commonwealth v. Brubaker, 5 A.3d 261, 265-66 (Pa. Super. 2010).

Cross References

   This section cited in 67 Pa. Code §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

§ 175.68. Mirrors.

 (a)  Condition of mirrors. Mirrors shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Rearview mirrors. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with at least one rearview mirror or similar device which provides the driver an unobstructed view of the highway to the rear of the vehicle for a distance of not less than 200 feet. A mirror may not be cracked, broken or discolored.

 (c)  Obstructions. On a vehicle specified under this subchapter, a rearview mirror shall be free from obstructions as described in §  175.80.

   (1)  A vehicle specified under this subchapter having a sign, load or material which obstructs, obscures or impairs the driver’s clear view of the highway or an intersecting highway shall have two outside rearview mirrors, one on the driver’s side and one on the passenger’s side, each with a minimum reflective surface of 19.5 square inches.

   (2)  Rear window louvers are permitted only if the vehicle has at least two outside rearview mirrors, one on the driver’s side and one on the passenger’s side, each with minimum reflective surfaces of 19.5 square inches.

   (3)  Rearview mirrors, each with a minimum reflective surface of 19.5 square inches, shall be installed on both sides of a vehicle for which a certificate of exemption for a sun screening device or other material has been issued. A vehicle for which a certificate of exemption has been issued for medical reasons may be equipped with only a left outside rearview mirror, unless the vehicle was originally equipped with an outside rearview mirror on both sides of the vehicle.

   (4)  No object or material may be hung from the rearview mirror and no object or material may be hung, placed or attached in a position so as to materially obstruct, obscure or impair the driver’s vision through the windshield or constitute a safety hazard.

   (5)  This subsection also applies to glass etchings, except those used for vehicle identification.

 (d)  Motor homes. A motor home shall be free from obstructions as described in this subchapter.

   (1)  A vehicle manufactured as or permanently converted into a motor home with a GVW of 11,000 pounds or less may have windows—approved glass only—transparent screens and roll-up shades or curtains installed if the shades and curtains are securely fastened in the completely opened position to avoid covering a portion of window while the vehicle is being operated on the highway. Venetian blinds may not cover a window while the vehicle is operated on the highway.

   (2)  If a window is covered for installation of a wardrobe, cupboard or other convenience, it shall be factory installed or otherwise permanently installed—optional equipment or facsimile only. Two outside mirrors shall be installed to afford the operator a clear view 200 feet to the rear of the vehicle.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  175.68 amended under the Vehicle Code, 75 Pa.C.S. § §  4103, 4521, 4524 and 6103.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.68 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended September 27, 1996, effective September 28, 1996, 26 Pa.B. 4640. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (132870) to (132871).

Cross References

   This section cited in 67 Pa. Code §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

§ 175.69. Windshield defrosters.

 Every windshield defroster system shall be in safe operating condition.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.69 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (77509).

§ 175.70. Windshield washers.

 A windshield washer system shall be installed and in safe operating condition on passenger cars and light trucks manufactured after 1968.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.70 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (77509).

§ 175.71. Windshield wipers.

 (a)  Condition of windshield wipers. A wiper system shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Cleaning. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with a wiper system capable of cleaning rain, snow and other moisture from windshield and constructed so as to be operated by a switch conveniently located for use by the driver while in normal operating position.

   (1)  Wipers shall operate as specified by the manufacturer or a minimum of 45 cycles per minute if not specified.

   (2)  A vehicle specified under this subchapter originally equipped with two wiper blades and two wiper arms—driver and passenger side—shall have them in place and in good working order.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.71 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (77509) and (85995).

§ 175.72. Fuel systems.

 (a)  Condition of fuel systems. All components in a fuel system shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Fuel system requirements. The fuel system components shall be leakproof and shall be fastened securely to the vehicle with fasteners designed for that purpose.

 (c)  Accelerator operation. An accelerator control system shall return the engine throttle to the idle position when the operator removes the actuating force from the accelerator control.

 (d)  Filler cap. A fuel system shall be equipped with a filler cap.

 (e)  Alternate fuel systems. See Subchapter M (relating to alternate fuel systems and controls).

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.72 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (85995).

§ 175.73. Speedometers.

 A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall have an operating speedometer calibrated to indicate miles per hour or kilometers per hour.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.73 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (85995).

§ 175.74. Odometers.

 A vehicle specified under this subchapter, except a motor vehicle at least 25 years old, shall have an operating odometer calibrated to indicate total miles or kilometers driven.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.74 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (85995).

