§ 109.1103. Monitoring requirements.

 (a)  Initial monitoring.

   (1)  Initial lead and copper tap monitoring. The initial lead and copper tap monitoring for community and nontransient noncommunity water systems consists of two consecutive 6-month periods. Monitoring periods begin in January and July and end in June and December.

     (i)   In accordance with 40 CFR 141.86(d)(1) (relating to monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water), the first 6-month monitoring period for large, medium and small water systems shall begin on the following dates:

1st monitoring
System sizeperiod begins on
Large . . . January 1, 1992
Medium . . . July 1, 1992
Small . . . July 1, 1993

     (ii)   The first 6-month monitoring period for a new water system created after June 26, 1995, shall begin with the next 6-month monitoring period following the issuance of an operations permit or following the system’s provision of water to a sufficient number of sampling sites for the water supplier to comply with sample site requirements under subsection (g), whichever period is later.

     (iii)   A large water system shall monitor during two consecutive 6-month periods and shall comply with the corrosion control treatment compliance schedule under §  109.1102(b)(2) (relating to action levels and treatment technique requirements) or achieve optimal corrosion control treatment under §  109.1102(b)(1)(ii).

     (iv)   A small or medium water system shall monitor during each 6-month monitoring period until one of the following occurs:

       (A)   The system exceeds either the lead or copper action level and is therefore required to comply with the corrosion control treatment compliance schedule under §  109.1102(b)(2).

       (B)   The system meets both the lead and copper action levels during two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods, in which case the system qualifies for reduced monitoring in accordance with subsection (e)(1).

     (v)   A system shall collect at least one sample during each monitoring period from the number of sample sites listed in the following chart. The sample sites shall be selected in accordance with subsection (g).

System size
(# of people served)
# of Sample Sites
› 100,000 . . . 100
10,001 to 100,000 . . . 60
3,301 to 10,000 . . . 40
501 to 3,300 . . . 20
101 to 500 . . . 10
100 or fewer . . . 5

   (2)  Initial water quality parameter monitoring. A system shall measure the applicable water quality parameters in the distribution system and at each entry point. A large water system shall conduct initial water quality parameter monitoring during each initial monitoring period specified in paragraph (1). A small or medium water system shall conduct initial water quality parameter monitoring during the first monitoring period in which the system exceeds the lead or copper action level.

     (i)   The following water quality parameters shall be measured as applicable:

       (A)   pH.

       (B)   Alkalinity.

       (C)   Orthophosphate, when an inhibitor containing a phosphate compound is used.

       (D)   Silica, when an inhibitor containing a silicate compound is used.

       (E)   Calcium.

       (F)   Conductivity.

       (G)   Water temperature.

     (ii)   A system shall collect two sets of water quality parameter distribution samples from the following number of sample sites. The sets of samples shall be collected from the same sample sites on different days and analyzed for the applicable water quality parameters.

System size
(# of people served)
# of Sample Sites
› 100,000 . . . 25
10,001 to 100,000 . . . 10
3,301 to 10,000 . . . 3
501 to 3,300 . . . 2
500 or fewer . . . 1

     (iii)   A system shall also collect two sets of water quality parameter samples at each entry point. The sets of samples shall be collected on different days and analyzed for the applicable water quality parameters.

   (3)  Initial source water monitoring. A system which exceeds either the lead or copper action level shall collect one source water sample from each entry point within 6 months after the end of the monitoring period in which the action level was exceeded. Monitoring is required only for the parameter for which the action level was exceeded.

 (b)  Special lead and copper tap monitoring.

   (1)  After completing initial monitoring and prior to initiation of construction or modification of corrosion control treatment facilities, a system may collect special lead and copper tap samples at its option.

   (2)  Special lead and copper tap monitoring shall be conducted in accordance with subsection (a), including compliance with the requirements resulting from an action level exceedance.

   (3)  If a medium or small water system meets the lead and copper action levels during two consecutive 6-month special monitoring periods, the system is deemed to have optimized corrosion control and may discontinue the compliance activities under §  109.1102(b)(2) and proceed directly to reduced monitoring in accordance with subsection (e).

   (4)  If a medium or small water system exceeds an action level during a monitoring period after discontinuing compliance activities under paragraph (3), the system shall complete the applicable compliance activities under §  109.1102(b)(2).

   (5)  If a system meets the lead action level during a special monitoring period, the system may discontinue public education in accordance with §  109.1104(a)(3) (relating to public education and notification).

 (c)  Follow-up monitoring after construction or modification of corrosion control treatment facilities. A system which completes construction or modification of corrosion control treatment facilities in accordance with §  109.1102(b)(2) shall conduct the applicable monitoring specified in this subsection. A system which exceeds the lead action level after construction or modification of corrosion control treatment facilities shall begin lead service line replacement in accordance with §  109.1107(d) (relating to system management responsibilities).

