CHAPTER 447. HAZARDOUS WALKING ROUTES

Sec.


447.1.    Purpose.
447.2.    Definitions.
447.3.    General policy.
447.4.    Criteria.

Authority

   The provisions of this Chapter 447 issued under sections 506 and 2001 of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P. S. § §  186 and 511); and sections 1362 and 2541 of the Public School Code of 1949 (24 P. S. § §  13-1362 and 25-2541), unless otherwise noted.

Source

   The provisions of this Chapter 447 adopted August 1, 1980, effective August 2, 1980, 10 Pa.B. 3191, unless otherwise noted.

§ 447.1.  Purpose.

 This chapter establishes guidelines for determining if a designated school student walking route along a public highway is hazardous, as the defined term is used in sections 1362 and 2541 of the Public School Code of 1949 (24 P. S. § §  13-1362 and 25-2541).

Source

   The provisions of this §  447.1 adopted August 1, 1980, effective August 2, 1980, 10 Pa.B. 3191; amended August 7, 1981, effective August 8, 1981, 11 Pa.B. 2777.

§ 447.2. Definitions.

 The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

   Elementary students—School students in kindergarten or grades one through six.

   Hazardous—An unsafe condition caused by potential incompatability between vehicles and school students, while the students are walking between their home and their school or school bus stop.

   Safe-running speed—The official speed limit as posted by signs or, in the absence of a posted speed limit, the average speed as determined by making a minimum of five test runs in each direction and periodically recording the operating speed at different locations while driving at a speed which is reasonable and prudent considering the spacing of intersections, roadside development and sight distance.

   Secondary students—School students in grades 7 through 12.

   Shoulder—The portion of the highway contiguous to the roadway used for accommodation of stopped or parked vehicles, for emergency use or for lateral support of base and surface courses.

   Sidewalk—That portion of a street or highway or other public right-of-way which is reserved exclusively for pedestrian travel and is normally protected by a minimum average 4-inch high, nonmountable curb, or is not immediately adjacent to the roadway. A sidewalk should have a minimum width of 2 feet; a gravel, brick, stone or paved surface; and be available for use during normal weather conditions.

   Student walking route—The system of streets, shoulders, sidewalks and crosswalks used by school students when walking between their home and their school or school bus stop, officially designated by the school district or, where no official route has been designated, used by school students because of the unavailability of a reasonable alternate route.

Source

   The provisions of this §  447.2 adopted August 1, 1980, effective August 2, 1980, 10 Pa.B. 3191; amended August 7, 1981, effective August 8, 1981, 11 Pa.B. 2777.

§ 447.3. General policy.

 (a)  A request for review of student walking routes should be referred to the appropriate engineering district as listed in Appendix A. Personnel of the engineering district will make the necessary study upon receipt of a written request from a school district and the district engineer will certify whether the route is or is not hazardous. The certification will be forwarded to the school district and to the Department of Education.

 (b)  The Vehicle Code sets forth certain rights and duties for pedestrians and vehicular traffic. These rights and duties have been considered in the development of these guidelines. Accordingly, if a hazard exists solely because of failure of drivers or school students to obey the provisions of the Vehicle Code, the student walking route may be declared hazardous; however, the basis for the hazardous walking route determination shall be so noted on the certification and the problem brought to the attention of the municipality.

 (c)  Road and traffic conditions shall be evaluated before any highway or section of highway is declared hazardous. The presence or absence of side walks shall be a factor in the evaluation but may not be the controlling factor. The criteria for road and traffic conditions may apply only to student walking routes, as defined in this chapter.

 (d)  This chapter may not be construed to require school buses to stop at every dwelling in the event that a student walking route or a portion thereof is declared hazardous, since such a policy would increase the probability of bus-related accidents. A student may be required to walk up to 500 feet on a roadway designated as a hazardous walking route when the route is designated as hazardous in accordance with §  447.4(b) (relating to criteria).

 (e)  If changes occur in the condition of a walking route that was previously inspected, a reevaluation of the route may be requested.

Source

   The provisions of this §  447.3 adopted August 1, 1980, effective August 2, 1980, 10 Pa.B. 3191; amended August 7, 1981, effective August 8, 1981, 11 Pa.B. 2777.

§ 447.4. Criteria.

 (a)  A student walking route shall be considered hazardous if any one of the following three conditions exist:

   (1)  Two or more pedestrian-related accidents have occurred during the last 3 years while the pedestrians were walking along the student walking route during hours students are normally going to or from school.