§ 175.75. Exhaust systems.

 (a)  Condition of exhaust system. All components of the exhaust system shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Exhaust system requirements. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be constructed, equipped, maintained and operated to prevent engine exhaust gases from penetrating and collecting in any part of the vehicle occupied by the driver or a passenger, in addition to requirements of this title for an emission control system and smoke control for a diesel-powered vehicle.

   (1)  A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with a muffler or other effective noise-suppressing system in good working order and in constant operation. A muffler or exhaust system may not be equipped with a cutout, bypass or similar device and a muffler may not show evidence of external repair.

   (2)  The exhaust system of a vehicle may not be modified in a manner which will amplify or increase noise emitted by the motor of a vehicle above the maximum level permitted by Chapter 157 (relating to established sound levels).

   (3)  Headers and side exhaust are permitted if the vehicle meets the requirements of this section.

   (4)  An exposed exhaust system shall be equipped with an adequate heat shield or protective system.

   (5)  An exhaust system shall extend and discharge completely to the outside edge of the vehicle body, including a truck bed, or as originally designed.

   (6)  A firefighting vehicle is exempt from regulations concerning exhaust systems, mufflers and noise control.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  175.75 amended under the Vehicle Code, 75 Pa.C.S. § §  4103, 4301, 4501, 4521 and 6103.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.75 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended November 13, 1998, effective May 13, 1999, 28 Pa.B. 5670. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (221238) to (221239).

§ 175.76. Horns and warning devices.

 (a)  Condition of horns and warning devices. All components of a horn or warning device shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Horn and warning device requirements. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall have a horn or other warning device which is audible under normal conditions at a distance of not less than 200 feet. No vehicle shall be equipped with a siren, bell, whistle or similar device emitting an unreasonably loud or harsh sound except emergency vehicles and vehicles equipped with an anti-theft device.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.76 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; amended December 30, 1983, effective December 31, 1983, 13 Pa.B. 4023; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (85996).

§ 175.77. Body.

 (a)  Condition of body. All items on the body shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Fenders. The wheels of a vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with fenders of a type used as original equipment. A tire may not come in contact with the body, fenders or chassis of the vehicle.

 (c)  Hood and hood latches. The entire motor compartment of a vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be covered by a hood. The hood shall be equipped with a double latch system to hold it in the closed position if the hood was originally so equipped.

 (d)  Protruding objects. There may be no torn metal, glass or other loose or dislocated parts protruding from the body of the vehicle.

 (e)  Fender flares. A vehicle may be equipped with fender flares not to exceed 3 inches.

 (f)  Doors. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with doors of a type used as original equipment. The doors shall open and close securely unless the vehicle has been manufactured or modified to the extent that there is no roof or side. Tailgates, except on vehicles where the tailgate gives access to the passenger compartment, may be replaced with wood planking, nets or other material that will prevent loss of load. Tailgates may be removed when optional equipment, for example a truck camper, is added.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  175.77 amended under the Vehicle Code, 75 Pa.C.S. § §  4103, 4301, 4501, 4521 and 6103.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.77 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended November 13, 1998, effective May 13, 1999, 28 Pa.B. 5670. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (221239) to (221240).

§ 175.78. Chassis.

 (a)  Condition of chassis. All items on the chassis shall be in safe operating condition as described in §  175.80 (relating to inspection procedure).

 (b)  Vehicle frame. A vehicle frame shall be in solid condition.

 (c)  Motor mounts. Motor mounts may not be broken, cracked or missing.

 (d)  Flooring and floor beds. Flooring and floor beds shall be of a construction to support occupants and cargo which the vehicle is capable of carrying and may not have openings through which exhaust gases could enter passenger compartment.

 (e)  Bumpers. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with bumpers of a type used as original equipment, or suitable replacement which is equal to or greater in strength than that provided by the vehicle manufacturer, securely attached to the chassis or frame. See 75 Pa.C.S. §  4536 (relating to bumpers).

   (1)  A bumper shall be of at least equivalent strength and mounting as the original equipment.

   (2)  No portion of a bumper may be broken, torn or protruding to create a hazard.

   (3)  A bumper may not extend beyond the body line or be longer than original equipment, whichever is greater.

   (4)  A wood plank bumper is permitted on a road service truck or wrecker if it is firmly attached to a regular bumper or equivalent steel backing.

   (5)  Some part of the main horizontal bumper bar on passenger vehicles shall fall within 16-20 inches above ground level.

   (6)  Some part of the main horizontal bumper bar on multipurpose passenger vehicles and light trucks shall fall within 16-30 inches above ground level.

