Rule 2119. Argument.

 (a)  General rule.—The argument shall be divided into as many parts as there are questions to be argued; and shall have at the head of each part—in distinctive type or in type distinctively displayed—the particular point treated therein, followed by such discussion and citation of authorities as are deemed pertinent.

 (b)  Citations of authorities.—Citations of authorities must set forth the principle for which they are cited. Citations of uncodified statutes shall make reference to the book and page of the Laws of Pennsylvania (Pamphlet Laws) or other official edition, and also to a standard digest, where the statutes may be found. Citations of provisions of the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes may be in the form: ‘‘1 Pa.C.S. §  1928 (rule of strict and liberal construction)’’ and the official codifications of other jurisdictions may be cited similarly. Quotations from authorities or statutes shall also set forth the pages from which they are taken. Opinions of an appellate court of this or another jurisdiction shall be cited from the National Reporter System, if published therein, and to the official reports of Pennsylvania appellate courts, if published therein.

 (c)  Reference to record.—If reference is made to the pleadings, evidence, charge, opinion or order, or any other matter appearing in the record, the argument must set forth, in immediate connection therewith, or in a footnote thereto, a reference to the place in the record where the matter referred to appears (see Rule 2132 (references in briefs to the record)).

 (d)  Synopsis of evidence.—When the finding of, or the refusal to find, a fact is argued, the argument must contain a synopsis of all the evidence on the point, with a reference to the place in the record where the evidence may be found.

 (e)  Statement of place of raising or preservation of issues.—Where under the applicable law an issue is not reviewable on appeal unless raised or preserved below, the argument must set forth, in immediate connection therewith or in a footnote thereto, either a specific cross reference to the page or pages of the statement of the case which set forth the information relating thereto required pursuant to Rule 2117(c) (statement of place of raising or preservation of issues), or substantially the same information.

 (f)  Discretionary aspects of sentence.—An appellant who challenges the discretionary aspects of a sentence in a criminal matter shall set forth in his brief a concise statement of the reasons relied upon for allowance of appeal with respect to the discretionary aspects of a sentence. The statement shall immediately precede the argument on the merits with respect to the discretionary aspects of sentence.

   Official Note

   Based on former Supreme Court Rule 55, former Superior Court Rule 45 and former Commonwealth Court Rule 95. The requirement for parallel citation to the Atlantic Reporter is extended to the Supreme Court and the Commonwealth Court and the related certificate of nonpublication in the official reports has been omitted. The requirement of former Superior Court Rule 45 that a party print in bold face up to three citations under each head chiefly relied upon, has been omitted. Counsel having available the Atlantic Reporter can readily obtain the official citation from cross-reference sheets ordinarily pasted on the flyleaf of each Atlantic Reporter volume; counsel having the official reports available can obtain the Atlantic Reporter citation from cross-references available in Shepard’s Pennsylvania Citations - Case Edition or the National Reporter Blue Book.

   In some circumstances an appellant may have a right to appellate review of the discretionary aspects of a sentence. See note to Rule 341 (final orders generally). In such cases a citation to the controlling authority will suffice for purposes of Subdivision (f).


   The provisions of this Rule 2119 amended May 16, 1979, effective September 30, 1979, 9 Pa.B. 1740, amended May 16, 1979, effective June 2, 1979, 9 Pa.B. 1753; amended February 27, 1980, 10 Pa.B. 1038, effective date as set forth at 10 Pa.B. 1038. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (43048).

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