CHAPTER 45. CONSERVATION OF PENNSYLVANIA
NATIVE WILD PLANTS

Subchap. Sec.

A.    GENERAL PROVISIONS … 45.1
B.    CLASSIFIED PLANTS … 45.11
C.    UNLAWFUL CONDUCT … 45.31
D.    WILD PLANT MANAGEMENT PERMITS … 45.41
E.    VULNERABLE PLANTS … 45.61
F.    PRIVATE WILD PLANT SANCTUARIES … 45.81
G.    PENALTIES … 45.91

Authority

   The provisions of this Chapter 45 issued under the act of June 23, 1982 (P. L. 597, No. 170) (32 P.S. § §  5301—5314), unless otherwise noted.

Source

   The provisions of this Chapter 45 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; renumbered from 25 Pa. Code Chapter 82, June 7, 1996, effective June 8, 1996, 26 Pa.B. 2707, unless otherwise noted. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (180623) to (180624), (183027) to (183028) and (180627) to (180659).

Cross References

   This chapter cited in 17 Pa. Code §  11.211 (relating to natural resources); and 17 Pa. Code §  21.115 (relating to natural resources).

Subchapter A. GENERAL PROVISIONS


Sec.


45.1.    Scope.
45.2.    Definitions.
45.3.    Classified plant taxonomy.

§ 45.1. Scope.

 This chapter establishes a plant classification system, creates permit and license procedures and regulates other activities related to this Commonwealth’s native wild plant management. This chapter applies to vulnerable plants, to naturally occurring wild plants native to this Commonwealth and to activities and persons associated with them.

§ 45.2. Definitions.

 The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

   Act—The Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P. S. § §  5301—5314).

   Export—The transfer of plants, or parts thereof, across state lines for profit.

   Ginseng—The plant species identified as Panax quinquefolius L.

   Naturally occurring—Plant species whose natural range occurs in this Commonwealth.

   Pennsylvania Endangered—A classification of plant species which are in danger of extinction throughout most or all of their natural range within this Commonwealth, if critical habitat is not maintained or if the species is greatly exploited by man. This classification also includes populations of plant species that have been classified as Pennsylvania Extirpated, but which subsequently are found to exist in this Commonwealth.

   Pennsylvania Extirpated—A classification of plant species believed by the Department to be extinct within this Commonwealth. The plants may or may not exist outside this Commonwealth. If plant species classified as Pennsylvania Extirpated are found to exist, the species automatically will be considered to be classified as Pennsylvania Endangered.

   Pennsylvania Rare—A classification of plant species which are uncommon within this Commonwealth because they may be found in restricted geographic areas or in low numbers throughout this Commonwealth.

   Pennsylvania Threatened—A classification of plant species which may become endangered throughout most or all of their natural range within this Commonwealth, if critical habitat is not maintained to prevent their further decline in this Commonwealth, or if the species is greatly exploited by man.

   Pennsylvania Vulnerable—A classification of plant species which are in danger of population decline within this Commonwealth because of their beauty, economic value, use as a cultivar or other factors which indicate that persons may seek to remove these species from their native habitats.

   Special Concern Population—A classification that is composed of colonies, groups or single individuals of a plant species that the Department has determined to be a unique occurrence deserving protection. Among the factors that may be used to classify a plant population within this category are the existence of unusual geographic locations, unisexual populations or extraordinarily diverse plant populations.

   Tentatively Undetermined—A classification of plant species which are believed to be in danger of population decline, but which cannot presently be included within another classification due to taxonomic uncertainties, limited evidence within historical records or insufficient data.

   Wild plants—Naturally occurring native flora, except those commonly considered an agricultural commodity, including green and nongreen species or subspecies, variety or a part, product, seed or progeny thereof.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  45.2 amended under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P.S. §  5307); and sections 305(a)(9) and 313(g) of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (71 P.S. § §  1340.305(a)(9) and 1340.313(g)).

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.2 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; amended June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816; amended December 21, 2018, effective December 22, 2018, 48 Pa.B. 7757. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (378083) to (378084) and (217121).

§ 45.3. Classified plant taxonomy.

 Nomenclature used to identify species taxonomy in Subchapter B (relating to classified plants) is according to Rhoads, A. F. and Block, T. A. (2007), The Plants of Pennsylvania An Illustrated Manual Second Edition, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press., unless a different taxonomic source is indicated immediately following the scientific name.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  45.3 amended under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P.S. §  5307); and sections 305(a)(9) and 313(g) of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (71 P.S. § §  1340.305(a)(9) and 1340.313(g)).

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.3 amended December 21, 2018, effective December 21, 2018, 48 Pa.B. 7757. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (217121).

Subchapter B. CLASSIFIED PLANTS


Sec.


45.11.    Pennsylvania Extirpated.
45.12.    Pennsylvania Endangered.
45.13.    Pennsylvania Threatened.
45.14.    Pennsylvania Rare.
45.15.    Pennsylvania Vulnerable.
45.16.    [Reserved].
45.17.    [Reserved].
45.18.    [Reserved].
45.19.    [Reserved].
45.20.    Special Concern Population.
45.21.    Tentatively Undetermined.

Cross References

   This subchapter cited in 17 Pa. Code §  45.3 (relating to classified plant taxonomy).

§ 45.11. Pennsylvania Extirpated.

 Plant species classified as Pennsylvania Extirpated are as follows:

Scientific NameCommon Name
Aeschynomene virginica (L.) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb. Sensitive Joint-Vetch
Agalinis decemloba (Greene) Pennell Blue Ridge False Foxglove
Agrostis altissima (Walter) Tuck. Tall Bentgrass
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Bearberry Manzanita
Asclepias rubra L. Red Milkweed
Astragalus neglectus (Torr. & A. Gray) Sheldon Cooper’s Milk-Vetch
Berberis canadensis P. Mill. American Barberry
Buchnera americana L. Bluehearts
Carex adusta Boott Crowded Sedge
Carex alopecoidea Tuckerman Foxtail Sedge
Carex backii Boott Rocky Mountain Sedge
Carex barrattii Schwein. & Torr. Barratt’s Sedge
Carex chordorrhiza L.f. Creeping Sedge
Carex foenea Willd. Fernald’s Hay Sedge
Carex hyalinolepis Steud. Shoreline Sedge
Carex nigra (L.) Reichard Black Sedge
Carex sartwellii Dewey Sartwell’s Sedge
Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb. Atlantic White-Cedar
Commelina erecta L. Slender Dayflower
Commelina virginica L. Virginia Dayflower
Coreopsis rosea Nutt. Pink Tickseed
Crassula aquatica (L.) Sch[ouml ]nland Water-Pigmyweed
Crotonopsis elliptica Willd. Elliptical Rushfoil
Cynoglossum boreale Fernald Northern Hound’s Tongue
Cyperus polystachyos Rottb. Many-Spiked Flatsedge
Cypripedium candidum Muhl. ex Willd. Small White Lady’s-Slipper
Desmodium sessilifolium (Torr.) Torr. and A. Gray Sessile-Leaved Tick Trefoil
Dichanthelium leibergii (Vasey) Freckmann Leiberg’s Panic Grass
Dichanthelium spretum (Schult.) Freckmann Eaton’s Witchgrass
Diphasiastrum sabinifolium (Willd.) Holub. Fir Clubmoss
Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene Sea-Shore Salt-Grass
Draba reptans (Lam.) Fernald Carolina Whitlow-Grass
Echinacea laevigata (C. L. Boynton & Beadle) S. F. Blake Smooth Purple Coneflower
Elatine americana (Pursh) Arn. Long-Stem Waterwort
Eleocharis tricostata Torr. Three-Ribbed Spike-Rush
Eleocharis tuberculosa (Michx.) Roem. & Schult. Long-Tubercled Spike-Rush
Elodea schweinitzii (Planch) Casp. Schweinitz’s Waterweed
Eriocaulon decangulare L. Ten-Angle Pipewort
Eriocaulon parkeri B. L. Rob. Parker’s Pipewort
Eryngium aquaticum L. Marsh Eryngo
Eupatorium album L. var album White Thoroughwort
Eupatorium leucolepis (DC) Torr. & A. Gray White-Bracted Thoroughwort
Euphorbia obtusata Pursh Blunt-Leaved Spurge
Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl Hairy Fimbry
Galactia regularis (L.) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb. Eastern Milk-Pea
Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton Downy Milk-Pea
Gentiana catesbaei Walter Elliott’s Gentian
Gentianopsis virgata (Raf.) Holub Narrow-Leaved Fringed Gentian
Helianthus angustifolius L. Swamp Sunflower
Hordeum pusillum Nutt. [Aacute] L[ouml ]ve Little-Barley
Hottonia inflata Elliott American Featherfoil
Hydrocotyle umbellata L. Many-Flowered Pennywort
Hypericum adpressum Raf. ex Barton Creeping St. John’s-Wort
Hypericum crux-andreae (L. ) Crantz St. Peter’s-Wort
Hypericum denticulatum Walter Coppery St. John’s-Wort
Hypericum gymnanthum Engelm. & A. Gray Clasping-Leaved St. John’s-Wort
Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray Inkberry
Itea virginica L. Virginia-Willow
Juncus greenei Oakes & Tuck. Greene’s Rush
Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schultes Junegrass
Leiophyllum buxifolium (Berg.) Elliott Sand-Myrtle
Lespedeza stuevei Nutt. Tall Bush-Clover
Limosella australis R. Br. Awl-Shaped Mudwort
Lobelia nuttallii Roem. & Schult. Nuttall’s Lobelia
Ludwigia sphaerocarpa Elliott Spherical-Fruited Seedbox
Lysimachia quadriflora Sims Four-Flowered Loosestrife
Matelea carolinensis (Jacq.) Woods. Carolina Milkvine
Micranthemum micranthemoides (Nutt.) Wettst. Nuttall’s Mud-Flower
Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin. Short Muhly
Myrica heterophylla Raf. Evergreen Bayberry
Onosmodium virginianum (L.) A. DC. Virginia False Gromwell
Ophioglossum vulgatum L. var. pycnostichum Fernald Adders Tongue
Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M. C. Johnst. Christmas Mistletoe
Phyllanthus caroliniensis Walt. Carolina Leaf-Flower
Platanthera cristata (Michx.) Lindl. Crested Yellow Orchid
Platanthera leucophaea (Nutt.) Lindl. Prairie White-Fringed Orchid
Polygala lutea L. Yellow Milkwort
Populus heterophylla L. Swamp Cottonwood
Potamogeton alpinus Balbis Northern Pondweed
Potamogeton praelongus Wulfen White-Stem Pondweed
Prenanthes racemosa Michx. Glaucous Rattlesnake-Root
Proserpinaca pectinata Lam. Comb-Leaved Mermaid-Weed
Ranunculus hederaceus L. Long-Stalked Crowfoot
Rhododendron calendulaceum (Michx.) Torr. Flame Azalea
Rhynchospora fusca (L.) Aiton f. Brown Beak-Rush
Rhynchospora gracilenta A. Gray Beak-Rush
Ruellia caroliniensis (Walter ex J. F. Gmel.) Steud. Carolina Petunia
Sabatia campanulata (L.) Torr. Slender Marsh-Pink
Sabatia stellaris Pursh Sea Pink
Saccharum giganteum (Walter) Pers. Sugarcane-Plumegrass
Sagittaria filiformis J. G. Sm. Water Arrow-Head
Schoenoplectus heterochaetus Chase (Sojak) Slender Bulrush
Scutellaria serrata Andr. Showy Skullcap
Sisyrinchium fuscatum E. P. Bicknell Sand Blue-Eyed Grass
Smilax pseudochina L. Long-Stalked Greenbrier
Sparganium natans L. Small Bur-Reed
Spiraea virginiana Britton Virginia Spiraea
Spiranthes magnicamporum Sheviak Ladies’-Tresses
Trifolium reflexum L. Buffalo Clover
Triglochin palustris L. Marsh Arrowgrass
Utricularia fibrosa Walt. Fibrous Bladderwort
Utricularia resupinata B. D. Greene ex Bigelow Northeastern Bladderwort