   (1)  Lead and copper tap monitoring. A system shall monitor for lead and copper at the tap during each specified monitoring period at the number of sample sites specified in subsection (a)(1)(v).

     (i)   A large water system shall monitor during each of two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods beginning no later than January 1, 1997. Following completion of this monitoring, but no later than January 31, 1998, the water supplier shall submit a request for the Department to designate optimal corrosion control treatment performance requirements for the system. Upon approval of the request, the Department will designate water quality parameter performance requirements in accordance with §  109.1102(b)(5) or source water treatment performance requirements in accordance with §  109.1102(b)(4), or both. The water supplier may request, and the Department may designate, performance requirements before the system completes the monitoring for both monitoring periods if the system has never exceeded an action level and the system demonstrates in its request that optimal corrosion control treatment has been achieved. After the Department has designated performance requirements, the system shall monitor in accordance with subsection (d)(1).

     (ii)   A small or medium water system shall monitor during each of two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods beginning no later than 60 months from the end of the monitoring period in which the action level was exceeded. The water supplier shall submit within 30 days of the end of the second monitoring period a request for the Department to designate optimal corrosion control treatment performance requirements for the system. Upon approval of the request, the Department will designate water quality parameter performance requirements in accordance with §  109.1102(b)(5) or source water treatment performance requirements in accordance with §  109.1102(b)(4). A small or medium water system that does not exceed the lead and copper action levels during each of two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods may reduce the number of sample sites and reduce the frequency of sampling to once per year in accordance with subsection (e)(1)(i). Systems not eligible for reduced monitoring under subsection (e)(1) shall monitor in accordance with subsection (d)(1).

   (2)  Water quality parameter monitoring. A system shall monitor for the applicable water quality parameters specified in subparagraph (iii) in the distribution system during each specified monitoring period at the number of sites specified in subsection (a)(2)(ii) and at each entry point at least once every 2 weeks.

     (i)   A large water system shall measure the water quality parameters during each of the two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods in which the system conducts lead and copper tap monitoring under paragraph (1)(i).

     (ii)   A small or medium water system which is conducting lead and copper tap monitoring in accordance with paragraph (1)(ii) shall measure the water quality parameters during each 6-month monitoring period in which the system exceeds either the lead or copper action level. Distribution system monitoring shall be conducted once during the monitoring period and biweekly entry point monitoring shall continue as long as the system exceeds the action level.

     (iii)   The water quality parameters shall be measured as follows:

       (A)   At sites within the distribution system, two sets of samples taken on different days from the same sample sites for:

         (I)   pH.

         (II)   Alkalinity.

         (III)   Orthophosphate, when an inhibitor containing a phosphate compound is used.

         (IV)   Silica, when an inhibitor containing a silicate compound is used.

         (V)   Calcium, when calcium carbonate stabilization is used as part of corrosion control.

       (B)   At each entry point, one set of samples every 2 weeks for:

         (I)   pH.

         (II)   When alkalinity is adjusted as part of corrosion control treatment, a reading of the dosage rate of the chemical used to adjust the alkalinity, and the alkalinity concentration.

         (III)   When a corrosion inhibitor is used as part of corrosion control treatment, a reading of the dosage rate of the inhibitor used, and the concentration of orthophosphate or silica, whichever is applicable.

   (3)  Source water monitoring. A system which installs source water treatment under §  109.1102(b)(4) shall monitor the source water at source water treatment entry points for the parameters for which the source water treatment was installed. The system shall monitor source water during the two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods specified in paragraph (1). Other systems which exceed either the lead or copper action level while conducting lead and copper tap monitoring in accordance with paragraph (1) shall collect one source water sample from each entry point within 6 months after the end of the monitoring period in which the action level was exceeded for the parameters exceeding the action level.

 (d)  Monitoring after performance requirements are established. A system shall conduct the applicable monitoring under this subsection beginning no later than the next 6-month monitoring period that begins on January 1 or July 1 following the Department’s designation of optimal corrosion control treatment water quality parameter performance requirements under §  109.1102(b)(5) or source water performance requirements under §  109.1102(b)(4). A system which exceeds the lead action level after construction or modification of corrosion control treatment facilities shall begin lead service line replacement in accordance with §  109.1107(d).

   (1)  Lead and copper tap monitoring. A system shall monitor for lead and copper at the tap during each monitoring period at the number of sample sites specified in subsection (a)(1)(v) until the system qualifies for reduced monitoring under subsection (e)(1).