   (2)  It is necessary for a student to cross a roadway; either daily or intermittently, at a location where vehicular traffic is not controlled by either traffic control signals or a stop sign, or where students are not protected by an adult crossing guard; provided vehicular traffic on roadway is in excess of the values given in the table below for any 15-minute period during which students are enroute to or from school:

TABLE I


Roadway
Width (ft)*
For Elementary Students
Number of Vehicles
For Secondary Students
Number of Vehicles
20 or less155175
24130150
30100120
3680100
484060


 * If the roadway is divided by a raised median which is at least 8 feet wide and has nonmountable curbs, the roadway should be considered as two separate roadways.

   (3) It is necessary for students to cross a railroad-highway grade crossing which has two or more tracks and the following three qualifications are met:

     (i)   Trains normally—not necessarily with regularity—use the crossing at the time the students cross the tracks going to or from school.

     (ii)   The crossing is not protected by a flashing light signal or a crossing guard.

     (iii)   The speed of the trains and the available sight distance are such that students walking at a speed of 3.5 feet per second cannot safely cross the tracks.

 (b)  A student walking route shall be considered hazardous if a sidewalk does not exist and either paragraph (1) or (2) applies:

   (1)  The shoulders are less than 4 feet wide and for either:

     (i)   Elementary students, the roadway surface is less than 20 feet wide and one or more trucks with three or more axles, not including garbage trucks or other types of trucks making house-to-house stops, normally use the roadway during the time the elementary students are enroute to or from school.

     (ii)   Streets and highways with an average traffic volume of at least ten vehicles per hour during the time students are walking, a 3.5-foot tall elementary school student or a 4.5-foot tall secondary student is not visible by approaching drivers from at least the following minimum distances:

TABLE II


Safe-running SpeedMinimum Distance (ft.)
30 or less200
35240
40275
45315
50350
55410


   (2)  The normal vehicular traffic volume during any 15-minute period that students are enroute to or from school exceeds the following values for the appropriate safe-running speed range:

     (i)   Safe-running speed is 35 mph or less:

Shoulder WidthFor Elementary
Students
Number of Vehicles For Secondary Students Only
less than 4 ft.30 45
4 ft.—6 ft.60100

   (ii) Safe-running speed is over 35 mph:

Shoulder WidthFor Elementary
Students
Number of Vehicles For Secondary Students Only
less than 4 ft.2030
4 ft.—6 ft.4065

Source

   The provisions of this §  447.4 adopted August 1, 1980, effective August 2, 1980, 10 Pa.B. 3191; amended August 7, 1981, effective August 8, 1981, 11 Pa.B. 2777.

Cross References

   This section cited in 67 Pa. Code §  447.3 (relating to general policy).

APPENDIX A


Engineering DistrictCounty
Engineering District 1-0
255 Elm Street
P. O. Box 398
Oil City, Pennsylvania 16301
Crawford
Erie
Forest
Mercer
Venango
Warren
Engineering District 2-0
1924-30 Daisy Street
P. O. Box 342
Clearfield, Pennsylvania 16830
Cameron
Centre
Clearfield
Clinton
Elk
Juniata
McKean
Mifflin
Potter
Engineering District 3-0
715 Jordan Avenue
P. O. Box 218
Montoursville, Pennsylvania 17754
Bradford
Columbia
Lycoming
Montour
Northumberland
Snyder
Sullivan
Tioga
Union
Engineering District 4-0
55 Keystone Industrial Park
Dunmore, Pennsylvania 18512
Lackawanna
Luzerne
Pike
Susquehanna
Wayne
Wyoming
Engineering District 5-0
1002 Hamilton Street
Allentown, Pennsylvania 18101
Berks
Carbon
Lehigh
Monroe
Northampton
Schuylkill
Engineering District 6-0
7000 Geerdes Boulevard
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406
Bucks
Chester
Delaware
Montgomery
Philadelphia
Engineering District 8-0
2140 Herr Street
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17103-1699
Adams
Cumberland
Dauphin
Franklin
Lancaster
Lebanon
Perry
York
Engineering District 9-0
1620 North Juniata Street
Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania 16648
Bedford
Blair
Cambria
Fulton
Huntingdon
Somerset
Engineering District 10-0
2550 Oakland Avenue
P. O. Box 429
Indiana, Pennsylvania 15701-0429
Armstrong
Butler
Clarion
Indiana
Jefferson
Engineering District 11-0
45 Thoms Run Road
Bridgeville, Pennsylvania 15017
Allegheny
Beaver
Lawrence
Engineering District 12-0
825 N. Gallatin Avenue Extension
P. O. Box 459
Uniontown, Pennsylvania 15401
Fayette
Green
Washington
Westmoreland



Source

   The provisions of this Appendix A amended September 2, 2011, effective September 3, 2011, 41 Pa.B. 4772.

Cross References

   This Appendix A cited in 67 Pa. Code §  447.3 (relating to general policy).



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