Authority

   The provisions of this §  45.11 amended under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P.S. §  5307); and sections 305(a)(9) and 313(g) of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (71 P.S. § §  1340.305(a)(9) and 1340.313(g)).

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.11 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; amended June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816; amended December 21, 2018, effective December 22, 2018, 48 Pa.B. 7757. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (217121) to (217124).

§ 45.12. Pennsylvania Endangered.

 Plant species classified as Pennsylvania Endangered are as follows:

Scientific NameCommon Name
Aconitum reclinatum A. Gray White Monkshood
Acorus americanus (Raf.) Raf. Sweet Flag
Agalinis auriculata (Michx.) S. F. Blake Eared False Foxglove
Agalinis paupercula (A. Gray) Britton Small-Flowered False Foxglove
Alisma triviale Pursh Broad-Leaved Water-Plaintain
Alnus viridis (Vill.) DC Mountain Alder
Amelanchier bartramiana (Tausch) M. Roem. Oblong-Fruited Serviceberry
Ammania coccinea Rottb. Scarlet Ammannia
Anemone cylindrica A. Gray Long-Headed Anemone
Arabis missouriensis Greene Missouri Rockcress
Arethusa bulbosa L. Dragon’s-Mouth
Arnica acaulis (Walter) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb. Leopard’s-Bane
Artemisia campestris L. ssp. caudata (Michx.) Hall & Clements. Beach Wormwood
Asclepias variegata L. White Milkweed
Asplenium resiliens Kunze Black-Stemmed Spleenwort
Bidens beckii (Torr. ex Spreng.) Greene Beck’s Water-Marigold
Boltonia asteroides (L.) L’H[eacute]r. Aster-Like Boltonia
Cardamine pratensis L. var. palustris Wimm. & Grab. (Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 1991, Second Edition) Cuckooflower
Carex atherodes Spreng. Awned Sedge
Carex aurea Nutt. Golden-Fruited Sedge
Carex bebbii (Bailey) Fern. Bebb’s Sedge
Carex bicknellii Britton Bicknell’s Sedge
Carex bullata Willd. Bull Sedge
Carex careyana Dewey Carey’s Sedge
Carex collinsii Nutt. Collin’s Sedge
Carex crinita Lam. var. brevicrinis Fernald Short-Hair Sedge
Carex eburnea Boott Ebony Sedge
Carex formosa Dewey Handsome Sedge
Carex garberi Fernald Elk Sedge
Carex geyeri Boott Geyer’s Sedge
Carex gravida Bailey Heavy Sedge
Carex mitchelliana M. A. Curtis Mitchell’s Sedge
Carex pauciflora Lightf. Few-Flowered Sedge
Carex polymorpha Muhl. Variable Sedge
Carex pseudocyperus L. Cyperus-Like Sedge
Carex retrorsa Schwein. Backward Sedge
Carex typhina Michx. Cat-Tail Sedge
Carex viridula Michx. Green Sedge
Cerastium velutinum Raf. var. villossissimum (Pennell) J. K. Morton Octoraro Creek Chickweed
Chasmanthium laxum (L.) H. O. Yates Slender Wild-Oats
Chenopodium foggii Wahl Fogg’s Goosefoot
Chrysogonum virginianum L. Green-and-Gold
Cirsium horridulum Michx. Horrible Thistle
Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr. Twig-Rush
Clematis viorna L. Leather-Flower
Clethra acuminata Michx. Mountain Pepperbush
Clitoria mariana L. Butterfly Pea
Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm. Long-Bracted Green Orchis
Conioselinum chinense (L.) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb. Hemlock-Parsley
Cryptogramma stelleri (Gmel.) Prantl Slender Rockbrake
Cymophyllus fraserianus (Ker Gawl.) Kartesz & Gandhi Fraser’s Sedge
Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook. Short-Pointed Flatsedge
Cyperus diandrus Torr. Umbrella Sedge
Cyperus houghtonii Torr. Houghton’s Flatsedge
Cyperus refractus Engelm. Reflexed Flatsedge
Cyperus retrorsus Chapman Retrorse Flatsedge
Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. makasin (Source: Flora of North America) Northern Small Yellow Lady’s-Slipper
Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. parviflorum (Source: Flora of North America) Southern Small Yellow Lady’s-Slipper
Delphinium exaltatum Aiton Tall Larkspur
Desmodium humifusum (Muhl.) Beck Trailing Tick-Trefoil
Diarrhena obovata (Gleason) Bradenburg Obovate Beakgrain
Dicentra eximia (Ker Gwal.) Torr. Wild Bleeding-Heart
Dichanthelium scoparium (Lam.) Gould Velvety Panic Grass
Dichanthelium xanthophysum (A. Gray) Freckmann Slender Panic Grass
Dodecatheon meadia L. Shooting-Star
Dryopteris campyloptera (Kunze) Clarkson Mountain Wood Fern
Echinochloa walteri (Pursh) A. Heller Walter’s Barnyard-Grass
Eleocharis caribaea (Rottb.) S. F. Blake Capitate Spike-Rush
Eleocharis compressa Sull. Flat-Stemmed Spike-Rush
Eleocharis elliptica Kunth Slender Spike-Rush
Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schult. var. peasei Svenson Wright’s Spike-Rush
Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Link ex Buffon & Fingerh. Dwarf Spike-Rush
Eleocharis pauciflora (Lightf.) Link var. fernaldii Swenson Few-Flowered Spike-Rush
Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michx.) Roem. & Schult. Four-Angled Spike-Rush
Eleocharis rostellata (Torr.) Torr. Beaked Spike-Rush
Eleocharis tenuis (Willd.) Schult. var. verrucosa (Svenson) Svenson Slender Spike-Rush
Equisetum scirpoides Michx. (Source: Flora of North America) Dwarf Scouring-Rush
Equisetum variegatum Schleich. Variegated Scouring-Rush
Eriophorum gracile Koch ex Roth Slender Cotton-Grass
Eriophorum tenellum Nutt. Rough Cotton-Grass
Euphorbia ipecacuanhae L. Wild Ipecac
Euphorbia purpurea (Raf.) Fernald Glade Spurge
Eurybia spectabilis (Aiton) Nesom Showy Aster
Festuca paradoxa Desv. Cluster Fescue
Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush Pumpkin Ash
Galium labradoricum Wiegand Bog Bedstraw
Gaylussacia dumosa (Andr.) Torr. & A. Gray Dwarf Huckleberry
Geranium bicknellii Britton Cranesbill
Glyceria borealis (Nash) Batch. Small Floating Mannagrass
Glyceria obtusa (Muhl.) Trin. Blunt Manna-Grass
Goodyera tesselata Lodd. Checkered Rattlesnake-Plantain
Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb. Broad-Leaved Beardgrass
Helianthemum bicknellii Fernald Bicknell’s Hoary Rockrose
Heteranthera multiflora (Griseb.) Horn. Multi-Flowered Mud-Plantain
Hieracium traillii Greene Maryland Hawkweed
Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv. Vanilla Sweet-Grass
Huperzia porophila (F. E. Lloyd & Underw.) Holub Sandstone-Loving Firmoss
Hydrophyllum macrophyllum Nutt. Large-Leaved Water-Leaf
Iodanthus pinnatifidus (Michx.) Steud. Purple-Rocket
Iris cristata Sol. ex Aiton Dwarf Crested Iris
Iris prismatica Pursh Slender Blue Flag
Iris verna L. Dwarf Iris
Isotria medeoloides (Pursh) Raf. Small-Whorled Pogonia
Juncus brachycarpus Engelm. Short-Fruited Rush
Juncus dichotomus Elliott Forked Rush
Juncus longii Fern. Long’s Rush
Juncus militaris Bigelow Bayonet Rush
Juncus scirpoides Lam. Scirpus-Like Rush
Lespedeza angustifolia (Pursh) Elliott Narrow-Leaved Bush-Clover
Ligusticum canadense (L.) Britton Nondo Lovage