   (2)  Water quality parameter performance monitoring. A system shall measure the applicable water quality parameters specified in subsection (c)(2)(iii) in the distribution system during each monitoring period at the number of sites specified in subsection (a)(2)(ii) and at each entry point at least once every 2 weeks. The results of this monitoring will be used by the Department in determining compliance with the water quality parameter performance requirements established under §  109.1102(b)(5). A system that is not in compliance with the water quality parameter performance requirements established under §  109.1102(b)(5) shall provide public notification in accordance with §  109.1104(c)(2).

     (i)   A large water system shall conduct the monitoring during each monitoring period until the system qualifies for reduced monitoring under subsection (e)(2).

     (ii)   A small or medium water system which is conducting lead and copper tap monitoring in accordance with paragraph (1), shall measure the water quality parameters during each 6-month monitoring period in which the system exceeds either the lead or copper action level. Distribution system monitoring shall be conducted at least once during the monitoring period and biweekly entry point monitoring shall continue as long as the system exceeds the action level.

     (iii)   A system is out of compliance with the requirements of §  109.1102(b)(5) for a 6-month period if it has excursions for any Department specified water quality parameter on more than any 9 days during the 6-month monitoring period. An excursion occurs whenever the daily value for one or more of the water quality parameters is below the minimum value or outside the range of values designated by the Department. The Department has the discretion to delete results of sampling errors from this calculation. Daily values are calculated as follows:

       (A)   On days when more than one sample for the water quality parameter is collected at a sampling location, the daily value shall be the average of all results collected during the day including continuous monitoring or grab samples, or both.

       (B)   On days when only one sample for the water quality parameter is collected at a sampling location, the daily value shall be the result of that sample.

       (C)   On days when no sample is collected for the water quality parameter at a sampling location, the daily value shall be the most recent calculated daily value for which a water quality parameter was sampled at a sample location.

   (3)  Source water monitoring. A system which is conducting lead and copper tap monitoring in accordance with paragraph (1) shall monitor for the parameters exceeding the action level at each entry point within 6 months of the end of the monitoring period in which the action level was exceeded. For systems which have installed source water treatment, the results of this monitoring will be used by the Department in determining compliance with source water treatment performance requirements established under §  109.1102(b)(4). The Department may require additional source water monitoring if the Department determines that the additional monitoring is necessary to assure compliance with the source water treatment performance requirements. A system that is not in compliance with the source water treatment performance requirements established under §  109.1102 (b)(4) shall provide public notification in accordance with §  109.1104(c)(2).

 (e)  Reduced monitoring.

   (1)  Reduced lead and copper tap monitoring. A system conducting reduced lead and copper tap monitoring shall collect one sample from the number of sample sites listed in the following column.

System size (# of people served)           # of Sample Sites
› 100,000 …50
10,001 to 100,000 … 30
3,301 to 10,000 …20
501 to 3,300 …10
500 or fewer …5

     (i)   Annual lead and copper tap monitoring.

       (A)   A small or medium water system that does not exceed the lead and copper action levels during each of two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods or a system which has optimized corrosion control treatment under §  109.1102(b)(1)(ii) may reduce the number of sample sites and reduce the frequency of sampling to once per year.

       (B)   A system that has installed or modified corrosion control treatment facilities in accordance with §  109.1102(b)(2) may reduce the number of lead and copper sample sites and reduce the frequency of monitoring to once per year if the following conditions are met:

         (I)   The system does not exceed the lead and copper action levels during each of two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods.

         (II)   The system maintains the range of values for the optimal corrosion control treatment water quality parameter performance requirements specified by the Department under §  109.1102(b)(5) during each of two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods in accordance with subsection (d)(2).

       (C)   Annual monitoring shall begin during the calendar year immediately following the end of the second consecutive 6-month monitoring period.

     (ii)   Triennial lead and copper tap monitoring.

       (A)   A small or medium water system that does not exceed the lead and copper action levels during 3 consecutive years of monitoring, including initial monitoring, may reduce the frequency of monitoring for lead and copper to once every 3 years.

       (B)   A system that has installed or modified corrosion control treatment facilities in accordance with §  109.1102(b)(2) may reduce the frequency of lead and copper tap monitoring from annually to once every 3 years if the following conditions are met:

         (I)   The system does not exceed the lead and copper action levels during 3 consecutive years of 6-month or annual monitoring.

         (II)   The system maintains the range of values for the optimal corrosion control treatment water quality parameter performance requirements specified by the Department under §  109.1102(b)(5) during 3 consecutive years of monitoring.

       (C)   Triennial monitoring shall be conducted during the last year of each 3-year compliance period—for example 1998, 2001, 2004 and so forth.