 (f)  Seats. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with a seat for an operator which is firmly anchored to the frame or a support.

   (1)  Metal springs may not protrude from the driver’s seat.

   (2)  A seat adjusting mechanism may not move from a set position when so adjusted.

 (g)  Safety belts. A vehicle specified under this subchapter shall be equipped with safety belts of a type used as original equipment securely attached to the frame or structure. If attached to sheet metal, they shall have backing plates.

   (1)  Safety belt webbing may not be frayed.

   (2)  Belt buckles shall operate properly.

 (h)  Body mounts. Body mounts may not be broken, cracked, deteriorated or missing.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  175.78 amended under the Vehicle Code, 75 Pa.C.S. § §  4103, 4301, 4501, 4521 and 6103.

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.78 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended November 13, 1998, effective May 13, 1999, 28 Pa.B. 5670. The effective date of subsection (e)(5) is postponed indefinitely, 29 Pa.B. 2460 (May 8, 1999); amended October 25, 2013, effective October 26, 2013, 43 Pa.B. 6349. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (339719) to (339721) and (255491).

§ 175.80. Inspection procedure.

 (a)  External inspection. An external inspection shall be performed as follows:

   (1)  Verify ownership, legality and proof of financial responsibility. For the purpose of this subchapter, ownership and legality shall be proven by a vehicle registration card, certificate of title or manufacturer’s statement of origin. When a vehicle being held for resale is presented for inspection by a dealer licensed to sell vehicles in this Commonwealth, a VIN-specific auction slip or VIN-specific secure power of attorney evidencing the dealership’s acquisition of the vehicle, or both, may be presented instead of a vehicle registration card, certificate of title or manufacturer’s statement of origin. Reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   When vehicle ownership and legality are demonstrated by presentation of certificate of title, manufacturer’s statement of origin, VIN-specific auction slip or VIN-specific secure power of attorney:

       (A)   The VIN is not in agreement with the certificate of title, manufacturer’s statement of origin, VIN-specific auction slip or VIN-specific secure power of attorney. Exception: If only one digit is incorrect or two digits are transposed, and the owner provides evidence that the appropriate Department form has been completed to correct the error or transposition.

       (B)   The license plate is hanging loosely from its mounting bracket.

       (C)   The license plate is obscured so that the numbers cannot be identified.

       (D)   The license plate lamp, if originally so equipped, does not illuminate the license plate.

     (iii)   Acceptable proof of financial responsibility is not provided. For the purpose of this chapter, financial responsibility shall be proven by one of the following documents:

       (A)   A valid financial responsibility identification card issued in accordance with 31 Pa. Code (relating to insurance).

       (B)   The declaration page of a valid insurance policy.

       (C)   A valid self-insurance identification card.

       (D)   A valid binder of insurance issued by an insurance company licensed to sell motor vehicle liability insurance in this Commonwealth.

       (E)   A valid insurance policy issued by an insurance company licensed to sell motor vehicle liability insurance in this Commonwealth.

   (2)  Check glazing.

     (i)   Reject if any of the following apply:

       (A)   Approved safety glazing is not used in every windshield, window and wing.

       (B)   A sign, poster or other material whose design prevents a driver from seeing through the material, obstructs, obscures or impairs the driver’s clear view of the highway or an intersecting highway. Under FMVSS No. 205, this restriction does not apply to the rear side windows, rear wings or rear window of trucks or multi-purpose passenger vehicles.

       (C)   A sign, poster or other material, whose design prevents a driver from seeing through the material, extends more than 3 1/2 inches from the lowest exposed portion of the rear window, rear side windows or rear wings of a passenger car.

       (D)   A vehicle displays a sticker other than those prescribed under §  175.67(c) (relating to glazing), or displays a parking sticker in a location described in §  175.67(d).

       (E)   Glass is shattered or broken or has exposed sharp edges.

       (F)   The windshield is removed.

       (G)   There are defects in an acute area of the windshield—center of the critical area on the driver’s side of the vehicle directly in the driver’s normal line of vision, 8 1/2 inches wide and 5 1/2 inches high—or discolorations or hazardous cracks to the front, right, left or rear of the driver which would interfere with the driver’s vision.

       (H)   Glass etchings, except those used for vehicle identification, are on the windshield or front side windows.

       (I)   Glass etchings extend more than 3 1/2 inches from the lowest exposed portion of rear window, rear side windows or rear wings.

