Rule 1029. Denials. Effect of Failure to Deny.
(a) A responsive pleading shall admit or deny each averment of fact in the preceding pleading or any part thereof to which it is responsive. A party denying only a part of an averment shall specify so much of it as is admitted and shall deny the remainder. Admissions and denials in a responsive pleading shall refer specifically to the paragraph in which the averment admitted or denied is set forth.
(b) Averments in a pleading to which a responsive pleading is required are admitted when not denied specifically or by necessary implication. A general denial or a demand for proof, except as provided by subdivision (c) and (e) of this rule, shall have the effect of an admission.
(c) A statement by a party that after reasonable investigation the party is without knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief as the truth of an averment shall have the effect of a denial.
Reliance on subdivision (c) does not excuse a failure to admit or deny a factual allegation when it is clear that the pleader must know whether a particular allegation is true or false. See Cercone v. Cercone, 254 Pa. Super. 381, 386 A.2d 1 (1978).
(d) Averments in a pleading to which no responsive pleading is required shall be deemed to be denied.
(e) In an action seeking monetary relief for bodily injury, death or property damage, averments in a pleading to which a responsive pleading is required may be denied generally except the following averments of fact which must be denied specifically:
(1) averments relating to the identity of the person by whom a material act was committed, the agency or employment of such person and the ownership, possession or control of the property or instrumentality involved;
(2) if a pleading seeks additional relief, averments in support of such other relief; and
(3) averments in preliminary objections.
Subdivision (e) applies only to those actions for which damages for delay may be awarded pursuant to Rule of Civil Procedure 238.
The provisions of this Rule 1029 adopted June 25, 1946, effective January 1, 1947; amended December 16, 1983, effective July 1, 1984, 13 Pa.B. 3999; amended June 16, 1994, effective September 1, 1994, 24 Pa.B. 3213. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (159448) to (159449).
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