       (D)   A system that demonstrates for two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods that the tap water lead level as determined under §  109.1102(a)(3) is less than or equal to 0.005 mg/L and the tap water copper level as determined under §  109.1102(a)(3) is less than 0.65 mg/L may reduce the number of samples in accordance with §  109.1103(e)(1) and reduce the frequency of sampling to once every 3 years.

     (iii)   Sample sites and timing. A system that reduces the number of sample sites and frequency of sampling shall collect samples from sample sites included in the pool of targeted sampling sites identified in subsection (g)(2). Systems sampling annually or less frequently shall conduct the lead and copper tap sampling between June 1 and September 30. The Department may approve, in writing, a different period for conducting lead and copper tap monitoring sampling for systems on annual or less frequent monitoring. The period may be no longer than 4 consecutive months and shall represent a time of normal operation when the highest levels of lead are most likely to occur.

   (2)  Reduced water quality parameter monitoring for large water systems. A large water system conducting reduced water quality parameter monitoring shall collect two sets of distribution samples from the following reduced number of sample sites. The sets of samples shall be collected from the same sample sites on different days and analyzed for the applicable water quality parameters.

System size (# of people served)           # of Sample Sites
› 100,000 …10
50,001 to 100,000 …7

     (i)   Reduced sites. A large water system that maintains the range of values for water quality parameter performance requirements reflecting optimal corrosion control treatment specified by the Department under §  109.1102(b)(5) during each of two consecutive 6-month monitoring periods conducted in accordance with subsection (d)(2) may collect distribution samples from the reduced number of sites during subsequent 6-month monitoring periods until the system qualifies for reduced frequency under subparagraph (ii). The system shall continue monitoring at each entry point as specified in subsection (d)(2).

     (ii)   Reduced water quality parameter monitoring.

       (A)   A large water system that maintains the range of values for water quality parameter performance requirements reflecting optimal corrosion control treatment specified by the Department under §  109.1102(b)(5) during 3 consecutive years of monitoring at the reduced number of sites under subparagraph (i) may reduce the frequency with which it collects sets of water quality parameter distribution samples from every 6 months to annually. Annual monitoring begins during the next calendar year. A system conducting annual sampling shall collect these sets of samples evenly throughout the year to reflect seasonal variability. The system shall continue monitoring at each entry point as specified in subsection (d)(2).

       (B)   A large water system may reduce the frequency with which it collects tap water samples for applicable water quality parameters specified in §  109.1102(b)(5) to every 3 years if it demonstrates during two consecutive monitoring periods that its tap water lead level at the 90th percentile is less than or equal to the PQL for lead of 0.005 mg/L, that its tap water copper level at the 90th percentile is less than or equal to 0.65 mg/L, and that it also has maintained the range of values for the water quality parameters reflecting optimal corrosion control treatment specified by the Department under §  109.1102(b)(5). Triennial monitoring shall be conducted during the last year of each 3-year compliance period—for example 1998, 2001, 2004 and so forth.

   (3)  Reduced monitoring revocation.

     (i)   Reduced monitoring revocation for large water systems. A large water system authorized to conduct reduced monitoring under this subsection that fails to meet the lead or copper action level during any 4-month monitoring period or that fails to operate within the range of performance requirements for the water quality parameters specified by the Department under §  109.1102(b)(5) on more than any 9 days in a 6-month period shall comply with the following:

       (A)   The water supplier shall resume lead and copper tap monitoring in accordance with subsection (d)(1).

       (B)   The water supplier shall resume water quality parameter distribution sampling in accordance with the number and frequency requirements specified in subsection (d)(2).

         (I)   A large system may resume annual monitoring for water quality parameters at the tap at the reduced number of sites specified in paragraph (2) after it has completed two subsequent consecutive 6-month rounds of monitoring that meet the criteria of paragraph (2)(i).

         (II)   A large system may resume triennial monitoring for water quality parameters at the tap at the reduced number of sites specified in paragraph (2) after it demonstrates through subsequent rounds of monitoring that it meets the criteria of paragraph (2)(ii).

       (C)   If either the lead or copper action level is exceeded, the water supplier shall conduct source water monitoring in accordance with subsection (d)(3). Monitoring is required only for the parameter for which the action level was exceeded. For systems on annual or less frequent monitoring, the end of the monitoring period is September 30 of the calendar year in which sampling occurs, or, if the Department has designated an alternate monitoring period, the end of the monitoring period is the last day of the 4-month period in which sampling occurs.

