§ 221.34a. Radiation exposure control.

 (a)  Radiation exposure control. A means shall be provided to initiate the radiation exposure by a deliberate action on the part of the operator, such as the depression of a switch. Radiation exposure may not be initiated without such an action.

 (b)  Visual indication and audible signal. A means shall be provided for visual indication observable from the operator’s protected position whenever X-rays are produced. In addition, a signal audible to the operator shall indicate that the exposure has terminated.

 (c)  Termination of exposure. A means shall be provided to terminate the exposure at a preset time interval, preset product of current and time, a preset number of pulses or a preset radiation exposure to the image receptor. Except for dental panoramic systems, termination of an exposure shall cause automatic resetting of the time to its initial setting or to ‘‘zero.’’

 (d)  Manual exposure control. An X-ray control shall be incorporated into each X-ray system which allows the operator to terminate an exposure at any time except for one or more of the following:

   (1)  Exposure of 1/2 second or less.

   (2)  During serial radiography in which case a means shall be provided to permit completion of any single exposure of the series in process.

 (e)  Automatic exposure control.

   (1)  Indication shall be made on the control panel when this mode of operation is selected.

     (i)   A means shall be provided to terminate irradiation at an appropriate exposure for the projection if the automatic exposure control fails to terminate irradiation.

     (ii)   A visible signal shall indicate when an exposure has been terminated at the limits required by subparagraph (i), and manual resetting shall be required before further automatically timed exposures can be made.

   (2)  For X-ray systems operating in automatic exposure control mode, and which lack engineered safeguards that prevent exposure in the event of either a malfunction or a mispositioned X-ray beam with respect to film cassette sensors, the back-up or default mAs shall be set by the operator to an appropriate maximum value for the projection.

   (3)  X-ray systems utilizing automatic exposure control, in which the back-up mAs values are preset and cannot be selected by the operator, shall prominently indicate the preset mAs value on the console, along with an appropriate warning notice to the operator.

 (f)  Exposure control location.

   (1)  Stationary X-ray systems shall have X-ray controls permanently mounted in a protected area and situated so that the operator is required to remain in that protected area during the entire exposure.

   (2)  For mobile and portable X-ray systems the exposure switch shall be arranged so that the operator can stand at least 2 meters from the patient and from the tube head and away from the direction of the useful X-ray beam.

Authority

   The provisions of this §  221.34a issued under sections 301 and 302 of the Radiation Protection Act (35 P. S. § §  7110.301 and 7110.302); and section 1920-A of The Administrative Code of 1929 (71 P. S. §  510-20).

Source

   The provisions of this §  221.34a adopted October 2, 1998, effective October 3, 1998, 28 Pa.B. 4894.

Cross References

   This section cited in 25 Pa. Code §  221.35a (relating to fluoroscopic X-ray systems).



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