     (ii)   This paragraph does not prohibit the use of a product or material along the top edge of a windshield as long as the product or material is transparent and does not encroach upon the AS-1 portion of the windshield as provided by FMVSS No. 205, and the product or material is not more than 3 inches from the top of the windshield.

   (3)  Check the windshield wiper system and reject if any of the following apply:

     (i)   The wipers do not operate as specified by manufacturer, or 45 cycles per minute if not specified.

     (ii)   The wiper blades are torn or smear or streak windshield after five cycles.

     (iii)   There is only one wiper where two are required.

     (iv)   The wipers do not return to the rest position.

     (v)   The windshield washers, if originally so equipped, do not operate.

   (4)  Check the door operation, including the tailgate, and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The doors, except a tailgate on a pick-up truck, are not on the vehicle if originally fitted by the manufacturer.

     (ii)   The doors, including the tailgate, do not open and close securely, unless the vehicle has been manufactured or modified to the extent that there is no roof or side.

   (5)  Check outside mirrors and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The mirror is cracked, broken or discolored.

     (ii)   The mirror will not hold adjustment.

     (iii)   A vehicle does not have rearview mirrors as originally equipped by the manufacturer.

     (iv)   Outside rearview mirrors, with a minimum reflective surface as described in §  175.68 (relating to mirrors), are not installed on both sides of the vehicle if a certificate of exemption for a sun screening device or other material has been issued by the Department. See §  175.264 (relating to mirrors). A vehicle for which a certificate of exemption has been issued for medical reasons may be equipped with only a left outside rearview mirror, unless originally equipped with an outside rearview mirror on both sides of the vehicle.

     (v)   The mirrors, if originally so equipped, are missing.

   (6)  Check fenders, hood and trunk lid and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   A fender—front or rear—has been removed.

     (ii)   The fenders are not of a type and size used as original equipment.

     (iii)   The hood does not cover the entire motor compartment or cannot be fully closed.

     (iv)   The trunk lid is not present or does not close securely.

     (v)   The fender flares exceed 3 inches in width.

   (7)  Check the flooring and floor beds and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   They are not in a condition to support the occupants and cargo.

     (ii)   The floor pan is rusted through so as to cause hazard to occupants or to permit exhaust gases to enter passenger compartment.

   (8)  Check the bumpers and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The bumper, if required as original equipment, is not on the vehicle.

     (ii)   The bumpers are not firmly attached to the frame or chassis.

     (iii)   Some part of the main horizontal bumper bar on passenger vehicles does not fall within 16-20 inches above ground level.

     (iv)   Some part of the main horizontal bumper bar on multipurpose passenger vehicles and light trucks does not fall within 16-30 inches above ground level.

     (v)   A broken or torn portion is protruding so as to create hazard.

     (vi)   The bumpers extend beyond body line or are longer than originally equipped, whichever is greater.

   (9)  Check the lamps and lenses and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   An exterior bulb or sealed beam, if originally equipped or installed, fails to light properly, except ornamental lights.

     (ii)   The turn signal lamps do not flash between 60—120 flashes per minute.

     (iii)   The turn signal lamps do not properly indicate right or left or hold in position when so switched or do not self-cancel if originally designed to do so.

     (iv)   The back-up lamps do not turn off automatically when the vehicle goes forward, there is no indicator on dash that lights or there is no audible warning signal.

     (v)   The lamp shows a color contrary to the lighting chart.

     (vi)   The lamp or filament indicated at the switch position does not light when the correct switch indicates the lamp should be on.

     (vii)   The lamp has a missing or broken lens.

     (viii)   A required lamp is missing.

     (ix)   The auxiliary equipment is placed on, in or in front of a lamp.

     (x)   The fog lamps operate with the high beams of the headlamps or are substituted for the low beams.

     (xi)   The auxiliary driving lamps operate with the low beam of standard headlamp system or alone.

     (xii)   The headlamps are out of adjustment as follows:

       (A)   Mechanical aimer:

         (I)   The horizontal aim is more than 4 inches to the left or right.

         (II)   The vertical aim is higher or lower than 4 inches from center.

       (B)   Screen or photo electric type tester. See Charts 1—3 (relating to headlight aiming screen distance and marking identification; high beam inspection limits; and low beam inspection limits).

         (I)   Turn the lamps on high beam and reject if the center of the beam is horizontally more than 4 inches to the right or left of ‘‘straight ahead’’ or if center of light beam is vertically more than 4 inches above or below horizontal line.

         (II)   Turn the lamps on low beam and reject if the upper edge of the beam is more than 4 inches above or below horizontal center line of headlamp or if inner edge of beam is more than 4 inches to the right or left of the vertical line.