     (ii)   Reduced monitoring revocation for small or medium water systems. A small or medium water system authorized to conduct reduced lead and copper tap monitoring under this subsection that fails to meet the lead or copper action level during any 4-month monitoring period, or a small or medium system that has installed corrosion control treatment in compliance with §  109.1102(b)(2) and that fails to operate within the range of performance requirements for the water quality parameters specified by the Department under §  109.1102(b)(5) on more than any 9 days in a 6-month period, shall comply with the following:

       (A)   The water supplier shall conduct water quality parameter monitoring during the monitoring period in which the action level is exceeded. The start of the 6-month monitoring period for the water quality parameter monitoring required under this clause must coincide with the start of the annual or triennial tap monitoring period in which the action level was exceeded.

         (I)   If the system has installed corrosion control treatment in compliance with §  109.1102(b)(2), water quality parameter monitoring shall be conducted in accordance with subsection (c)(2).

         (II)   If the system has not installed corrosion control treatment, water quality parameter monitoring shall be conducted in accordance with subsection (a)(2) and the system shall conduct corrosion control treatment activities in accordance with §  109.1102(b)(1)(i).

       (B)   The water supplier shall collect one source water sample from each entry point within 6 months of the end of the monitoring period in which the action level was exceeded. Monitoring is required only for the parameter for which the action level was exceeded. For systems on annual or less frequent monitoring, the end of the monitoring period is September 30 of the calendar year in which sampling occurs, or, if the Department has designated an alternate monitoring period, the end of the monitoring period is the last day of the 4-month period in which sampling occurs.

       (C)   If a system has installed corrosion control treatment in compliance with §  109.1102(b)(2), the water supplier shall resume lead and copper tap monitoring in accordance with subsection (d)(1).

 (f)  Additional monitoring by systems. The results of monitoring conducted at specified sites during specified monitoring periods in addition to the minimum requirements of this section shall be considered by the system and the Department in making determinations—such as calculating the 90th percentile lead or copper action level or determining concentrations of water quality parameters—under this subchapter.

 (g)  Sample site location plan. The water supplier shall complete a sample site location plan which includes a materials evaluation of the distribution system, lead and copper tap sample site locations, water quality parameter sample site locations and certification that proper sampling procedures are used. The water supplier shall complete the steps in paragraphs (1)—(3) by the applicable date for commencement of lead and copper tap monitoring under subsection (a)(1) and the step in paragraph (4) following completion of the monitoring. The water supplier shall keep the sample site location plan on record and submit the plan to the Department in accordance with §  109.1107(a)(1).

   (1)  Materials evaluation. A system shall review the following sources of information in order to identify a sufficient number of lead and copper tap sampling sites.

     (i)   Plumbing codes, permits and records in the files of the building departments of each municipality served by the system which indicate the plumbing materials that are installed within structures connected to the distribution system.

     (ii)   Inspections and records of the distribution system that indicate the material composition of the service connections that connect a structure to the distribution system.

     (iii)   Existing water quality information, which includes the results of prior analyses of the system or individual structures connected to the system, indicating locations that may be particularly susceptible to high lead or copper concentrations.

   (2)  Lead and copper tap sample site selection. Lead and copper tap sampling sites are classified as tier 1, tier 2 or tier 3. Tier 1 sites are the highest priority sample sites.

     (i)   Site selection for community water systems. The water supplier shall select all tier 1 sample site locations, if possible. A community water system with an insufficient number of tier 1 sampling sites shall complete its sampling pool with tier 2 sites. Tier 3 sites shall be used to complete the sampling pool if the number of tier 1 and tier 2 sites is insufficient. If the system has an insufficient number of tier 1, tier 2 and tier 3 sites, the water supplier shall sample from other representative sites throughout the distribution system in which the plumbing materials used at the site would be commonly found at other sites served by the system.

       (A)   Tier 1 sampling sites shall consist of single family structures that have one or more of the following:

         (I)   Copper pipes with lead solder installed after 1982.

         (II)   Lead pipes.

         (III)   Lead service line.

       (B)   When multiple-family residences comprise at least 20% of the structures served by a water system, the system may consider a representative number of these types of structures as tier 1 sites in its sampling pool, if they meet the other criteria in clause (A).

       (C)   Tier 2 sampling sites shall consist of buildings, including multifamily residences, that have one or more of the following:

         (I)   Copper pipes with lead solder installed after 1982.

         (II)   Lead pipes.

         (III)   Lead service line.

       (D)   Tier 3 sampling sites shall consist of single family structures, constructed as a single family residence and currently used as either a residence or business, that contain copper pipes with lead solder installed before 1983.

     (ii)   Site selection for nontransient noncommunity water systems.

       (A)   The water supplier shall select all tier 1 sample site locations, if possible. A nontransient noncommunity water system with an insufficient number of tier 1 sampling sites shall complete its sampling pool with sampling sites that contain copper pipes with lead solder installed before 1983. If additional sites are needed to complete the sampling pool, the system shall use representative sites throughout the distribution system in which the plumbing materials used at the site would be commonly found at other sites served by the system.