Linum intercursum E. P. Bicknell Sandplain Wild Flax
Linum sulcatum Riddell Grooved Yellow Flax
Lipocarpha micrantha (Vahl) G. C. Tucker Common Hemicarpha
Listera australis Lindl. Southern Twayblade
Listera cordata (L.) R. Br. Heartleaf Twayblade
Listera smallii Wiegand Kidney-Leaved Twayblade
Lithospermum caroliniense (J. F. Gmel.) MacMill. Hispid Gromwell
Lithospermum latifolium Michx. American Gromwell
Lobelia kalmii L. Brook Lobelia
Lobelia puberula Michx. Downy Lobelia
Lonicera oblongifolia (Goldie) Hook. Swamp Fly-Honeysuckle
Lonicera villosa (Michx.) Roem. & Schult. Mountain Fly-Honeysuckle
Ludwigia decurrens Walter Upright Primrose-Willow
Ludwigia polycarpa Short & Peter False Loosestrife Seedbox
Lycopodiella alopecuroides (L.) Cranfill Foxtail Bog Clubmoss
Lycopodiella margueritae J. G. Bruce, W. H. Wagner & Beitel Marguerite’s Clubmoss
Lycopus rubellus Moench. Taper-Leaved Bugle-Weed
Lyonia mariana (L.) D. Don Staggerbush
Malaxis bayardii Fernald Adder’s-Mouth
Marshallia grandiflora Beadle & F. E. Boynton Large-Flowered Marshallia
Matelea obliqua (Jacq.) Woodson Oblique Milkvine
Mitella nuda L. Naked Bishop’s-Cap
Monarda punctata L. Spotted Bee-Balm
Montia chamissoi (Ledeb. ex Spreng.) Greene Chamisso’s Miner’s-Lettuce
Muhlenbergia uniflora (Muhl.) Fern. Fall Dropseed Muhly
Myriophyllum farwellii Morong Farwell’s Water-Milfoil
Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov Northern Water-Milfoil
Myriophyllum verticillatum L. Whorled Water-Milfoil
Najas marina L. Holly-Leaved Naiad
Oclemena nemoralis (Aiton) E. Greene Leafy Bog Aster
Onosmodium molle Michx. var. hispidissimum (Mack.) Cronquist False Gromwell
Ophioglossum engelmannii Prantl Limestone Adder’s-Tongue
Packera antennariifolia (Britton) W. A. Weber [Aacute] & L[ouml ]ve Cat’s-Paw Ragwort
Panicum amarum Elliott var. amarulum (A. Hitchc. & Chase) P. G. Palmer Beachgrass
Parnassia glauca Raf. Grass-of-Parnassus
Passiflora lutea L. Passion-Flower
Paxistima canbyi A. Gray Canby’s Mountain-Lover
Persicaria careyi (Olney) Greene Carey’s Smartweed
Persicaria setacea (Baldwin) Small Swamp Smartweed
Phlox ovata L. Mountain Phlox
Phlox subulata L. ssp. brittonii (Small) Wherry Moss Pink
Piptatherum pungens (Torr. ex Spreng.) Dorn Slender Mountain Ricegrass
Platanthera aquilonis Sheviak, Lindleyana (Source: Flora of North America) Northern Green Orchid
Platanthera dilatata (Pursh) Lindl. ex Beck Tall White Bog-Orchid
Platanthera huronensis (Nutt.) Lindl. Huron Green Orchid
Poa autumnalis Muhl. ex Elliott Autumn Bluegrass
Polemonium van-bruntiae Britton Jacob’s-Ladder
Polygala cruciata L. Cross-Leaved Milkwort
Polygala curtissii A. Gray Curtis’ Milkwort
Polygala incarnata L. Pink Milkwort
Polystichum braunii (Spenn.) Fee Braun’s Holly Fern
Populus balsamifera L. Balsam Poplar
Potamogeton friesii Rupr. Fries’ Pondweed
Potamogeton gramineus L. Grassy Pondweed
Potamogeton hillii Morong Hill’s Pondweed
Potamogeton obtusifolius Mert. & Koch Blunt-Leaved Pondweed
Potamogeton pulcher Tuck. Spotted Pondweed
Potamogeton strictifolius A. Benn. Narrow-Leaved Pondweed
Potamogeton tennesseensis Fernald Tennessee Pondweed
Potamogeton vaseyi J. W. Robbins Vasey’s Pondweed
Potentilla fruticosa L. Shrubby Cinquefoil
Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. Bushy Cinquefoil
Potentilla tridentata Aiton Three-Toothed Cinquefoil
Prunus maritima Marshall Beach Plum
Prunus nigra Ait. Canada Plum
Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. Mock Bishop-Weed
Pycnanthemum torrei Benth. Torrey’s Mountain-Mint
Quercus falcata Michx. Southern Red Oak
Quercus phellos L. Willow Oak
Quercus shumardii Buckley Shumard Oak
Ranunculus fascicularis Muhl. ex J. M. Bigelow Tufted Buttercup
Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnhart Gray-Headed Prairie Coneflower
Rhamnus lanceolata Pursh Lanceolate Buckthorn
Rhexia mariana L. Maryland Meadow-Beauty
Rhododendron atlanticum (Ashe) Rehder Dwarf Azalea
Rhynchospora capillacea Torr. Capillary Beak-Rush
Ribes missouriense Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray Missouri Gooseberry
Rubus cuneifolius Pursh Sand Blackberry
Ruellia humilis Nutt. Fringed-Leaved Petunia
Sagittaria calycina Engelm. Long-Lobed Arrowhead
Scheuchzeria palustris L. Pod-Grass
Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex Bigel.) L[ouml ]ve & L[ouml ]ve Hard-Stemmed Bulrush
Schoenoplectus smithii (A. Gray) Sojak Smith’s Bulrush
Schoenoplectus torreyi (Olney) Palla Torrey’s Bulrush
Scirpus ancistrochaetus Schuyler Northeastern Bulrush
Scleria minor (Brittton) Stone Small Nut-Rush
Scleria muhlenbergii Steud. Reticulated Nut-Rush
Scleria verticillata Muhl. ex Willd. Whorled Nut-Rush
Sedum rosea (L.) Scop. Roseroot Stonecrop
Sericocarpus linifolius (L.) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb. Narrow-Leaved White-Topped Aster
Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. Canada Buffalo-Berry
Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby Virginia Mallow
Sisyrinchium atlanticum E. P. Bicknell Eastern Blue-Eyed-Grass
Solidago arguta Aiton var. harrisii (E. S. Steele) Cronquist Harris’ Goldenrod
Solidago curtissii Torr. & A. Gray Curtis’ Goldenrod
Solidago erecta Banks ex Pursh Slender Goldenrod
Solidago simplex Kunth ssp. randii (Porter) Ringius var. racemosa (Greene) Ringius Sticky Goldenrod
Sorbus decora (Sarg.) Schneid. Showy Mountain-Ash
Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.) Morong Branching Bur-Reed
Spiranthes casei Catling & Cruise Case’s Ladies’-Tresses
Spiranthes ovalis Lindl. October Ladies’-Tresses
Spiranthes romanzoffiana Cham. Hooded Ladies’-Tresses
Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray Spring Ladies’-Tresses
Sporobolus clandestinus (Biehler) A. Hitchc. Rough Dropseed
Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray Sand Dropseed
Sporobolus heterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray Prairie Dropseed
Stachys nuttallii Shuttlew. ex Benth. Nuttall’s Hedge-Nettle
Swertia caroliniensis (Walter) Kuntze American Columbo
Symphyotrichum boreale (Torr. & Gray) [Aacute] L[ouml ]ve & D. L[ouml ]ve Northern Bog Aster
Taenidia montana (Mack.) Cronquist Mountain Pimpernel
Thalictrum coriaceum (Britt.) Small Thick-Leaved Meadow-Rue
Trichostema setaceum Houtt. Narrow-Leaved Blue-Curls
Trifolium virginicum Small Kate’s-Mountain Clover
Triphora trianthophora (Swartz) Rydb. Nodding Pogonia
Triplasis purpurea (Walter) Chapm. Purple Sandgrass
Trollius laxus Salisb. Spreading Globe-Flower
Veronia glauca (L.) Willd. Tawny Ironweed
Viburnum nudum L. Possum Haw Viburnum
Viola brittoniana Pollard Coast Violet
Vitis novae-angliae Fernald New England Grape
Vitis rupestris Scheele Sand Grape
Zigadenus glaucus (Nutt.) Nutt. White Camas