   (10)  Check for protruding metal and reject if torn metal, glass or other loose or dislocated parts protrude from a surface of the vehicle so as to create a hazard.

   (11)  Check the fuel tank cap and reject if the fuel tank filler cap is missing.

   (12)  Check the shock absorbers and reject if the vehicle continues free rocking motion greater than three cycles after release, indicating loss of the shock absorber function.

 (b)  Internal inspection. An internal inspection shall be performed as follows:

   (1)  Check steering column and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   Freeplay exceeds the following allowances:

Wheel diameterFreeplay
16 inches or less2 inches
18 inches2 1/4 inches
20 inches2 1/2 inches
22 inches2 3/4 inches

     (ii)   The gear box is loose on the frame.

     (iii)   The energy-absorbing column is defective.

     (iv)   The steering wheel, except if specially designed for handicapped drivers, is not circular or equivalent in strength to original equipment or has an outside diameter less than 13 inches.

     (v)   The front wheels cannot be turned to the full right or left position without binding or interference.

     (vi)   The flexible steering coupler—rag joint—is badly misaligned—twisted or out of alignment between attaching collars.

     (vii)   The number of turns of the steering wheel from a straight ahead tire position to the right stop is not equal to the number of turns to the left stop within a tolerance of 1/4 turn.

   (2)  Check the high beam and turn signal indicator lamps and reject if the indicator lamps are not working.

   (3)  Check the horn and reject if any of the following apply:

     (i)   There is no horn or other acceptable audible warning device.

     (ii)   The horn or other warning device is not audible under normal conditions for distances of not less than 200 feet.

     (iii)   The vehicle is equipped with a siren, bell, whistle or device emitting harsh or unreasonably loud sound, except for emergency vehicles and vehicles equipped with an anti-theft device.

   (4)  Check the brake pedal and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The brake pedal travel exceeds 80% of the total available travel unless originally designed to do so.

     (ii)   The brake pedal fades while the vehicle is stopped unless originally designed to do so.

     (iii)   There is excessive friction in pedal linkage or components, pedal levers are misaligned or improperly positioned or the pedal pad is missing.

     (iv)   A brake warning lamp or other device indicates a malfunction of the braking systems unless the vehicle is equipped with an antilock braking system (ABS) which is designed to revert to standard braking operation and no driveability deficiency or loss of braking performance is present.

   (5)  Check the parking brake operation and reject if the pedal or lever reaches its limit of travel before parking brakes are set.

   (6)  Check the seat and safety belts, if originally equipped, and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The driver’s seat or back rest is not firmly attached.

     (ii)   The metal spring protrudes from driver’s seat.

     (iii)   The seat-adjusting mechanism slips out of set position.

     (iv)   There is no safety belt for each seating location, if the vehicle was originally so equipped, or if seats have been added.

     (v)   The safety belt webbing is frayed.

     (vi)   The belt buckles do not operate properly.

     (vii)   The belt anchorages are broken.

     (viii)   A passive seat belt restraint system is inoperative.

   (7)  Check the inside mirror and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The mirror is cracked, broken or discolored.

     (ii)   The mirror will not hold adjustment.

     (iii)   An object or material is hung from or blocking inside mirror.

     (iv)   The mirror, if originally so equipped, is missing.

   (8)  Check front windshield defroster system, if so equipped, and reject if defroster fan does not function.

 (c)  Under the hood inspection. An under the hood inspection shall be performed as follows:

   (1)  Check the hood and reject if any of the following apply:

     (i)   The latch does not hold securely in the fully closed position.

     (ii)   The latch release mechanism or its parts are broken, missing or so poorly adjusted that the hood cannot be closed properly.

     (iii)   The double latch mechanism is not operating as originally equipped.

   (2)  Check the motor mounts, either here or during the beneath vehicle inspection, and reject if the motor mounts are broken, cracked or missing.

   (3)  Check the fuel systems and controls and reject if any of the following apply:

     (i)   There is liquid fuel leakage at any point in system.

     (ii)   A part of fuel line is not securely fastened.

     (iii)   A fuel tank or line was not specifically designed or manufactured as fuel tank or line.

     (iv)   A fuel line is in contact with high temperature surfaces or moving parts.

     (v)   A fuel tank or line intrudes into a driver, passenger or cargo compartment except if the vehicle was originally so designed. If the vehicle is equipped with an alternate fuel system, see Subchapter M (relating to alternate fuel systems and controls).