       (B)   Tier 1 sampling sites shall consist of buildings that have one or more of the following:

         (I)   Copper pipes with lead solder installed after 1982.

         (II)   Lead pipes.

         (III)   Lead service line.

     (iii)   Site selection for community and nontransient noncommunity water systems that have fewer than five taps. A system that has fewer than five taps that can be used for drinking water that meet the sample site criteria specified in this paragraph shall collect at least one sample from each tap and then collect additional samples from those taps on different days during the monitoring period to meet the required number of sites.

     (iv)   Site selection for community and nontransient noncommunity facilities that operate continuously. A community water system meeting the conditions in §  109.1104(a)(2)(i)(I), or a nontransient noncommunity water system, that operates continuously and that has an insufficient number of taps commonly used for drinking water to take each first-draw sample from a different tap, may apply to the Department, in writing, to substitute nonfirst-draw samples. Upon approval by the Department in writing, these systems shall collect as many first-draw samples as possible from taps that can be used for drinking water that meet the sample site criteria specified in this paragraph. The remaining samples shall be collected at the times and from the sites identified with the longest standing times. Nonfirst-draw samples must be 1-liter in volume and collected from an interior tap that is typically used to provide water for human consumption.

     (v)   Sample sites with lead service lines. A system that has a distribution system containing lead service lines shall draw 50% of the samples it collects during each monitoring period from sites that contain lead pipes or copper pipes with lead solder, and 50% of the samples it collects during each monitoring period from sites served by a lead service line. If a water system cannot identify a sufficient number of sampling sites served by a lead service line, the system shall collect first draw samples from each site identified as being served by a lead service line.

     (vi)   Sample sites with point-of-use or point-of-entry devices. Samples may not be taken from taps that have point-of-use or sites that have point-of-entry treatment devices designed to remove inorganic contaminants.

   (3)  Water quality parameter sample site selection.

     (i)   Water quality parameter distribution samples. Water quality parameter distribution samples shall be representative of water quality throughout the distribution system taking into account the number of persons served, the different sources of water, the different treatment methods employed by the system and seasonal variability. Distribution sampling is not required to be conducted at sites targeted for lead and copper tap sampling under subsection (a)(1). Systems may find it convenient to conduct distribution sampling for water quality parameters at sites used for coliform sampling under §  109.303(a) (relating to sampling requirements).

     (ii)   Water quality parameter entry point samples. Samples collected at entry points shall be from locations representative of each source after treatment. If a system draws water from more than one source and the sources are combined before distribution, the system shall sample at an entry point during periods of normal operating conditions—that is, when water is representative of all sources being used.

   (4)  Sample procedure certification. A water supplier shall certify that sample collection methods identified in subsection (h)(1) were used to collect lead and copper tap samples. This certification shall be included in the sample site location plan. When a water supplier allows the residents to collect the samples, a copy of the material distributed to residents explaining the proper collection methods, and a list of the residents who performed sampling shall be included in the sample site location plan.

 (h)  Sample collection methods.

   (1)  Lead and copper tap samples. Tap samples for lead and copper collected in accordance with this subchapter, with the exception of lead service line samples collected under §  109.1107(d)(3) and tap monitoring samples collected under §  109.1103(g)(2)(iv), shall be first-draw samples and the following sample collection methods shall be used:

     (i)   Each first-draw tap sample for lead and copper shall be 1 liter in volume and have stood motionless in the plumbing system of each sampling site for at least 6 hours.

     (ii)   First-draw samples from residential housing shall be collected from the cold water kitchen tap or bathroom sink tap. First-draw samples from a nonresidential building shall be collected at an interior tap from which water is typically drawn for drinking.

     (iii)   First-draw samples may be collected by the water supplier or the water supplier may allow residents to collect first-draw samples after instructing the residents of the sampling procedures specified in this paragraph.

     (iv)   If a water supplier allows residents to perform sampling, the system may not challenge, based on alleged errors in sample collection, the accuracy of sampling results.

     (v)   Acidification of first-draw samples may be done up to 14 days after the sample is collected. After acidification, the sample shall stand in the original container for the time specified according to the approved EPA method before analyzing the sample.

     (vi)   For subsequent monitoring, the water supplier shall make every reasonable effort to collect each first-draw tap sample from the same sampling site from which it collected a previous sample. If the water supplier is unable to use an original sampling site, the system may collect the tap sample from another sampling site in its sampling pool as long as the new site meets the same targeting criteria, and is within reasonable proximity to the original site.