Authority

   The provisions of this §  45.12 amended under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P.S. §  5307); and sections 305(a)(9) and 313(g) of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (71 P.S. § §  1340.305(a)(9) and 1340.313(g)).

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.12 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; amended June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816; amended December 21, 2018, effective December 22, 2018, 48 Pa.B. 7757. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (217125) to (217130) and (353987) to (353988).

Cross References

   This section cited in 7 Pa. Code §  128.102 (relating to protected designated areas).

§ 45.13. Pennsylvania Threatened.

 Plant species classified as Pennsylvania Threatened are as follows:

Scientific NameCommon Name
Aconitum uncinatum L. Blue Monkshood
Actaea podocarpa DC American Bugbane
Ammophila breviligulata Fernald American Beachgrass
Arceuthobium pusillum Peck Dwarf Mistletoe
Aristida purpurascens Poir. Arrow-Feather Three-Awned Grass
Asplenium bradleyi D. C. Eaton Bradley’s Spleenwort
Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br. Blue False Indigo
Bidens bidentoides (Nutt.) Britt. Swamp Beggar-Ticks
Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. Tall Gramma
Camassia scilloides (Raf.) Cory Wild Hyacinth
Carex alata Torr. Broad-Winged Sedge
Carex aquatilis Wahlenb. Water Sedge
Carex cryptolepis Mack. Northeastern Sedge
Carex diandra Schrank Lesser Panicled Sedge
Carex flava L. Yellow Sedge
Carex oligosperma Michx. Few-Seeded Sedge
Carex paupercula Michx. Bog Sedge
Carex prairea Dewey Prairie Sedge
Carex schweinitzii Schwein. Schweinitz’s Sedge
Carex sterilis Willd. Atlantic Sedge
Carex tetanica Schkuhr Wood’s Sedge
Carex wiegandii Mack. Wiegand’s Sedge
Chamaesyce polygonifolia (L.) Small Seaside Spurge
Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Elliott Maryland Golden-Aster
Cypripedium reginae Walter Showy Lady’s-Slipper
Digitaria cognatum (Schultes) Pilger Fall Witch-Grass
Dodecatheon amethystinum (Fassett) Fassett Jeweled Shooting-Star
Eleocharis intermedia (Muhl.) Schult. Matted Spike-Rush
Eleocharis robbinsii Oakes Robbins’ Spike-Rush
Ellisia nyctelea L. Ellisia
Erigenia bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt. Harbinger-of-Spring
Eriophorum viridicarinatum (Engelm.) Fernald Thin-Leaved Cottongrass
Euthamia caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Britton Grass-Leaved Goldenrod
Fimbristylis annua (All.) Roem. & Schult. Annual Fimbry
Gaylussacia brachycera (Michx.) A. Gray Box Huckleberry
Hypericum densiflorum Pursh Bushy St. John’s-Wort
Hypericum majus (A. Gray) Britton Canadian St. John’s-Wort
Ilex opaca Aiton American Holly
Juncus alpinoarticulatus Chaix in Vill. ssp. nodulosus (Wahlenb.) H[auml ]met-Ahti. Richardson’s Rush
Juncus arcticus Willd. var. littoralis (Engelm.) Boivin. Baltic Rush
Juncus brachycephalus (Engelm.) L. Buch. Small-Headed Rush
Juncus torreyi Coville Torrey’s Rush
Lathyrus japonicus Willd. Beach Pea
Lathyrus ochroleucus Hook. Wild Pea
Linnaea borealis L. Twinflower
Lobelia dortmanna L. Water Lobelia
Lycopodiella appressa (Chapm.) Cranfill Appressed Bog Clubmoss
Magnolia tripetala (L.) L. Umbrella Magnolia
Magnolia virginiana L. Sweetbay Magnolia
Melica nitens Nutt. Three-Flowered Melic Grass
Minuartia glabra (Michx.) Mattf. Appalachian Sandwort
Myrica gale L. Sweet-gale
Myriophyllum tenellum Bigelow Slender Water-Milfoil
Najas gracillima (A. Braun) Magnus Bushy Naiad
Nymphoides cordata (Elliott) Fernald Floating-Heart
Oenothera argillicola Mack. Shale-Barren Evening-Primrose
Panicum tuckermanii Fernald Tuckerman’s Panic-Grass
Phemeranthus teretifolius (Pursh) Raf. Round-Leaved Fameflower
Platanthera peramoena (A. Gray) A. Gray Purple Fringeless Orchid
Poa paludigena Fernald & Wiegand Bog Bluegrass
Potamogeton confervoides Reichenb. Tuckerman’s Pondweed
Potamogeton richardsonii (Benn.) Rydb. Red-Head Pondweed
Ptelea trifoliata L. Hoptree
Ranunculus longirostris Godron Eastern White Water-Crowfoot
Ribes triste Pallas Wild Red Currant
Ruellia strepens L. Limestone Petunia
Salix candida Flugge ex Willd. Hoary Willow
Salix serissima (Bailey) Fernald Autumn Willow
Scirpus pedicellatus Fernald Stalked Bulrush
Scleria pauciflora Muhl. ex Willd. Few-Flowered Nutrush
Solidago uliginosa Nutt. Bog Goldenrod
Spiraea betulifolia Pallas var. corymbosa (Raf.) Maxim. Dwarf Spiraea
Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC Twisted-Stalk
Symphyotrichum depauperatum (Fernald) Nesom Serpentine Aster
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) Nesom var. novi-belgii New York Aster
Utricularia intermedia Hayne Flat-Leaved Bladderwort
Viola appalachiensis L. K. Henry Appalachian Blue Violet
Vittaria appalachiana Farrar & Mickel Appalachian Grass-Fern

Authority

   The provisions of this §  45.13 amended under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P.S. §  5307); and sections 305(a)(9) and 313(g) of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (71 P.S. § §  1340.305(a)(9) and 1340.313(g)).

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.13 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; amended June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816; amended December 21, 2018, effective December 22, 2018, 48 Pa.B. 7757. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (353988) to (353991).

Cross References

   This section cited in 7 Pa. Code §  128.102 (relating to protected designated areas).

§ 45.14. Pennsylvania Rare.