     (vi)   The throttle does not return to the idle position when the actuating force is removed.

     (vii)   The firewall has any holes or cracks which would permit fumes to enter driver and passenger compartments.

   (4)  Check the exhaust system and reject if there is exhaust leak.

   (5)  Check the brake system and reject if any of the following apply:

     (i)   The master cylinder leaks.

     (ii)   The power brake lines or hydraulic hoses or lines leak or are disconnected, flattened or restricted.

     (iii)   The hydraulic booster for the power brake system is leaking or inoperative or has excessively worn belts that would prevent proper operation of the pump.

   (6)  Check the battery and reject if the battery is not securely fastened with a device specifically designed for that function.

 (d)  Visual inspection of emission control system. Vehicles registered in counties where there is not an emission inspection program under Chapter 177 (relating to emission inspection program), shall be checked visually for the presence of emission control components. These components may be original vehicle equipment or an equivalent aftermarket replacement component meeting the same standards. In addition to the exceptions under §  175.4 (relating to vehicles required to be inspected), this subsection does not apply to vehicles registered as collectible or classic motor vehicles as defined in 75 Pa.C.S. §  102 (relating to definitions).

   (1)  The visual inspection shall be performed through direct observation or through indirect observation, using a mirror or other visual aid.

   (2)  Provided that the make and model year of the vehicle would have originally been equipped with the device, reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The catalytic converter has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.

     (ii)   Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.

     (iii)   Positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valve has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.

     (iv)   Fuel inlet restrictor has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.

     (v)   Air pump has been removed, disconnected or is the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.

     (vi)   Evaporative control system components have been removed, disconnected or are the wrong type for the certified vehicle configuration.

 (e)  Beneath the vehicle inspection. A beneath the vehicle inspection shall be performed as follows:

   (1)  Inspect the tires and wheels and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   A tire has two adjacent treads with less than 2/32-inch tread remaining at any point—less than 4/32-inch tread on the front tires of the vehicles having a gross weight in excess of 10,000 pounds.

     (ii)   A tire is worn so that the tread wear indicators contact the road in any two adjacent grooves.

     (iii)   A part of ply or cord is exposed.

     (iv)   A tire has been repaired with a blow-out patch or boot.

     (v)   There is a bump, bulge or separation.

     (vi)   A tire is marked “not for highway use,” “for racing purposes only” or “unsafe for highway use,” or has a similar designation.

     (vii)   There are other conditions or markings reasonably believed to render the tire unsafe for highway use.

     (viii)   A tire has been regrooved or recut below the original tread design depth except special taxicab tires which are identified as having extra undertread rubber.

     (ix)   A tire’s tread extends beyond the outer edge of the wheel housing inclusive of fender flares.

     (x)   The tires used on the same axle are not the same size or type of construction—bias, belted, radial or snow.

     (xi)   The wheel nuts or bolts are missing, loose or have improper thread engagement.

     (xii)   The stud or bolt holes are worn out of round.

     (xiii)   Part of the wheel is bent, cracked, welded or damaged so as to affect safe operation of vehicle.

     (xiv)   The rear wheel does not track front wheel in straight ahead position as originally designed.

     (xv)   The wheel base on one side differs from the wheel base on the other side by more than 1 inch, unless the vehicle’s design specifications indicate different left and right wheel base dimensions.

     (xvi)   Studded tires are in use after April 15 and before November 1.

     (xvii)   Retreads are on the front axle of a taxi.

     (xviii)   The diameter of duals is not within 3/8-inch of each other.

     (xix)   An axle has missing tires or rims.

     (xx)   A tire makes contact with the body or chassis.

     (xxi)   Spacers over 1/4 inch in thickness are used to increase wheel track.

     (xxii)   A tire is smaller than the manufacturer’s recommended minimum size or below the manufacturer’s recommended load rating.

   (2)  Inspect the steering system and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   Steering gear box is loose on frame.

     (ii)   Measured movement at the front or rear of a tire is greater than 1/4-inch. Eliminate all wheel bearing movement by applying the service brake; then, with the vehicle raised and wheels in the straight ahead position, grasp the front and rear of the tire and attempt to move the assembly right and left without moving the steering gear. Measure the movement.

     (iii)   The linkage components are not secured with cotter pins or other suitable devices.

     (iv)   The steering stops allow the tire to rub on the frame or chassis parts.

     (v)   The front wheels are incapable of being turned to the right and left steering stops without binding or interference.

   (3)  Inspect the suspension system and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The ball joint movement is in excess of the manufacturer’s specifications.

     (ii)   The shock absorbers are missing.