   (2)  Water quality parameter distribution samples. Water quality parameter distribution samples shall be collected using the following methods:

     (i)   Samples shall be fully flushed.

     (ii)   If a water supplier collects the water quality parameter distribution samples from the same location as coliform and disinfectant residual samples, the water quality parameter samples shall be collected in the following manner:

       (A)   Fully flush the tap and collect the coliform sample.

       (B)   Collect a sample to measure disinfectant residual.

       (C)   Collect and analyze the sample for temperature and pH.

       (D)   Collect the samples for the other water quality parameters.

     (iii)   Water quality parameter samples require two 500-ml samples to be collected. Two sample containers are required because calcium analysis shall be performed using a separate sample container in order to acidify the sample prior to measurement.

     (iv)   Temperature analyses shall be conducted in the field to insure accuracy.

     (v)   pH measurements shall be conducted in the field and made with a pH electrode and meter within 15 minutes of sample collection. The meter shall be capable of measuring to 1/10 of a unit.

     (vi)   If silica analyses are required, the sample shall be collected in a plastic container.

   (3)  Water quality parameter entry point samples. Water quality parameter entry point samples shall be collected using the methods identified in paragraph (2), except subparagraphs (ii) and (iii).

   (4)  Source water samples. Lead and copper source water samples shall be collected in accordance with the requirements regarding sample location, number of samples and collection methods specified in 40 CFR 141.88(a)(1) (relating to monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water).

   (5)  Lead service line samples. Each lead service line sample shall be 1 liter in volume and have stood motionless in the lead service line for at least 6 hours. Lead service line samples shall be collected in one of the following ways:

     (i)   At the tap after flushing the volume of water between the tap and the lead service line. The volume of water shall be calculated based on the interior diameter and length of the pipe between the tap and the lead service line.

     (ii)   Tapping directly into the lead service line.

     (iii)   If the sampling site is a building constructed as a single-family residence, allowing the water to run until there is a significant change in temperature which would be indicative of water that has been standing in the lead service line.

 (i)  Analytical methods. Analyses for lead, copper, pH, conductivity, calcium, alkalinity, orthophosphate, silica and temperature shall be conducted in accordance with 40 CFR 141.89 (relating to analytical methods) which is incorporated by reference. The Department will only consider lead and copper samples analyzed by a laboratory certified by the Department. Measurements for water quality parameters may be performed by a person meeting the operator certification requirements of §  109.1107(c).

 (j)  Invalidation of lead or copper tap water samples. A sample invalidated under this paragraph does not count toward determining lead or copper 90th percentile levels under §  109.1102(a) or toward meeting the minimum monitoring requirements of this section. The Department’s decision and rationale for invalidating a sample must be documented in writing.

   (1)  The Department may invalidate a lead or copper tap water sample if at least one of the following conditions is met:

     (i)   The laboratory establishes that improper sample analysis caused erroneous results.

     (ii)   The Department determines that the sample was taken from a site that did not meet the site selection criteria of this section.

     (iii)   The sample container was damaged in transit.

     (iv)   There is substantial reason to believe that the sample was subject to tampering.

   (2)  The system shall report to the Department the results of all samples, along with supporting documentation for samples the system believes should be invalidated.

   (3)  A system shall collect replacement samples for any samples invalidated under this subsection if, after the invalidation of one or more samples, the system has too few samples to meet the minimum monitoring requirements of this section.

     (i)   Replacement samples shall be taken as soon as possible but no later than 20 days after the Department invalidates the sample or by the end of the applicable monitoring period, whichever occurs later.

     (ii)   Replacement samples taken after the end of the applicable monitoring period shall not be used to meet the monitoring requirements of a subsequent monitoring period.

     (iii)   Replacement samples shall be taken at the same locations as the invalidated samples or, if that is not possible, at locations other than those already used for sampling during the monitoring period.

 (k)  Monitoring waivers for small systems. A small system that meets the criteria of this subsection may apply to the Department to reduce the frequency of monitoring for lead and copper under this section to once every 9 years if it meets all of the materials criteria specified in paragraph (1) and all of the monitoring criteria specified in paragraph (2). A system that meets the criteria in paragraphs (1) and (2) only for lead, or only for copper, may apply to the Department for a waiver to reduce the frequency of tap water monitoring to once every 9 years for that contaminant only.

   (1)  Materials criteria. The system shall demonstrate that its distribution system, service lines and all drinking water plumbing, including plumbing conveying drinking water within all residences and buildings connected to the system, are free of lead-containing materials or copper-containing materials or both as follows:

     (i)   Lead. To qualify for a waiver of tap monitoring requirements for lead, the system shall provide certification and supporting documentation to the Department that the system is free of all lead-containing materials as follows:

       (A)   It contains no plastic pipes which contain lead plasticizers, or plastic service lines which contain lead plasticizers.