 Plant species classified as Pennsylvania Rare are as follows:

Scientific NameCommon Name
Amaranthus cannabinus (L.) Sauer Water-Hemp Ragweed
Andromeda polifolia L. Bog-Rosemary
Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt. Puttyroot
Baccharis halimifolia L. Eastern Baccharis
Cakile edentula (Bigelow) Hook. American Sea-Rocket
Carex disperma Dewey Soft-Leaved Sedge
Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. Many-Fruited Sedge
Collinsia verna Nutt. Spring Blue-Eyed Mary
Cyperus engelmannii Steud. Engelmann’s Flatsedge
Cyperus schweinitzii Torr. Schweinitz’s Flatsedge
Dichanthelium commonsianum (Ashe) Freckmann var. euchlamydeum (Shinners) Pohl Cloaked Panic Grass
Eleocharis olivacea Torr. Capitate Spike-Rush
Epilobium strictum Muhl. Downy Willow-Herb
Gaultheria hispidula (L.) Muhl. ex Bigelow Creeping Snowberry
Juncus filiformis L. Thread Rush
Ledum groenlandicum Oeder Common Labrador-Tea
Lupinus perennis L. Blue Lupine
Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. Hartford Fern
Menziesia pilosa (Michx.) Juss. Minniebush
Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. Eastern Prickly-Pear Cactus
Orontium aquaticum L. Golden Club
Packera anonyma (A. W. Wood) W. A. Weber & [Aacute] L[ouml ]ve Appalachian Groundsel
Potamogeton robbinsii Oakes Flat-Leaved Pondweed
Potamogeton zosteriformis Fernald Flat-Stemmed Pondweed
Potentilla anserina L. Silverweed
Prunus pumila L. var. pumila Sand Cherry
Pyrularia pubera Michx. Buffalo-Nut
Ranunculus micranthus (Gray) Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray Small-Flowered Crowfoot
Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne Toothcup
Sagittaria subulata (L.) L. Buch. Subulate Arrowhead
Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash var. littorale (Nash) Gould Seaside Bluestem
Schoenoplectus fluviatilis (Torr.) Strong River Bulrush
Sedum telephioides Michx. Allegheny Stonecrop
Solidago roanensis Porter Tennessee Golden-Rod
Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt. Cranefly Orchid
Trillium nivale Riddell Snow Trillium
Wolffiella gladiata (Hegelm.) Hegelm. Bog-mat
Xyris montana Ries. Yellow Eyed Grass
Zizania aquatica L. Indian Wild Rice

Authority

   The provisions of this §  45.14 amended under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P.S. §  5307); and sections 305(a)(9) and 313(g) of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (71 P.S. § §  1340.305(a)(9) and 1340.313(g)).

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.14 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; amended June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816; amended December 21, 2018, effective December 22, 2018, 48 Pa.B. 7757. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (353991) to (353992).

§ 45.15. Pennsylvania Vulnerable.

 Plant species classified as Pennsylvania Vulnerable are as follows:

Scientific NameCommon Name
Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Correll Large Yellow Lady’s-Slipper
Hydrastis canadensis L. Goldenseal
Panax quinquefolius L. Ginseng

Authority

   The provisions of this §  45.15 amended under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P.S. §  5307); and sections 305(a)(9) and 313(g) of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (71 P.S. § §  1340.305(a)(9) and 1340.313(g)).

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.15 amended December 21, 2018, effective December 22, 2018, 48 Pa.B. 7757. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (353992).

§ 45.16. [Reserved].


Source

   The provisions of this §  45.16 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; reserved June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (123456).

§ 45.17. [Reserved].


Source

   The provisions of this §  45.17 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; reserved June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (123456).

§ 45.18. [Reserved].


Source

   The provisions of this §  45.18 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; reserved June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (123456).

§ 45.19. [Reserved].


Source

   The provisions of this §  45.19 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; reserved June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (123456).

§ 45.20. Special Concern Population.

 As of January 1, 1988, no plant species have been listed solely within the classification of Special Concern Population.

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.20 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027.

§ 45.21. Tentatively Undetermined.

 Plant species classified as Tentatively Undetermined are as follows:

Scientific NameCommon Name
Adiantum pedatum L. ssp. caulderi Cody Northern Maidenhair Fern
Agalinis obtusifolia Raf. False-Foxglove
Aletris farinosa L. Colic-Root
Ambrosia psilostachya DC. Naked-Spiked Ambrosia
Amelanchier humilis Wiegand Low Serviceberry
Amelanchier obovalis (Michx.) Ashe Coastal Juneberry
Amelanchier sanguinea (Pursh) DC. Roundleaf Juneberry
Andropogon glomeratus (Walter) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb. Bushy Bluestem
Antennaria solitaria Rydb. Single-Headed Pussy-Toes
Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. Western Hairy Rock-Cress
Aristida dichotoma Michx. var. curtissii A. Gray Poverty Grass
Aristida longespica Poir. var. geniculata (Raf.) Fernald Long-Spike Three-Awned Grass
Aristolochia macrophylla Lam. Pipevine
Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. Brown Sedge
Carex crawfordii Fernald Crawford’s Sedge
Carex haydenii Dewey Cloud Sedge
Carex limosa L. Mud Sedge
Carex longii Mack. Long’s Sedge
Carex lupuliformis Sartwell False Hop Sedge
Carex meadii Dewey Mead’s Sedge
Carex mesochorea Mack. Midland Sedge
Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. Scarlet Indian Paintbrush
Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) H. O. Yates Wild-Oats
Chenopodium capitatum (L.) Asch. Strawberry Goosefoot
Corallorrhiza wisteriana Conrad Spring Coral-Root
Crataegus brainerdii Sarg. Brainerd’s Hawthorne
Crataegus mollis (Torr. & A. Gray) Scheele Downy Hawthorne
Cuscuta cephalanthi Engelm. Buttonbush Dodder
Cuscuta corylii Engelm. Hazel Dodder
Cuscuta polygonorum Engelm. Smartweed Dodder
Cyperus odoratus L. Rusty Flatsedge
Cyperus tenuifolius (Steud.) Dandy Thin-Leaved Flatsedge
Cystopteris laurentiana (Weath.) Blasdell Laurentian Bladder-Fern
Desmodium glabellum (Michx.) Kuntze Tall Tick-Trefoil
Desmodium nuttallii (Schindl.) Schub. Nuttall’s Tick-Trefoil
Dichanthelium annulum (Ashe) LeBlond Annulus Panic Grass
Dichanthelium boreale (Nash) Freckmann Northern Panic Grass
Dichanthelium commonsianum (Ashe) Freckmann Cloaked Panic Grass
Dichanthelium lucidum (Ashe) LeBlond Shining Panic Grass
Dichanthelium villosissimum (Nash) Freckmann Long-Haired Panic Grass
Dichanthelium yadkinense (Ashe) Mohlenbr. Yadkin River Panic Grass
Dracocephalum parviflorum Nutt. American Dragonhead
Elatine minima (Nutt.) Fisch. & C. A. Mey Small Waterwort
Elymus virginicus L. var. submuticus Hook. Wild Rye
Epilobium palustre L. Marsh Willow-Herb
Eupatorium rotundifolium L. Round-Leaved Thoroughwort
Filipendula rubra (Hill) B. L. Rob. Queen-of-the-Prairie
Gentiana alba Muhl. ex Nutt. Yellow Gentian
Gentiana saponaria L. Soapwort Gentian
Gentiana villosa L. Striped Gentian
Glyceria acutiflora Torr. Sharp-Flowered Manna-Grass
Gratiola aurea Muhl. ex Pursh Golden Hedge-Hyssop
Gymnocarpium appalachianum K. M. Pryer & Haufler Appalachian Oak Fern
Houstonia purpurea L. var. purpurea Purple Bluets
Hypericum drummondii (Grev. & Hook) Torr. & A. Gray Nits-and-Lice
Juncus biflorus Elliott Grass-Leaved Rush
Lathyrus palustris L. Vetchling
Lemna turionifera Landolt Winter Duckweed
Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A. Gray Swamp Dog-Hobble
Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. Northern Blazing-Star
Lonicera hirsuta Eaton Hairy Honeysuckle
Luzula bulbosa (A. W. Wood) Rybd. Wood-Rush
Lythrum alatum Pursh Winged Loosestrife
Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Swartz var. brachypoda (A. Gray) F. Morris & E. A. Eames White Adder’s-Mouth
Meehania cordata (Nutt.) Britton Heart-Leafed Meehania
Muhlenbergia cuspidata (Torr.) Rydb. Sharp-Pointed Muhly
Nuphar microphylla (Pers.) Fernald Small Yellow Pond-Lily
Oenothera pilosella Raf. Evening-Primrose
Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. Sourwood
Oxypolis rigidior (L.) Raf. Stiff Cowbane
Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W. A. Weber & [Aacute] L[ouml ]ve Prairie Ragwort
Panicum flexile (Gatt.) Scribn. Wiry Witchgrass
Panicum longifolium Torr. Long-Leaved Panic Grass
Paronychia fastigiata (Raf.) Fernald var. nuttallii (Small) Fernald Whitlow Wort
Parthenium intergrifolium L. American Fever-Few
Paspalum floridanum (Michx.) var. glabratum Engelm. ex Vasey Florida Beadgrass
Paspalum laeve (Michx.) var. pilosum Scribn. Field Beadgrass
Paspalum setaceum Michx. Slender Beadgrass
Phlox pilosa L. Downy Phlox
Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene Lance Fog-Fruit
Physalis virginiana Mill. Virginia Ground-Cherry
Platanthera ciliaris (L.) Lindl. Yellow Fringed Orchid
Platanthera hookeri (Torr. ex Gray) Lindl. Hooker’s Orchid
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. Shrubby Camphor-Weed
Poa languida A. Hitchc. Drooping Bluegrass
Podostemum ceratophyllum Michx. Riverweed
Polygala polygama Walter Racemed Milkwort
Polygonella articulata (L.) Meisn. Eastern Jointweed
Polygonum amphibium L. var. stipulaceum (Coleman) Fern. Stipuled Water-Smartweed
Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. Bushy Knotweed
Potamogeton filiformis Pers. var. borealis (Raf.) St. John Slender Pondweed
Potamogeton oakesianus J. W. Robbins Oakes’ Pondweed
Potamogeton perfoliatus L. Clasping-Stemmed Pondweed
Pycnanthemum verticillatum (Michx.) Pers. var. pilosum (Nutt.) Cooperr. Hairy Mountain-Mint
Ranunculus aquatilis L. var. diffusus With. White Water-Crowfoot
Ranunculus flammula L. Lesser Spearwort
Rhamnus alnifolia L’ H[eacute]r Alder-Leaved Buckthorn
Rhynchospora recognita (Gale) Kral Small Globe Beak-Rush
Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir. Swamp Currant
Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser var. palustris (Gleason, H. A. and A Cronquist, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 1991, Second Edition) Yellow Cress
Rosa virginiana P. Mill. Virginia Rose
Rubus setosus Bigelow Small Bristleberry
Rumex hastatulus Baldwin ex Elliott Heart Sorrell
Salix petiolaris Sm. Meadow Willow
Salvia reflexa Hornem. Lance-Leaved Sage
Samolus parviflorus Raf. Pineland Pimpernel
Saxifraga micranthidifolia (Haw.) Steud. Lettuce Saxifrage
Scleria triglomerata Michx. Whip Nut-Rush
Scutellaria saxatilis Riddell Rock Skullcap
Senna marilandica (L.) Link Wild Senna
Sisyrinchium albidum Raf. Blue-Eyed-Grass
Solidago rigida L. Hard-Leaved Goldenrod
Spiranthes tuberosa Raf. Slender Ladies’-Tresses
Stachys hyssopifolia Michx. Hyssop Hedge-Nettle
Stylosanthes biflora (L.) Britton, Stearns & Poggenb. Pencil-Flower
Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) Nesom Bushy Aster
Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) Nesom White Heath Aster
Taxus canadensis Marsh. American Yew
Trillium flexipes Raf. Declined Trillium
Triosteum angustifolium L. Horse Gentian
Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. Eastern Gammagrass
Uvularia pudica Michx. Mountain Bellwort
Viburnum trilobum Marshall Highbush-Cranberry
Viola renifolia A. Gray Kidney-Leaved Violet
Viola tripartita Elliott Three-parted Violet
Vitis cinerea (Englem. in A. Gray) Englem. ex Millardet var. baileyana (Munson) Comeaux Possum-Grape
Wolffia borealis (Engelm.) Landolt Dotted Dotted Watermeal