     (iii)   The shock absorbers mounting bolts or mounts are broken.

     (iv)   The shock absorbers have severe leakage—not slight dampness.

     (v)   The sway or stabilizer bar is missing or broken.

     (vi)   The coil spring or main leaf spring is broken if originally equipped.

     (vii)   The spring attaching part is loose, badly worn, broken or missing.

     (viii)   Spring shackle kits or blocks are used to lower the suspension of the front of the vehicle.

     (ix)   Spring shackle kits are more than 2 inches over original equipment.

     (x)   Blocks are used on front axle to raise the vehicle.

     (xi)   Blocks used on rear axle exceed 5 inches over original equipment.

   (4)  Inspect the floor and reject if any of the following apply:

     (i)   The floor bed or inner panels have openings which would allow exhaust gases to enter either the occupant compartment or trunk.

     (ii)   The floor bed is not sufficient to hold the weight of the driver, passengers and cargo.

   (5)  Inspect the vehicle frame and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The vehicle frame is not in solid condition.

     (ii)   The repairs are made with tape, tar paper or cloth, or are made in another temporary manner.

     (iii)   The frame components are missing, cracked, rotted or broken or are in deteriorated or dangerous condition.

     (iv)   Body mounts do not hold as required.

     (v)   A body mount is broken, cracked, deteriorated or missing.

     (vi)   The difference in the body floor and the top of the frame rail exceeds 4 inches.

   (6)  Inspect exhaust system and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The vehicle has no muffler or muffler has external repair.

     (ii)   There are loose or leaking joints.

     (iii)   There are holes, cracks or leaking seams in exhaust system.

     (iv)   There is a muffler cutout or similar device.

     (v)   Part of the exhaust system passes through the occupant compartment.

     (vi)   The elements are not securely fastened with proper clamps and hangers.

     (vii)   The exposed exhaust system does not have adequate heat shield or protective system.

     (viii)   The exhaust does not discharge to the outside edge of the vehicle body, including a truck bed, or as originally designed.

   (7)  Inspect the braking system. Remove at least one front and one opposite rear wheel and reject if one or more of the following apply:

     (i)   The hydraulic hoses or tubing leaks; is flattened, restricted, insecurely fastened or improperly retained; or has exposed cords.

     (ii)   The wheel cylinder leaks, has missing parts, is improperly retained or is not functioning.

     (iii)   The caliper leaks, has missing parts, is improperly retained or is not functioning.

     (iv)   The lining is broken; not firmly attached to shoe; or contaminated with oil, grease or another substance that would affect proper brake operation.

     (v)   There is mechanical damage other than wear.

     (vi)   The inside diameter of the drum is greater than maximum diameter stamped on drum or greater than .090 inch over original drum diameter for unmarked drums.

     (vii)   The disc thickness is less than minimum stamped on assembly or less than manufacturer’s specifications.

     (viii)   The bonded linings are less than 2/32 inch at the thinnest point.

     (ix)   The riveted linings are less than 1/32 inch above rivet head at thinnest point.

     (x)   The drums or rotors are scored deeper than .015 inch.

   (8)  Inspect the fuel system and reject if any of the following apply:

     (i)   There is fuel leakage.

     (ii)   Part of the system is not securely fastened.

     (iii)   The system is not properly routed.

 (f)  Road test. Perform road test and reject if one or more of the following apply:

   (1)  The parking brake fails to exhibit normal resistance when an attempt is made to move the vehicle both forward and backward from a stopped position.

   (2)  The automatic transmission will not hold in the park position.

   (3)  The vehicle is not capable of stopping within the maximum stopping distance prescribed in Table I (relating to brake performance) or swerves so that any part leaves the 12-foot lane.

   (4)  There is a malfunction of the braking or steering mechanism, particular shimmy, wander, pull or another questionable operating behavior that affects safe operation of the vehicle.

   (5)  The speedometer does not operate.

   (6)  The odometer does not operate, except on a motor vehicle at least 25 years old.