       (B)   It is free of lead service lines, lead pipes, lead soldered pipe joints, and leaded brass or bronze alloy fittings and fixtures, unless the fittings and fixtures meet the specifications of any standard established under 42 U.S.C.A. §  300g-6(e) (relating to plumbing fittings and fixtures).

     (ii)   Copper. To qualify for a waiver of the tap water monitoring requirements for copper, the system shall provide certification and supporting documentation to the Department that the system contains no copper pipes or copper service lines.

   (2)  Monitoring criteria for waiver issuance. The system shall have completed at least one 6-month round of routine tap water monitoring for lead and copper at sites approved by the Department and from the number of sites as required under subsection (a)(1)(v). The system shall demonstrate that the 90th percentile levels for all rounds of monitoring conducted since the system became free of all lead-containing or copper-containing materials, as appropriate, meet the following criteria:

     (i)   Lead levels. To qualify for a waiver of the lead tap monitoring, the system shall demonstrate that the 90th percentile lead level does not exceed 0.005 mg/L.

     (ii)   Copper levels. To qualify for a waiver of the copper tap monitoring, the system shall demonstrate that the 90th percentile copper level does not exceed 0.65 mg/L.

   (3)  Department approval of waiver application. The Department will notify the system of its waiver determination, in writing, setting forth the basis of the decision and any condition of the waiver. A system shall continue monitoring for lead and copper at the tap as required by this section until it receives written notification from the Department that the waiver has been approved.

   (4)  Monitoring frequency for systems with waivers.

     (i)   A system shall conduct tap water monitoring for the contaminant waived in accordance with subsection (e)(1)(iii) at the reduced number of sites identified in subsection (e) at least once every 9 years and provide the materials certification specified in paragraph (1) for the contaminants waived along with the monitoring results. Monitoring shall be conducted during the last year of each 9-year compliance cycle—for example 2010, 2019, 2028 and so forth.

     (ii)   A system shall continue to monitor for any nonwaived contaminants in accordance with subsection (a)(1), as appropriate.

     (iii)   A system with a waiver shall notify the Department, in writing, within 60 days after becoming aware that it is no longer free of lead-containing or copper-containing materials, as appropriate, as a result of new construction or repair.

   (5)  Continued eligibility. If the system continues to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (4), the waiver will be renewed automatically unless any of the conditions listed in subparagraph (i)—(iii) occurs. A system whose waiver has been revoked may reapply for a waiver when it again meets the appropriate materials and monitoring criteria of paragraphs (1) and (2).

     (i)   A system with a lead waiver no longer satisfies the materials criteria of paragraph (1)(i) or has a 90th percentile lead level greater than 0.005 mg/L.

     (ii)   A system with a copper waiver no longer satisfies the materials criteria of subsection (k)(1)(ii) or has a 90th percentile copper level greater than 0.65 mg/L.

     (iii)   The Department notifies the system, in writing, that the waiver has been revoked.

   (6)  Requirements following waiver revocation. A water system whose waiver has been revoked is subject to the corrosion control treatment, and lead and copper tap water monitoring requirements as follows:

     (i)   If the system exceeds the lead or copper, or both, action level, the system shall implement corrosion control treatment in accordance with §  109.1102(b), and any other applicable requirements of this subchapter.

     (ii)   If the system meets both the lead and copper action levels, the system shall monitor for lead and copper at the tap no less frequently than once every 3 years in accordance with the frequency, timing and the reduced number of sample sites specified in subsection (e).

Authority

   The provisions of this §  109.1103 amended under section 4 of the Pennsylvania Safe Drinking Water Act (35 P.S. §  721.4); and section 1920-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P.S. §  510-20).

Source

   The provisions of this §  109.1103 amended August 9, 2002, effective August 10, 2002, 32 Pa.B. 3894; amended August 13, 2004, effective August 14, 2004, 34 Pa.B. 4435; amended May 22, 2009, effective May 23, 2009, 39 Pa.B. 2661; corrected August 29, 2009, effective August 1, 2009, 39 Pa.B. 5119; amended December 17, 2010, effective December 18, 2010, 40 Pa.B. 7212; amended April 27, 2018, effective April 28, 2018, 48 Pa.B. 2509. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (355073) to (355089).

Cross References

   This section cited in 25 Pa. Code §  109.1 (relating to definitions); 25 Pa. Code §  109.1102 (relating to action levels and treatment technique requirements); 25 Pa. Code §  109.1104 (relating to public education and notification); and 25 Pa. Code §  109.1107 (relating to system management responsibilities).



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