Authority

   The provisions of this §  45.21 amended under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P.S. §  5307); and sections 305(a)(9) and 313(g) of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (71 P.S. § §  1340.305(a)(9) and 1340.313(g)).

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.21 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; amended June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816; amended December 21, 2018, effective December 22, 2018, 48 Pa.B. 7757. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (217137) to (217143).

Subchapter C. UNLAWFUL CONDUCT


Sec.


45.31.    General restrictions regarding threatened or endangered species.
45.32.    Plants in State Parks and State Forest lands.
45.33.    General restrictions regarding vulnerable plants.
45.34.    Restrictions regarding private wild plant sanctuaries.
45.35.    Compliance with regulations.

§ 45.31. General restrictions regarding threatened or endangered species.

 (a)  A person, other than the landowner, a person having a bona fide property interest in the affected land or Bureau of Forestry personnel in the performance of their official duties, may not disturb, pick, take, possess, destroy, mutilate, remove, collect or transplant plants classified as Pennsylvania Endangered or Pennsylvania Threatened, except as otherwise provided in this chapter.

 (b)  A person may not transport with the intent to sell, sell or export plants classified as Pennsylvania Endangered or Pennsylvania Threatened.

§ 45.32. Plants in State Parks and State Forest lands.

 A person may not disturb, pick or take wild plants from State Parks and State Forest lands, except as provided by this chapter, and Chapters 11, 21 and 23 (relating to general provisions; general provisions; and State Forest Picnic areas).

§ 45.33. General restrictions regarding vulnerable plants.

 (a)  A person, other than the landowner, a person having a bona fide interest in the affected land or Bureau of Forestry personnel in the performance of their official duties, may not disturb, pick, take or possess plants classified as Pennsylvania Vulnerable, except as otherwise provided in this chapter.

 (b)  A person may not buy, trade or barter plants classified as Pennsylvania Vulnerable, or parts thereof, with the intent to sell them within this Commonwealth, or export them from this Commonwealth, except as otherwise provided in this chapter.

§ 45.34. Restrictions regarding private wild plant sanctuaries.

 A person, other than the landowner or a person having a bona fide property interest in the affected land, may not willfully adversely alter or destroy the local ecosystem of a private wild plant sanctuary.

§ 45.35. Compliance with regulations.

 Violation of this chapter is punishable as provided in the act and §  45.91 (relating to penalties).

Subchapter D. WILD PLANT MANAGEMENT PERMITS


Sec.


45.41.    General requirements for a permit.
45.42.    Permit activities.
45.43.    Compliance with permit.
45.44.    Permit application contents.
45.45.    Permit fee; expiration of permit.
45.46.    Criteria for approval of a wild plant management permit.
45.47.    Conditions of permit.
45.48.    Reporting of new information.
45.49.    Transfer of permit prohibited.
45.50.    Revocation.

§ 45.41. General requirements for a permit.

 (a)  A person, other than the landowner, a person having a bona fide property interest in the affected land or Bureau of Forestry personnel in the performance of their official duties, may not remove, collect or transplant wild plants classified as Pennsylvania Endangered or Pennsylvania Threatened, unless the person has first applied for and obtained a wild plant management permit in writing from the Department.

 (b)  It is lawful to continue to possess Pennsylvania Endangered and Pennsylvania Threatened plant species that the holder has verified to the Department as being collected prior to January 1, 1988.

§ 45.42. Permit activities.

 (a)  The Department may issue permits to remove, collect or transplant wild plants classified as Pennsylvania Endangered or Pennsylvania Threatened, for the following activities:

   (1)  To conduct botanical and taxonomic studies.

   (2)  To transplant Pennsylvania Endangered or Pennsylvania Threatened wild plants from land areas threatened by future land development, surface mining, agricultural encroachment or other activities into public or private wild plant sanctuaries, to help assure their perpetuation as members of ecosystems.

   (3)  To transplant Pennsylvania Endangered or Pennsylvania Threatened wild plants into designated public and private wild plant sanctuaries to enhance their numbers or to restore their natural range.

 (b)  The holder of a valid wild plant management permit is permitted to disturb, pick, take and possess wild plants classified as Pennsylvania Endangered or Pennsylvania Threatened, if the activities are necessary to perform the activity for which the wild plant management permit is issued.

§ 45.43. Compliance with permit.

 A holder of a wild plant management permit shall act in compliance with the terms and conditions of the permit, the requirements of the act and this chapter and other applicable State law.

§ 45.44. Permit application contents.

 (a)  An application for a wild plant management permit under this subchapter shall be submitted to the Department in writing, upon forms to be provided by the Department.

 (b)  An application for a permit shall be accompanied by information such as maps, plans, specifications and other data as the Department may require in order to determine compliance with the standards, requirements and purposes of this chapter.

 (c)  Information set forth in the application shall be current, presented clearly and concisely and supported by appropriate references to technical or other written material made available to the Department.

 (d)  An application for a wild plant management permit shall contain the following information:

   (1)  The name, address and phone number of the applicant.

   (2)  A description of the activity for which the permit is sought.

   (3)  The plant species to be affected by the activity.

   (4)  The geographic locations of the activity.

   (5)  A statement that landowner consent will be obtained prior to the permitted activity.

   (6)  Documentation of the applicant’s botanical knowledge, experience and credentials.

   (7)  Wild plant management permit history, including the identification numbers of previous wild plant management permits that have been issued to the applicant.

   (8)  Other information the Department may require.

 (e)  An application for a permit shall be signed and verified by the applicant with a statement that the information contained in the application is true and correct to the best of the applicant’s knowledge, information and belief.

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.44 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; amended June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (123463).

§ 45.45. Permit fee; expiration of permit.

 (a)  An application for a wild plant management permit shall be accompanied by a check for $5 payable to the ‘‘Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.’’

 (b)  A wild plant management permit remains valid for 1 year following the date of permit issuance.

§ 45.46. Criteria for approval of a wild plant management permit.

 An application for a wild plant management permit will not be approved unless the application affirmatively demonstrates, and the Department, in writing, finds the following:

   (1)  Potential threats exist to harm the wild plant population’s ability to perpetuate itself, and the habitat into which the plants will be transplanted is suitable or there is a justifiable need for collection of the wild plants for taxonomic and botanical studies.