   (7)  The vehicle cannot be driven both forward and backward.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  175.80 amended under Vehicle Code,

Source

   The provisions of this §  175.80 adopted October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3947; delayed February 11, 1983, 13 Pa.B. 708 except subsection (d)(1)(ix), effectiveness of which has been indefinitely postponed until further notice, to the extent that these portions of the regulations prohibit placement of oversize tires that remain within the body line of vehicles and require the rejection of inspected vehicles equipped with these tires; amended December 30, 1983, effective December 31, 1983, 13 Pa.B. 4023; readopted December 2, 1988, effective December 3, 1988, 18 Pa.B. 5362; amended February 18, 1994, effective February 19, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 962; amended September 27, 1996, effective September 28, 1996, 26 Pa.B. 4640; amended November 13, 1998, effective May 13, 1999, 28 Pa.B. 5670. The effective date of the following provisions are postponed indefinitely: subsection (a)(5)(v) and (8)(iii) and (iv); and subsection (b)(7)(iv); these provisions were given effect at 43 Pa.B. 6349. Amended November 26, 2003, effective November 29, 2003, 33 Pa.B. 5823; amended October 25, 2013, effective October 26, 2013, 43 Pa.B. 6349. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (255491) to (255492), (250355) to (250358), (301859) to (301862) and (359905) to (359906).

Notes of Decisions

   The testimony of two licensed inspection mechanics on reinspection of a vehicle that at least one of a vehicle’s shock absorbers was broken and that the condition existed at the time of the original inspection was substantial evidence upon which revocation of a certificate could be based. Kot v. Department of Transportation, 562 A.2d 1019 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1989); appeal denied 575 A.2d 117 (Pa. 1990).

   Department acted properly in suspending certifications of inspection station and of inspection mechanic where mechanic accepted an affidavit of lost or stolen registration in lieu of the registration card or title which under 75 Pa.C.S. §  4727(a) and subsection (a), must be examined. Smith v. Department of Transportation, 502 A.2d 791 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1986).

   A mechanic’s actions in driving vehicles without a valid driver’s license during an inspection is within the scope of his employment because subsection (e) of this section requires a road test to be performed with every inspection. Department of Transportation v. Stahl, 460 A.2d 1223 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1983).

   Headlamps

   The facts sufficed to give the police officer reasonable suspicion that the motorist’s car violated the Motor Vehicle Code’s directive that all vehicles must conform to the Department of Transportation’s regulations, which limit to 4 inches the distance a headlight may deviate from center, where the evidence established, among other things, the motorist’s headlights were askew approximately six inches, a deviation first noticed by the officer from about a football field’s length away and confirmed when he slowly drove by the motorist at close range. Commonwealth v. Hynes, 730 A.2d 960 (Pa. Super. 1999).

Cross References

   This section cited in 52 Pa. Code §  1017.5 (relating to basic vehicle standards); 52 Pa. Code §  1055.4 (relating to basic vehicle standards); 67 Pa. Code §  175.62 (relating to suspension); 67 Pa. Code §  175.63 (relating to steering); 67 Pa. Code §  175.64 (relating to braking systems); 67 Pa. Code §  175.65 (relating to tires and wheels); 67 Pa. Code §  175.66 (relating to lighting and electrical systems); 67 Pa. Code §  175.67 (relating to glazing); 67 Pa. Code §  175.68 (relating to mirrors); 67 Pa. Code §  175.71 (relating to windshield wipers); 67 Pa. Code §  175.72 (relating to fuel systems); 67 Pa. Code §  175.75 (relating to exhaust systems); 67 Pa. Code §  175.76 (relating to horns and warning devices); 67 Pa. Code §  175.77 (relating to body); 67 Pa. Code §  175.78 (relating to chassis); 67 Pa. Code §  175.203 (relating to braking systems); 67 Pa. Code §  175.206 (relating to glazing); 67 Pa. Code §  175.207 (relating to mirrors); and 67 Pa. Code §  175.208 (relating to body).

§ 175.81. [Reserved].


Source

   The provisions of this §  175.81 adopted December 2, 1978, effective February 1, 1978, 7 Pa.B. 3499; reserved October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (73469).

§ 175.82. [Reserved].


Source

   The provisions of this §  175.82 adopted December 2, 1978, effective February 1, 1978, 7 Pa.B. 3499; amended July 31, 1981, effective August 1, 1981, 11 Pa.B. 2686; reserved October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (73470), (56858) to (56859) and (63705).

§ 175.83. [Reserved].


Source

   The provisions of this §  175.83 adopted December 2, 1978, effective February 1, 1978, 7 Pa.B. 3499; reserved October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; amended July 14, 1978, effective August 1, 1978, 8 Pa.B. 2006; amended December 8, 1978, effective December 9, 1978, 8 Pa.B. 3495; amended July 31, 1981, effective August 1, 1981, 11 Pa.B. 2686; reserved October 29, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862; corrected November 12, 1982, effective February 1, 1983, 12 Pa.B. 3862. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (63705), (56862) to (56865), (63711) to (63712) and (73471).



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