   (2)  The applicant’s botanical knowledge and experience are sufficient to enable the applicant to carry out the activity applied for on the application.

   (3)  The application is accurate and complete and the requirements of the act and this subchapter have been satisfied.

   (4)  There is no history of past or continuing violations or conduct which indicate the applicant’s lack of ability or intention to comply with the act or this chapter.

   (5)  The proposed activity will not affect the continued existence of, or destroy or adversely modify, the critical habitat of wild plants classified as Pennsylvania Endangered or Pennsylvania Threatened.

   (6)  The proposed activity will perpetuate wild plants as members of ecosystems, enhance the numbers of the wild plants, restore the range of the wild plants or add to scientific knowledge.

   (7)  The assessment of the probable cumulative impacts of the activity indicate that the approval of the activity will be in the best interests of wild plant management.

§ 45.47. Conditions of permit.

 (a)  The permittee shall carry the wild plant management permit during the removal, collection or transplanting of wild plants, and shall present the permit for inspection upon request by a person authorized to enforce the act.

 (b)  The permittee shall report the results of the activity to the Department. The reports shall include the following:

   (1)  The method of specimen identification or transplanting procedure.

   (2)  The results of the activity.

   (3)  The problems encountered with the activity.

   (4)  The wild plant management permit number.

   (5)  The record of all Pennsylvania Endangered and Pennsylvania Threatened plant species collected or observed including their identity, location and date of collection.

   (6)  The complete label information for all resulting herbarium specimens including the location where specimens have been deposited.

   (7)  The written permission of the landowner on forms provided by the Department.

 (c)  The permittee shall submit a report of the results of transplanting activity to the Department, by October 31 next following the calendar year in which the transplanting was effected.

 (d)  The permittee shall submit a report of removal and collection activities performed for taxonomic studies to the Department by the end of the calendar year for which the permit was issued.

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.47 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; amended June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (123464) to (123465).

§ 45.48. Reporting of new information.

 The permittee shall notify the Department of changes in facts or information stated in the application. Based upon the notice, the Department may require a new permit or take other appropriate action.

§ 45.49. Transfer of permit prohibited.

 A wild plant management permit is nontransferable.

§ 45.50. Revocation.

 (a)  The Department may revoke a wild plant management permit for good cause. Good cause includes, but is not limited to, the following factors:

   (1)  Failure to comply with this chapter or the act.

   (2)  Failure to comply with a term or condition of the permit.

   (3)  Changes in the circumstances described in the application for the permit which indicate that the activity no longer is in the best interests of wild plant management.

 (b)  A person whose permit has been revoked for the reasons listed in subsection (a)(1) and (2) is not eligible to apply for, and may not obtain, another wild plant management permit for a period of 2 years from the date of revocation.

Subchapter E. VULNERABLE PLANTS


Sec.


45.61.    Commercial license requirements.
45.62.    Contents of commercial license application.
45.63.    Criteria for license approval.
45.64.    Commercial license fee and expiration.
45.65.    Transaction records.
45.66.    Inspection and review.
45.67.    Transfer of license prohibited.
45.68.    Revocation.
45.69.    Vulnerable plant harvest seasons and conditions.
45.70.    Pennsylvania ginseng certification.
45.71.    Transfer of certificate prohibited.
45.72.    Possession of unsold ginseng.

§ 45.61. Commercial license requirements.

 A person may not buy, trade or barter Pennsylvania Vulnerable plants, or parts thereof, with the intent to sell them within this Commonwealth, or export these plants or parts from this Commonwealth, without first applying for and obtaining a commercial license in writing from the Department. A person may take or possess these plants if the activities are necessary to perform the licensed activity.

§ 45.62. Contents of commercial license application.

 (a)  An application for a license under this subchapter shall be submitted to the Department in writing, upon forms provided by the Department.

 (b)  An application for a commercial license shall be accompanied by information or data as the Department may require to determine compliance with the standards, requirements and purposes of the act and this chapter.

 (c)  Information set forth in the application shall be current and presented clearly and concisely.

 (d)  An application to obtain a commercial license shall contain the following information:

   (1)  The name, address and phone number of the applicant.

   (2)  The activity sought to be licensed.

   (3)  A brief and complete description of the applicant’s business as it relates to dealing in Pennsylvania Vulnerable plants.

   (4)  The address where books or records describing commercial transactions of Pennsylvania Vulnerable plants will be kept.

   (5)  The name, address and telephone number of the person authorized to make records or inventories of Pennsylvania Vulnerable plants available for examination by the Department.

   (6)  If the application is in the name of a business, the form of the business—for example, corporation, firm, partnership—and the name and address of each partner, officer, director and shareholder who owns 10% or more of the shares in the business.

   (7)  The common and scientific names of the Pennsylvania Vulnerable plant species for which a commercial license is sought.

   (8)  The commercial license history, including the identification numbers of previous commercial licenses that have been issued by the Department to the applicant.

   (9)  Other information the Department may require.

 (e)  An application shall be dated and signed by the applicant. Business applications shall be signed by a partner or officer, who shall set forth his title.

 (f)  An application for a commercial license shall be verified by the applicant with a statement that the information in the application is true and correct to the best of the applicant’s knowledge, information and belief.

§ 45.63. Criteria for license approval.

 An application for a commercial license will not be approved unless the application affirmatively demonstrates and the Department finds, in writing, the following:

   (1)  The application is accurate and complete and the requirements of the act and this chapter have been satisfied.

   (2)  There is no history of past or continuing violations or conduct which indicate the applicant’s lack of ability or intention to comply with the act or this chapter.

§ 45.64. Commercial license fee and expiration.

 (a)  An application for a commercial license will be accompanied by a check payable to the ‘‘Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’’ in the amount of $50.

 (b)  A commercial license expires on June 30 of the year next following the year of its issuance.

§ 45.65. Transaction records.

 (a)  The holder of a commercial license issued under this subchapter shall maintain transaction records. The transaction records shall include the following information regarding Pennsylvania Vulnerable plant activities:

   (1)  The names and addresses of persons from whom the licensee purchased or otherwise acquired the Pennsylvania Vulnerable plants, and the dates of purchase or acquisition.

   (2)  The names and addresses of persons to whom Pennsylvania Vulnerable plants were deposited, traded, sold, transferred, bartered, exported or otherwise disposed of, and the dates upon which these activities occurred.

   (3)  The scientific and common names of the plants.

   (4)  The county of origin of the plants.

   (5)  A description of the form of the plants—for example, whole plant, root, seeds, green or dry.

   (6)  The year of harvest of the plants.

   (7)  The weight, destination and date of export for each shipment of the plants that are exported.

   (8)  A statement of whether the plants are wild or cultivated.

   (9)  The weight in pounds and ounces and estimated number of the plants per transaction. For the purposes of evaluating the number of ginseng plants per transaction, the estimated number of ginseng plants will be determined by taking a sample from each transaction of the number of ginseng roots in 1 pound.

   (10)  Other information the Department may require.

 (b)  The holder of a commercial license shall keep transaction records required to be maintained by this subchapter for 5 years after the occurrence of the transactions to which the records relate. The records shall be made available to the Department upon request.

 (c)  The holder of a commercial license to deal in ginseng shall submit a dealer quarterly report relating to transaction records, on forms provided by the Department within 15 days of the end of each quarter of the calendar year. This dealer report shall be submitted to the Department and shall contain the following information for the quarter:

   (1)  The date of the report.

   (2)  The quarter in which transactions occurred.

   (3)  The name, address and phone number of the licensee.

   (4)  The license number and date issued.

   (5)  The weight in pounds and ounces of wild ginseng purchased or otherwise acquired from harvesters, by county of harvest, and a statement of whether the roots were green or dried.

   (6)  The average price per pound paid for wild ginseng.

   (7)  The weight in pounds and ounces of cultivated ginseng purchased or otherwise acquired from growers, by county of harvest, and a statement of whether the roots were green or dried.

   (8)  The average price per pound for cultivated ginseng.

   (9)  The weight in pounds and ounces of ginseng purchased or otherwise acquired from other licensees, and a statement of whether the purchased or acquired ginseng was wild or cultivated and if roots were green or dried.

   (10)  The number of pounds and ounces of wild ginseng and of cultivated ginseng in the licensee’s possession on the reporting date.

   (11)  The weight in pounds and ounces of ginseng sold, traded or bartered, whether the ginseng was wild or cultivated and if roots were dried or green.

   (12)  The identification number of State certificates used to ship ginseng from this Commonwealth.

   (13)  Other information the Department may require.

 (d)  The holder of a commercial license to buy and sell ginseng shall submit an annual dealer report for the prior calendar year. The annual dealer report shall be completed on forms supplied by the Department and shall contain the information required in subsection (c) compiled for the previous calendar year. The report shall be submitted annually for the prior calendar year to the Department within 15 days of the beginning of the calendar year.

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.65 adopted December 4, 1987, effective January 1, 1988, 17 Pa.B. 5027; amended June 18, 1993, effective June 19, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 2816. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (123467) to (123468).

§ 45.66. Inspection and review.

 The licensee shall make available for inspection by the Department transaction records and Pennsylvania Vulnerable plant materials to be sold, traded, bartered or exported and that are on the premises. The records shall be made available for copying by the Department.

§ 45.67. Transfer of license prohibited.

 A commercial license is nontransferable.

§ 45.68. Revocation.

 (a)  The Department may revoke a commercial license it has issued, for good cause. Good cause includes, but is not limited to, the following factors:

   (1)  Failure to comply with this chapter or the act.

   (2)  Failure to comply with a term or condition of the license.

 (b)  A person whose commercial license has been revoked is not eligible to apply for, and may not obtain, another commercial license for a period of 2 years from the date of revocation.

§ 45.69. Vulnerable plant harvest seasons and conditions.

 (a)  A person may not harvest ginseng except in compliance with applicable law, this chapter and the following restrictions:

   (1)  A person may harvest ginseng plants only from September 1 through November 30.

   (2)  Only mature ginseng plants with at least three leaves of five leaflets each may be harvested and only when the berries are red.

   (3)  Persons harvesting ginseng plants shall plant the seeds from the plants in the immediate vicinity of the collection site.

 (b)  A person may not possess harvested, green ginseng roots between April 1 and September 1 of a calendar year.

 (c)  A person may not harvest Pennsylvania Vulnerable plants other than ginseng except in compliance with applicable law, this chapter and the following restrictions:

   (1)  A person may harvest the plants only if they are mature and the current year’s seeds have matured.

   (2)  A person harvesting the plants shall plant the seeds from the plants in the immediate vicinity of the collection site.

   (3)  A person may not harvest the plants in a way that will harm the species’ ability to perpetuate itself successfully.

 (d)  The permitted harvesting of Pennsylvania Vulnerable plants includes picking, taking, digging, disturbing and possessing the plants if the activities are necessary to legally harvest the plants. Possession of legally taken Pennsylvania Vulnerable plants is permitted.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  45.69 amended under section 7 of the Wild Resource Conservation Act (32 P. S. §  5307); and sections 305 and 313 of the Conservation and Natural Resources Act (71 P. S. § §  1340.305 and 1340.313).

Source

   The provisions of this §  45.69 amended July 19, 2013, effective July 20, 2013, 43 Pa.B. 4077. Immediately preceding text appears at serial page (217152).

§ 45.70. Pennsylvania ginseng certification.

 (a)  A person may not export Pennsylvania ginseng from this Commonwealth without first obtaining a commercial license and a Pennsylvania ginseng certificate.

 (b)  A Pennsylvania ginseng certificate shall be required for each export shipment of Pennsylvania ginseng.

 (c)  To be certified, the state of origin for wild ginseng or cultivated ginseng shall be Pennsylvania.

 (d)  A Pennsylvania ginseng certificate will not be issued unless the licensee presents the shipment to the Department at a designated facility and presents the following information on a Pennsylvania ginseng certificate application form, available from the Department:

   (1)  The licensee’s name and commercial license number.

   (2)  The date of the application.

   (3)  The name and address of buyer and export destination.

   (4)  A statement of whether the ginseng is wild or cultivated.

   (5)  A statement of whether the ginseng is green or dry.

   (6)  The year of harvest of ginseng being certified.

   (7)  The state of origin.

   (8)  The weight in pounds and ounces written numerically and in full and verified by a weigh slip from a Commonwealth certified weigh station or scale.

   (9)  The shipment number.

   (10)  Other information the Department may require.

 (e)  The Pennsylvania ginseng certificate application shall be verified by the licensee with a statement that the information contained in the form is true and correct to the best of the licensee’s knowledge, information and belief, and that the ginseng was legally taken under this chapter and applicable law.

 (f)  The Department may countersign the application and issue a Pennsylvania ginseng certificate if the Department is satisfied that the information in the application is complete, and if the Department finds that a representative sample supports the information in the application.

§ 45.71. Transfer of certificate prohibited.

 A Pennsylvania ginseng certificate is nontransferable.

§ 45.72. Possession of unsold ginseng.

 (a)  A licensee who has ginseng unsold on March 31 of the year after harvest is required to obtain a weigh slip for the unsold ginseng from a Commonwealth certified weigh station or scale and submit a copy of that slip to the Department by May 1.

 (b)  A licensee may not obtain a Pennsylvania ginseng certificate to export unsold ginseng in the licensee’s possession in excess of the amount shown on the weigh slip.

Subchapter F. PRIVATE WILD PLANT SANCTUARIES


Sec.


45.81.    Establishment.
45.82.    Purpose.
45.83.    Application.
45.84.    Criteria for issuance of designation.
45.85.    Responsibilities.
45.86.    Withdrawal of designation.
45.87.    Revocation.
45.88.    Private wild plant sanctuary restrictions.
45.89.    Transfer of private wild plant sanctuary designation prohibited.

§ 45.81. Establishment.

 The Department may designate sites as private wild plant sanctuaries upon request.

§ 45.82. Purpose.

 This subchapter provides protection for this Commonwealth’s native wild plants and their habitat.

§ 45.83. Application.

 (a)  An application for private wild plant sanctuary designation shall be concurred in by all parties with an interest in the land and submitted to the Department by the landowner on forms provided by the Department. The forms shall contain a space for the signatures of all parties with an interest in the land, indicating their approval for private wild plant sanctuary designation.

 (b)  An application for private wild plant sanctuary designation shall contain the following information:

   (1)  The name, address and phone number of applicant.

   (2)  The location of the area to be designated, including a copy of a U.S.G.S. 7½ minute quadrangle or part thereof with the location plotted thereon.

   (3)  The size of the area.

   (4)  A description of the area including:

     (i)   Classified plant species existing on the site.

     (ii)   Habitat description.

   (5)  Other current and planned uses of the area.

   (6)  Other information the Department may require.

 (c)  An application for private wild plant sanctuary designation shall be verified by the applicant with a statement that the information contained in the application is true and correct to the best of the applicant’s knowledge, information and belief.

§ 45.84. Criteria for issuance of designation.

 A designation of private wild plant sanctuary will not be made unless the applicant demonstrates and the Department finds the following:

   (1)  The proposed private wild plant sanctuary will benefit and provide protection for native wild plants and their habitats.

   (2)  The area proposed for private wild plant sanctuary designation is relatively undisturbed.

   (3)  The area contains an occurrence of a classified native wild plant species, is a habitat suitable for a classified native wild plant species, or is deemed by the Department to be a unique habitat or plant community; or if designated, the area would significantly enhance efforts to protect classified native wild plants.

§ 45.85. Responsibilities.

 (a)  The landowner of a designated private wild plant sanctuary shall utilize the designated lands and waters in a manner consistent with the purposes of sanctuary designation.

 (b)  The landowner shall notify the Department, in writing, of the following:

   (1)  An intent to sell or transfer ownership of the land on which the designated private wild plant sanctuary is located.

   (2)  Threats to the designated private wild plant sanctuary or the classified native wild plants within.

   (3)  Significant habitat changes within the designated private wild plant sanctuary.

   (4)  A proposed change in land use of the designated area.

§ 45.86. Withdrawal of designation.

 Designation as a private wild plant sanctuary may be withdrawn at the request of the landowner.

§ 45.87. Revocation.

 The Department may revoke designation of a private wild plant sanctuary for good cause. Good cause includes, but is not limited to, the following factors:

   (1)  Degradation of the private wild plant sanctuary site.

   (2)  Failure to comply with a term or condition of the private wild plant sanctuary designation.

   (3)  Failure to comply with the act or this chapter.

   (4)  Failure to utilize the lands in a manner deemed by the Department to be consistent with the purposes of private wild plant sanctuary designation.

§ 45.88. Private wild plant sanctuary restrictions.

 A person, other than the landowner or a person having a bona fide property interest in the affected land, may not willfully adversely alter or destroy the local ecosystem of a private wild plant sanctuary.

§ 45.89. Transfer of private wild plant sanctuary designation prohibited.

 Private wild plant sanctuary designations are nontransferable.

Subchapter G. PENALTIES


Sec.


45.91.    Penalties.

§ 45.91. Penalties.

 Penalties for unlawful conduct are established by the act as follows:

   (1)  A person who violates a provision of the act relating to commercial licensing, or regulations issued thereunder, shall be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than $200, or have the license revoked, or both.

   (2)  A person found to be illegally in possession of a wild plant species or part thereof protected by this chapter, or a person who willfully destroys or mutilates an endangered plant species protected by this chapter, shall be sentenced to pay a fine of up to $100 for each plant taken or destroyed.

   (3)  A person who violates other provisions of the act or this chapter shall, for violation, be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than $100.

Cross References

   This section cited in 17 Pa. Code §  45.35 (relating to compliance with regulations).



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